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A → NASA → space mission
devoted to the study of the planet
→ Jupiter. Juno was launched
on August 5, 2011 and traveled over a total distance of roughly 2.8 billion km (1.8
→ astronomical units)
to reach Jupiter on July 4, 2016, after a journey of about five years. Two years
after its launch Juno used a → gravity assist
through an Earth → flyby in October 2013.
The spacecraft will make 37 turns around Jupiter in a → polar orbit
over the course of 20 months, until February 2018. Juno has nine different instruments to achieve its
scientific goals. Its main goal is to understand the origin and evolution
of Jupiter. Among Juno's scientific objectives, it will:
The spacecraft's name comes from Greco-Roman mythology. The god Jupiter drew a veil of clouds around himself to hide his mischief, but his wife, the goddess Juno, was able to peer through the clouds and see Jupiter's true nature.
The largest → planet in the → Solar System and the fifth from the Sun, lying at a mean distance of about 5.2 → astronomical units from the Sun. Jupiter is a → gas giant, mostly → hydrogen and → helium, with a mass of 1.898 × 1027 kg, or about 0.001 → solar masses, or 318 times → Earth masses. It is more than twice as massive as all the other solar system planets combined. Jupiter's diameter measures 11 times that of Earth. Its → rotation period, 9.93 hours (Jupiter/Earth ratio = 0.41), is the shortest of all the solar system planets. Its → orbital period is 11.857 Earth years. Jupiter has an extensive family of → satellites (79 known) and a faint → ring system; → Jupiter's ring. Jupiter probably has a core of rocky material amounting to something like 10 to 15 Earth masses. Above the core lies the main bulk of the planet in the form of liquid → metallic hydrogen. This exotic form of the most common of elements is possible only at pressures about 3 million bars, as is the case in the interior of Jupiter (and Saturn). Under the extreme pressure found deep inside Jupiter, the electrons are released from the hydrogen molecules and are free to move about the interior. This causes hydrogen to behave as a metal; it becomes conducting for both heat and electricity. See also → Jupiter's atmosphere.
Jupiter "the king of ancient Roman gods, the ruler of Olympus," from L. Iupeter, from PIE *dyeu-peter- "god-father," from *deiw-os "god" (cf. Pers. div "devil, demon;" Mid.Pers. dêw; O.Pers. daiva- "evil god, demon;" Av. daēva- "evil spirit, false god;" Skt. deva-; Gk. Zeus "supreme god;" from *dei- "to gleam, to shine") + *peter "father" (cf. Pers. pedar "father;" O.Pers. pitā- "father;" Av. patar-, ptā-; Skt. pitár-; Gk. pater; L. pater, O.H.G. fater).
Hormoz, from Mid.Pers. Ohrmazd "name of the highest god in Zoroastrianism," from O.Pers. aura-mazdā-, Av. ahura-mazdā- "Wise Lord," from ahura- "lord, god;" cf. Skt. ásura- "god, lord;" Hittite hassu- "king;" M.H.G. Asen "name of a group of gods;" O.N. āss "god;" PIE *ansu- "spirit, demon" + mazdā- "wisdom," mazdāθa- "what must be borne in mind," mazdāh- "memory;" cf. Skt. medhā- "mental power, wisdom, intelligence;" Gk. mathein "to learn, to know" (root of → mathematics).
JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE)
Puyešgar-e Mânghâ-ye Yaxi-ye Hormoz
Fr.: Jupiter ICy moons Explorer
An interplanetary mission currently in development by the → European Space Agency planned for launch in 2020. It is aimed mainly at in-depth studies of three potentially ocean-bearing satellites, → Ganymede, → Europa, and → Callisto. JUICE will complete a unique tour of the Jupiter system including several flybys of each planet-sized world, culminating with orbit insertion around Ganymede, the largest moon in the Solar System, followed by nine months of operations in its orbit. JUICE will carry the most powerful scientific payload ever flown to the outer Solar System. It consists of 10 state-of-the-art instruments plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based instruments.
Fr.: masse de Jupiter
A quantity of mass equal to 1.898 × 1027 kg, about 0.000954 → solar masses, or 317.83 → Earth masses. Jupiter mass, MJ, is used as a → unit to describe masses of the → gas giant, such as the outer planets and → extrasolar planets. Similarly, → brown dwarf masses are expressed in terms of Jupiter mass.
javv-e Hormoz, havâsepehr-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère de Jupiter
The gaseous envelope surrounding Jupiter. It is about 90% → hydrogen and 10% → helium (by numbers of atoms, 75/25% by mass) with traces of → methane, → water, and → ammonia. This is very close to the composition of the primordial → solar nebula from which the entire solar system was formed. Saturn has a similar composition, but Uranus and Neptune have much less hydrogen and helium. The outermost layer is composed primarily of ordinary → molecular hydrogen and helium. Visually, Jupiter is dominated by two atmospheric features; a series of ever-changing atmospheric cloud bands arranged parallel to the equator and an oval atmospheric blob called the → Great Red Spot.
Fr.: anneaux de Jupiter
Any of several faint, dark, narrow rings around Jupiter. Jupiter's rings are so faint and tenuous that are only visible when viewed from behind Jupiter and are lit by the Sun, or directly viewed in the infrared where they faintly glow. Unlike → Saturn's rings full of large icy and rock chunks, they are composed of tiny rock fragments and dust. Jupiter's rings are continuously losing material and being resupplied with new dust from → meteorite impacts with Jupiter's four inner moons (→ Metis, → Adrastea, → Amalthea, and → Thebe). Jupiter's rings were discovered by NASA's Voyager 1 in 1979. They are composed of three parts: the → Main ring, a → Halo ring that orbits closer to Jupiter, and a very wide → Gossamer ring that extends far from Jupiter.
→ Jurassic era.
Named for the Jura Mountains on the border between France and Switzerland, where rocks of this age were first studied, + -assic, suffix extracted from Triassic.
dowre-ye Žurasik (#)
Fr.: ère jurassique
A period of the Mesozoic era, spanning the time between the Triassic and the → Cretaceous periods, about 200 to 145 million years ago. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic → mass extinction event.
1) Of or relating to the administration of justice.
From L. iuridicalis "relating to right; pertaining to justice," from iuridicus, from ius "right, law," → jurist, + dicere "to say, to speak."
Dâdšenâxti, of or relating to dâdšenâxt, → jurisprudence
1) The right, power, or authority to administer justice by hearing and
M.E., from O.Fr. juridiccion and directly from L. iurisdictionem "administration of justice, jurisdiction," from ius "right, law," → just, + dictio "a saying; extent or range of administrative power."
1) The science or philosophy of law.
M.E., from Fr. jurisprudence and directly from L.L. iurisprudentia "the science of law," from iuris "of right, of law" + prudentia "knowledge, a foreseeing, foresight, sagacity."
A person versed in the law, as a judge, lawyer, or scholar.
M.E., from M.Fr. juriste, from M.L. iurista "jurist," from L. ius "law," → just.
Dâdšenâs, literally "knower of justice," → jurisprudence.
dâdmand, râst (#), dorost (#)
1) Guided by truth, reason, justice, and fairness.
M.E. juste, from O.Fr. juste "just, righteous," from L. iustus "upright, equitable," from ius "right," especially "legal right, law," from O.L. ious, perhaps literally "sacred formula."
dâd, dâmandi, dâdgari, dâdgostari
1) The quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness.
M.E., from O.Fr. justice "justice, legal rights, jurisdiction," from L. iustitia "righteousness, equity," from iustus "upright, → just."
Dâd "justice, law" from Mid.Pers. dâd "law, justice,
scriptures with legal content;" related to Mid.- and Mod.Pers. daheš
"creation," dâdan "to give;" Av. dā- "to place upon, give;"
1) A reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends. What is offered
as grounds for believing an assertion.
Verbal noun of → justify.
Râstâvard, from râst "right, true; just, upright, straight" (Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule") + âvard past stem of âvardan "to bring; to adduce, bring forward in argument or as evidence" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").
râstâvard kardan, râstâvardan
1) To show (a claim, statement, act, etc.) to be right, reasonable, or proper.
Justify, from O.Fr. justifier "to show (something) to be just or right; to administer justice," from L. justificare "act justly toward, make just," from justificus "dealing justly, righteous," from justus "just, upright, equitable," from jus (gen. juris) "right," from O.Latin ious, from PIE base *yewes- (cf. Av. yaož-da- "to purify ritually, to revitalize;" Skt. yos- "(long) life" + root of facere "to do" (from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do;" cf. Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives; puts;" Skt. dadáti "puts, places;" Hitt. dai- "to place;" Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place;" Lith. deti "to put;" Czech diti, Pol. dziac', Rus. det' "to hide," delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do").
Râstâvard kardan, râstâvardan, infinitives of râstâvard, → justification.
Fr.: couronne K
The inner part of the → solar corona which extends to about two solar radii. It is due to the → Thomson scattering of light from the → photosphere by the free electrons in the corona. The K corona exhibits a → linearly polarized continuous spectrum. The high speeds of the scattering electrons (on the average 10,000 km s-1 for a temperature of 2 million K) smear out the → Fraunhofer lines except the → H and K lines.
Fr.: correction K
A → color index correction applied to the photometric magnitudes and colors of a distant galaxy to compensate for the "reddening" of the galaxy due to → cosmological redshift. K correction is intended to derive the magnitudes in the → rest frame of the galaxy. Typically it is given as K(z) = az + bz2, where a and b depend on galaxy types. Conversely, one may deduce the redshift of a galaxy by its colors and a K-correction model.
The term K correction, probably stems from the K-term used by C. W. Wirtz (1918, Astron. Nachr. 206, 109), where K stands for Konstante, the German word for constant. The K-term was a constant offset in the redshift applied to diffuse nebulae in that epoch (source: A. L. Kinney, 1996, ApJ 467, 38); → correction.
setâre-ye K (#)
Fr.: étoile de type K
An orange-red star of → spectral type K with a surface temperature of about 3600-5000 K. The spectra of K stars are dominated by the H and K lines of calcium and lines of neutral iron and titanium, with molecular bands due to cyanogen (CN) and titanium dioxide (TiO). Examples are → Arcturus and → Aldebaran.
K the letter of alphabet; → star.
ruydâd-e K-T (#)
Fr.: événement K-T
Same as the → Cretaceous-Tertiary event.