An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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Juno
  جونو   
Juno

Fr.: Juno   

A → NASA → space mission devoted to the study of the planet → Jupiter. Juno was launched on August 5, 2011 and traveled over a total distance of roughly 2.8 billion km (1.8 → astronomical units) to reach Jupiter on July 4, 2016, after a journey of about five years. Two years after its launch Juno used a → gravity assist through an Earth → flyby in October 2013. The spacecraft will make 37 turns around Jupiter in a → polar orbit over the course of 20 months, until February 2018. Juno has nine different instruments to achieve its scientific goals. Its main goal is to understand the origin and evolution of Jupiter. Among Juno's scientific objectives, it will:
1) Determine how much water is in Jupiter's atmosphere, which helps find out which planet formation theory is correct (or if new theories are needed);
2) Look deep into Jupiter's atmosphere to measure composition, temperature, cloud motions and other properties;
3) Map Jupiter's magnetic and gravity fields, revealing the planet's deep structure;
4) Explore and study Jupiter's → magnetosphere near the planet's poles, especially the auroras, providing new insights about how the planet's enormous → magnetic field affects its atmosphere.

The spacecraft's name comes from Greco-Roman mythology. The god Jupiter drew a veil of clouds around himself to hide his mischief, but his wife, the goddess Juno, was able to peer through the clouds and see Jupiter's true nature.

Jupiter
  هرمز   
Hormoz (#)

Fr.: Jupiter   

The largest → planet in the → Solar System and the fifth from the Sun, lying at a mean distance of about 5.2 → astronomical units from the Sun. Jupiter is a → gas giant, mostly → hydrogen and → helium, with a mass of 1.898 × 1027 kg, or about 0.001 → solar masses, or 318 times → Earth masses. It is more than twice as massive as all the other solar system planets combined. Jupiter's diameter measures 11 times that of Earth. Its → rotation period, 9.93 hours (Jupiter/Earth ratio = 0.41), is the shortest of all the solar system planets. Its → orbital period is 11.857 Earth years. Jupiter has an extensive family of → satellites (79 known) and a faint → ring system; → Jupiter's ring. Jupiter probably has a core of rocky material amounting to something like 10 to 15 Earth masses. Above the core lies the main bulk of the planet in the form of liquid → metallic hydrogen. This exotic form of the most common of elements is possible only at pressures about 3 million bars, as is the case in the interior of Jupiter (and Saturn). Under the extreme pressure found deep inside Jupiter, the electrons are released from the hydrogen molecules and are free to move about the interior. This causes hydrogen to behave as a metal; it becomes conducting for both heat and electricity. See also → Jupiter's atmosphere.

Jupiter "the king of ancient Roman gods, the ruler of Olympus," from L. Iupeter, from PIE *dyeu-peter- "god-father," from *deiw-os "god" (cf. Pers. div "devil, demon;" Mid.Pers. dêw; O.Pers. daiva- "evil god, demon;" Av. daēva- "evil spirit, false god;" Skt. deva-; Gk. Zeus "supreme god;" from *dei- "to gleam, to shine") + *peter "father" (cf. Pers. pedar "father;" O.Pers. pitā- "father;" Av. patar-, ptā-; Skt. pitár-; Gk. pater; L. pater, O.H.G. fater).

Hormoz, from Mid.Pers. Ohrmazd "name of the highest god in Zoroastrianism," from O.Pers. aura-mazdā-, Av. ahura-mazdā- "Wise Lord," from ahura- "lord, god;" cf. Skt. ásura- "god, lord;" Hittite hassu- "king;" M.H.G. Asen "name of a group of gods;" O.N. āss "god;" PIE *ansu- "spirit, demon" + mazdā- "wisdom," mazdāθa- "what must be borne in mind," mazdāh- "memory;" cf. Skt. medhā- "mental power, wisdom, intelligence;" Gk. mathein "to learn, to know" (root of → mathematics).

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE)
  پویشگر ِ مانگهای ِ یخی ِ هرمز   
Puyešgar-e Mânghâ-ye Yaxi-ye Hormoz

Fr.: Jupiter ICy moons Explorer   

An interplanetary mission currently in development by the → European Space Agency planned for launch in 2020. It is aimed mainly at in-depth studies of three potentially ocean-bearing satellites, → Ganymede, → Europa, and → Callisto. JUICE will complete a unique tour of the Jupiter system including several flybys of each planet-sized world, culminating with orbit insertion around Ganymede, the largest moon in the Solar System, followed by nine months of operations in its orbit. JUICE will carry the most powerful scientific payload ever flown to the outer Solar System. It consists of 10 state-of-the-art instruments plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based instruments.

Jupiter; → icy; → explorer; → moon.

Jupiter mass
  جرم ِ هرمز   
jerm-e Hormoz

Fr.: masse de Jupiter   

A quantity of mass equal to 1.898 × 1027 kg, about 0.000954 → solar masses, or 317.83 → Earth masses. Jupiter mass, MJ, is used as a → unit to describe masses of the → gas giant, such as the outer planets and → extrasolar planets. Similarly, → brown dwarf masses are expressed in terms of Jupiter mass.

Jupiter; → mass.

Jupiter's atmosphere
  جو ِ هرمز، هواسپهر ِ ~   
javv-e Hormoz, havâsepehr-e ~

Fr.: atmosphère de Jupiter   

The gaseous envelope surrounding Jupiter. It is about 90% → hydrogen and 10% → helium (by numbers of atoms, 75/25% by mass) with traces of → methane, → water, and → ammonia. This is very close to the composition of the primordial → solar nebula from which the entire solar system was formed. Saturn has a similar composition, but Uranus and Neptune have much less hydrogen and helium. The outermost layer is composed primarily of ordinary → molecular hydrogen and helium. Visually, Jupiter is dominated by two atmospheric features; a series of ever-changing atmospheric cloud bands arranged parallel to the equator and an oval atmospheric blob called the → Great Red Spot.

Jupiter; → atmosphere.

Jupiter's ring
  حلقه‌های ِ هرمز   
halqehâ-ye Hormoz

Fr.: anneaux de Jupiter   

Any of several faint, dark, narrow rings around Jupiter. Jupiter's rings are so faint and tenuous that are only visible when viewed from behind Jupiter and are lit by the Sun, or directly viewed in the infrared where they faintly glow. Unlike → Saturn's rings full of large icy and rock chunks, they are composed of tiny rock fragments and dust. Jupiter's rings are continuously losing material and being resupplied with new dust from → meteorite impacts with Jupiter's four inner moons (→ Metis, → Adrastea, → Amalthea, and → Thebe). Jupiter's rings were discovered by NASA's Voyager 1 in 1979. They are composed of three parts: the → Main ring, a → Halo ring that orbits closer to Jupiter, and a very wide → Gossamer ring that extends far from Jupiter.

Jupiter; → ring.

Jurassic
  ژوراسیک   
Žurâsik (#)

Fr.: jurassique   

Jurassic era.

Named for the Jura Mountains on the border between France and Switzerland, where rocks of this age were first studied, + -assic, suffix extracted from Triassic.

Jurassic era
  دوره‌ی ِ ژوراسیک   
dowre-ye Žurasik (#)

Fr.: ère jurassique   

A period of the Mesozoic era, spanning the time between the Triassic and the → Cretaceous periods, about 200 to 145 million years ago. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic → mass extinction event.

Jurassic; → era.

juridical
  دادشناختی   
dâdšenâxti

Fr.: juridique   

1) Of or relating to the administration of justice.
2) Of or relating to law or jurisprudence; legal (Dictionary.com).

From L. iuridicalis "relating to right; pertaining to justice," from iuridicus, from ius "right, law," → jurist, + dicere "to say, to speak."

Dâdšenâxti, of or relating to dâdšenâxt, → jurisprudence

jurisdiction
  دادبخشان   
dâdbaxšân

Fr.: juridiction   

1) The right, power, or authority to administer justice by hearing and determining controversies.
2) The extent or range of judicial, law enforcement, or other authority.
3) The territory over which authority is exercised (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. juridiccion and directly from L. iurisdictionem "administration of justice, jurisdiction," from ius "right, law," → just, + dictio "a saying; extent or range of administrative power."

Dâdbaxšâ, from dâd, → justice, + baxš "division; donor, distributor, divider," from baxšidan "to divide, distribute, grant," → division, + -ân suffix of attribution and nuance

jurisprudence
  دادشناخت   
dâdšenâxt

Fr.: jurisprudence   

1) The science or philosophy of law.
2) A body or system of laws.
3) Civil Law: Decisions of courts, especially of reviewing tribunals (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from Fr. jurisprudence and directly from L.L. iurisprudentia "the science of law," from iuris "of right, of law" + prudentia "knowledge, a foreseeing, foresight, sagacity."

Dâdšenâxt, literally "science of justice," from dâd, → justice, + šenâxt "knowledge, science," → -logy.

jurist
  دادشناس   
dâdšenâs

Fr.: juriste   

A person versed in the law, as a judge, lawyer, or scholar.

M.E., from M.Fr. juriste, from M.L. iurista "jurist," from L. ius "law," → just.

Dâdšenâs, literally "knower of justice," → jurisprudence.

just
  دادمند، راست، درست   
dâdmand, râst (#), dorost (#)

Fr.: juste   

1) Guided by truth, reason, justice, and fairness.
2) Done or made according to principle; equitable; proper.
3) Based on right; rightful; lawful (Dictionary.com).

M.E. juste, from O.Fr. juste "just, righteous," from L. iustus "upright, equitable," from ius "right," especially "legal right, law," from O.L. ious, perhaps literally "sacred formula."

Dâdmand, from dâd "law, → justice."
Râst, → right.
Dorost "whole, complete, right," → integral.

justice
  داد، دادمندی، دادگری، دادگستری   
dâd, dâmandi, dâdgari, dâdgostari

Fr.: justice   

1) The quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness.
2) The moral principle determining just conduct.
3) The administering of deserved punishment or reward (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. justice "justice, legal rights, jurisdiction," from L. iustitia "righteousness, equity," from iustus "upright, → just."

Dâd "justice, law" from Mid.Pers. dâd "law, justice, scriptures with legal content;" related to Mid.- and Mod.Pers. daheš "creation," dâdan "to give;" Av. dā- "to place upon, give;" → datum.
Dâdmandi noun from dâmand, → just.
Dâdgari "administration of justice," from dâdgar, literally "just doer," "an administrator of justice," from dâd + -gar, → -or.
Dâdgostari, from Dâdgostar, literally "justice spreader," with gostar, from gostardan "to spread, → expand."

justification
  راستاورد   
râstâvard

Fr.: justification   

1) A reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends. What is offered as grounds for believing an assertion.
2) An act of justifying.

Verbal noun of → justify.

Râstâvard, from râst "right, true; just, upright, straight" (Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule") + âvard past stem of âvardan "to bring; to adduce, bring forward in argument or as evidence" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

justify
  راستاورد کردن، راستاوردن   
râstâvard kardan, râstâvardan

Fr.: justifier   

1) To show (a claim, statement, act, etc.) to be right, reasonable, or proper.
2) To defend or uphold as warranted or well-grounded.
3) To adjust (a line of type) to fill a line of constant width.

Justify, from O.Fr. justifier "to show (something) to be just or right; to administer justice," from L. justificare "act justly toward, make just," from justificus "dealing justly, righteous," from justus "just, upright, equitable," from jus (gen. juris) "right," from O.Latin ious, from PIE base *yewes- (cf. Av. yaož-da- "to purify ritually, to revitalize;" Skt. yos- "(long) life" + root of facere "to do" (from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do;" cf. Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives; puts;" Skt. dadáti "puts, places;" Hitt. dai- "to place;" Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place;" Lith. deti "to put;" Czech diti, Pol. dziac', Rus. det' "to hide," delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do").

Râstâvard kardan, râstâvardan, infinitives of râstâvard, → justification.

K corona
  تاج ِ K   
tâj-e K

Fr.: couronne K   

The inner part of the → solar corona which extends to about two solar radii. It is due to the → Thomson scattering of light from the → photosphere by the free electrons in the corona. The K corona exhibits a → linearly polarized continuous spectrum. The high speeds of the scattering electrons (on the average 10,000 km s-1 for a temperature of 2 million K) smear out the → Fraunhofer lines except the → H and K lines.

K from Ger. Kontinuum, → continuum; → corona.

K correction
  ارشایش ِ K   
aršâyeš-e K

Fr.: correction K   

A → color index correction applied to the photometric magnitudes and colors of a distant galaxy to compensate for the "reddening" of the galaxy due to → cosmological redshift. K correction is intended to derive the magnitudes in the → rest frame of the galaxy. Typically it is given as K(z) = az + bz2, where a and b depend on galaxy types. Conversely, one may deduce the redshift of a galaxy by its colors and a K-correction model.

The term K correction, probably stems from the K-term used by C. W. Wirtz (1918, Astron. Nachr. 206, 109), where K stands for Konstante, the German word for constant. The K-term was a constant offset in the redshift applied to diffuse nebulae in that epoch (source: A. L. Kinney, 1996, ApJ 467, 38); → correction.

K star
  ستاره‌ی ِ K   
setâre-ye K (#)

Fr.: étoile de type K   

An orange-red star of → spectral type K with a surface temperature of about 3600-5000 K. The spectra of K stars are dominated by the H and K lines of calcium and lines of neutral iron and titanium, with molecular bands due to cyanogen (CN) and titanium dioxide (TiO). Examples are → Arcturus and → Aldebaran.

K the letter of alphabet; → star.

K-T event
  رویداد ِ K-T   
ruydâd-e K-T (#)

Fr.: événement K-T   

Same as the → Cretaceous-Tertiary event.

K, representing the "→ Cretaceous period," and T the "→ Tertiary;" → event.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>