An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Josephson junction
  جوهه‌ی ِ جوزفسون   
juhe-ye Josephson (#)

Fr.: jonction Josephson   

A type of electronic circuit involving → Josephson effect, capable of switching at very high speeds when operated at temperatures approaching → absolute zero.

Josephson effect; → junction.

joule (J)
  ژول   
joule (#)

Fr.: joule   

A unit of → energy in the → International System of Units equal to the → work performed by one → newton over a distance of 1 → meter. 1 J is equivalent to 107 ergs = 1 Watt second = 2.78 × 10-7 kWh = 0.2389 calories = 6.24 × 1018 eV.

In honor of the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-1889), who established that the various forms of energy (mechanical, electrical, and heat) are basically the same and can be changed, one into another.

Joule is in Pers. pronounced as žul, loaned from the Fr. rendering of the E. name.

Joule effect
  اسکر ِ ژول   
oskar-e Joule

Fr.: effet Joule   

A → conductor becomes heated by the passage of an electric current through it due to the → resistance of the conductor. Same as → Ohmic dissipation.

joule; → effect.

Joule's constant
  پایای ِ ژول   
pâyâ-ye Joule (#)

Fr.: constante de Joule   

The proportional relationship of mechanical energy to thermal energy, equal to 4.184 joules per calorie. Also called mechanical equivalent of heat.

joule; → constant.

Joule-Thomson effect
  اسکر ِ ژول-تامسون   
oskar-e Joule-Thomson

Fr.: effet Joule-Thomson   

The change in the temperature of a gas in the → throttling process.

Joule; → Thomson; → effect.

Jovian
  هرمزی   
Hormozi

Fr.: jovien   

Of or pertaining to the → planet  → Jupiter.

From L. Jovius "Jupiter," Roman god of the sky, cognate with deus "god;" Gk. Zeus "supreme god;" Pers. div "devil, demon" (Mid.Pers. dêw; O.Pers. daiva- "evil god, demon;" Av. daēva- "evil spirit, false god;" Skt. deva-; PIE base *deiwos "god," from *dei- "to gleam, to shine").

Hormozi, related to Hormoz, → Jupiter.

Jovian planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ هرمزی   
sayyâre-ye Hormozi

Fr.: planète jovienne   

A planet that does not have a well-defined → solid  → crust, such as any of the four Solar System outer, gaseous planets: → Jupiter, → Saturn, → Uranus, and → Neptune.

Jovian; → planet.

Joy's law
  قانون ِ جوی   
qânun-e Joy

Fr.: loi de Joy   

Sunspot pairs or groups are tilted with the → leader spots closer to the equator than the → follower spots. The tilt of bipolar sunspot pairs increases with latitude.

Alfred Harrison Joy (1882-1973), an American astronomer; → law.

judge
  ۱) دادرس، داور؛ ۲) داوری کردن   
1) dâdras (#), dâvar; 2) dâvari kardan

Fr.: 1) juge; 2) juger   

1a) A public officer authorized to hear and decide cases in a court of law; a magistrate charged with the administration of justice.
1b) A person qualified to pass a critical judgment.
2a) To pass legal judgment on; pass sentence on (a person).
2b) to form a judgment or opinion of; decide upon critically (Dictionary.com).

M.E. jugen, from Anglo-Fr. juger, O.Fr. jugier "to form an opinion about; make a decision," also "to try and pronounce sentence upon (someone) in a court," from Anglo-Fr juger, O.Fr. jugier "to judge, pronounce judgment; pass an opinion on," from L. iudicare "to judge, to examine officially; form an opinion upon; pronounce judgment," from iudicem "a judge," a compound of ius "right, law," → just, + root of dicere "to say."

Dâdras "justice administrator," from dâd, → justice, + ras present stem and agent noun of rasidan "to attain, to arrive, to mature," → access.

judgment
  داوری   
dâvari (#)

Fr.: jugement   

11 An act or instance of judging.
2) The ability to judge, make a decision, or form an opinion objectively, authoritatively, and wisely, especially in matters affecting action; good sense (Dictionary.com).

judge; → -ment.

judicial
  داورانه، داوریک   
dâvarâné, dâvarik

Fr.: judiciaire   

1) Pertaining to judgment in courts of justice or to the administration of justice: judicial proceedings; the judicial system.
2) Pertaining to courts of law or to judges; judiciary: judicial functions.
3) Of or relating to a judge; proper to the character of a judge; judgelike: judicial gravity.
4) Inclined to make or give judgments; critical; discriminating: a judicial mind.
5) Decreed, sanctioned, or enforced by a court (Dictionary.com).

From L. iudicalis "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment, decision," from iudicem, → judge.

Dâvarâné, dâvarik, of or relating to dâvari, → judgment.

Julian calendar
  گاهشمار ِ یولیانی   
gâhšomâr-e Yuliyâni (#)

Fr.: calendrier julien   

A → solar calendar established by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. to replace the → Roman calendar. It was inspired by the Egyptian calendar year of 365 days. The astronomer Sosigenes set up the months (January to December) and added an extra day in February every fourth year (→ leap year). This gave an average year of 365.25 days. The Julian calendar remained unchanged for 1,600 years, and was replaced by the → Gregorian calendar to correct its errors. The Roman calendar before the reform was running 80 days out of alignment with the seasons of a true year. Sosigenes fixed the calendar by having 445 days in the year 46 B.C., which brought the seasons in line with the calendar. The year 45 B.C. is known as the first leap year of the Julian calendar. However, Sosigenes' work was misinterpreted and they were placing leap years every 3 years instead of every 4 years.

Julian, adj. of L. Julius.

Julian date (JD)
  گاهداد ِ ژولی‌ین   
gâhdâd-e žulian

Fr.: date julienne   

A timekeeping system which does not have months and years. It is used primarily by astronomers to avoid confusion due to the use of different calendars at different times and places. Julian date is the interval of time in days and fractions of a day since noon 1 January 4713 B.C. (12h Universal Time). For example, January 1, 1970 is JD 2440588. Decimal fractions correspond to fractions of a day so that, for example, an observation made at 15h on June 24, 1962 is given as JD 2437840.13. → modified Julian date (MJD). Note that the "Julius" involved is not Julius Caesar, and this system is unrelated to the Julian calendar, as explained below.

The system was proposed by the French scholar Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) in 1583 and named after his father, Julius Caesar Scaliger. His choice of starting year was based on the convergence in 4713 B.C. of three calendrical cycles (indication cycle, Metonic cycle, and solar cycle). → date.

Julian day
  روز ِ ژولی‌ین   
ruz-e žulian (#)

Fr.: jour julien   

Same as → Julian date.

Julian date; → day.

Julian epoch
  زیمه‌ی ِ یولیانی   
zime-ye Yuliyâni

Fr.: époch julienne   

A way of specifying the date as a year with a decimal based on the Julian year of 365.25 days and the Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB). The standard epoch currently in use is J2000.0, which corresponds to January 1, 2000 12:00 Terrestrial Time.

Julian calendar; → epoch.

Julian year
  سال ِ یولیانی   
sâl-e yuliyâni (#)

Fr.: année julienne   

A period of 365.25 days adopted in the Julian calendar for the length of the year.

Julian calendar; &rarr ;year.

jump
  جهش   
jaheš (#)

Fr.: saut   

A point of discontinuity in a function or a derivative of a function.

Etymology unclear, probably akin to L.G. gumpen "to jump."

Jaheš, verbal noun of jahidan, jastan "to jump, to leap," from Mid.Pers. jastan, jahidan "to jump," figuratively "to happen, occur;" Av. yaēš-, yas- "to boil;" cf. Skt. yas-, yásyati "to boil, to heat; to make effort."

jump conditions
  بوتارهای ِ جهش   
butârhâ-ye jaheš

Fr.: conditions de saut   

Very different values of pressure and density (or temperature or energy) across a shock wave.

jump; → condition.

junction
  جوهش   
juheš

Fr.: jonction   

In a → semiconductor device, a region of transition between semiconducting regions of different electrical properties.

Junction "act of joining," from L. junctionem, noun of action from jungere "to join," cognate with Pers. yuq, juhé, as below; PIE base *yeug- "to join,"

Juheš, from juh, variant of yuq "yoke," Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke;" Av. yaog- "to yoke, put to; to join, unite;" cf. Skt. yugam "yoke;" Hittite yugan "yoke;" Gk. zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "to join, unite;" L. jungere "to join," as above; O.C.S. igo, O.Welsh iou, Lith. jungas O.E. geoc.

junior
  کهتر   
kehtar (#)

Fr.: jeune, cadet   

1) Of more recent appointment or admission, as to an office or status; of lower rank or standing.
2) (in American universities, colleges, and schools) noting or pertaining to the class or year next below that of the senior
3) Younger, designating the younger of two men bearing the same full name, as a son named after his father; often written as Jr. or jr. following the name (Dictionary.com).

From L. iunior, comparative of iuvenis "young, young man," cognate with Pers. javân, → young.

Kehtar, comparative of keh "small, little," → decrease.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>