An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Kepler's first law
  قانون ِ نخست ِ کپلر   
qânun-e naxost-e Kepler (#)

Fr.: première loi de Kepler   

Planets move in elliptical paths, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.

Kepler; → first; → law.

Kepler's laws
  قانون‌های ِ کپلر   
qânunhâ-ye Kepler (#)

Fr.: lois de Kepler   

1) The planets move about the Sun in ellipses, at one focus of which the Sun is situated.
2) The → radius vector joining each planet with the Sun describes equal areas in equal times.
3) The ratio of the square of the planet's period of revolution to the cube of the planet's mean distance from the Sun is the same for all planets.

Kepler; → law.

Kepler's second law
  قانون ِ دوم ِ کپلر   
qânun-e dovom-e Kepler (#)

Fr.: deuxième loi de Kepler   

A line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

Kepler; → second; → law.

Kepler's star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کپلر   
setâre-ye Kepler (#)

Fr.: étoile de Kepler   

A → supernova in → Ophiuchus, first observed on 1604 October 9, and described by Johannes Kepler in his book De stella nova (1606). It reached a maximum → apparent magnitude of -3 in late October. The star remained visible for almost a year. The → light curve is that of a → Type Ia supernova. The → supernova remnant consists of a few filaments and brighter knots at a distance of about 30,000 → light-years. It is the radio source 3C 358. Also known as SN 1604 and Kepler's supernova.

Kepler; → star.

Kepler's third law
  قانون ِ سوم ِ کپلر   
qânun-e sevom-e Kepler (#)

Fr.: troisième loi de Kepler   

The ratio between the square of a planet's → orbital period (P) to the cube of the mean distance from the Sun (a) is the same for all planets: P2a3. More accurately, P2 = (4π2a3) / [G(M1 + M2)], where M1 and M2 are the masses of the two orbiting objects in → solar masses and G is the → gravitational constant. In our solar system M1 = 1. The → semi-major axis size (a is expressed in → astronomical units and the period (P) is measured in years.

Kepler; → third; → law.

Keplerian
  کپلری   
Kepleri

Fr.: keplerien   

Of or pertaining to Johannes Kepler or to his works or discoveries.

From → Kepler + -ian a suffix forming adjectives.

Keplerian angular velocity
  تندای ِ زاویه‌ای ِ کپلری   
tondâ-ye zâviye-yi-ye Kepleri

Fr.: vitesse angulaire keplérienne   

The angular velocity of a point in a circular orbit around a central mass. It is given by: ΩK = (GM/r3)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the gravitating object, and r is the radius of the orbit of the point around the object.

Keplerian; → angular; → velocity.

Keplerian disk
  گرده‌ی ِ کپلری، دیسک ِ ~   
gerde-ye Kepleri, disk-e ~

Fr.: disque keplérien   

A circumstellar disk (such as an → accretion disk or a → protoplanetary disk) in which the → angular velocity at each radius is equal to the angular velocity of a circular → Keplerian orbit at the same radius. The main characteristic of the Keplerian disk is that → orbital velocity varies as r-1/2. This means that an object on an orbit closer to the central mass turns more rapidly than that on a farther orbit. This velocity difference is at the origin of internal friction or kinematic viscous forces between disk particles, which heats up the material.

Keplerian; → disk.

Keplerian orbit
  مدار ِ کپلری   
madâr-e Kepleri (#)

Fr.: orbit keplérienne   

The orbit of a spherical object of a finite mass around another spherical object, also of finite mass, governed by their mutual → gravitational forces only.

Keplerian; → orbit.

Keplerian rotation curve
  خم ِ چرخش ِ کپلری   
xam-e carxeš-e Kepleri (#)

Fr.: courbe de rotation keplérienne   

A → rotation curve in which the speed of the orbiting body is inversely proportional to the → square root of its distance from the mass concentrated at the center of the system.

Keplerian; → rotation; → curve.

Keplerian shear
  کرن ِ کپلری   
karn-e Kepleri

Fr.: cisaillement keplerien   

Shearing motion of an ensemble of particles, each on a nearly circular, → Keplerian orbit. → Orbital velocity decreases as orbital radius increases, yielding shear. Viscous drag on such shear, due to ring-particle collisions, plays a key role in ring processes (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

Keplerian; → shear.

Keplerian telescope
  دوربین ِ کپلر، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Kepler, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope de Kepler   

A → refracting telescope which has simple → convex lenses for both → objective and → eyepiece. It suffers from → chromatic aberration, which can be reduced by increasing the → focal ratio. It was first devised by Kepler in 1615.

Keplerian; → telescope.

Kerberos
  کربروس   
Kerberos

Fr.: Kerberos   

The fourth → natural satellite of → Pluto discovered in 2011 using the → Hubble Space Telescope. Also called Pluto IV (P4). It has an estimated diameter of 14-44 km, which makes it the second smallest known moon of Pluto after → Styx. Kerberos revolves around Pluto in the region between → Nix and → Hydra at a distance of about 58,000 km and makes a complete orbit roughly every 32.1 days.

Named after the three-headed dog of Greek mythology.

kernel
  ا َستل   
astel

Fr.: noyau   

1) Chemistry: The remainder of an atom after the valence electrons have been removed.
2a) Math.: 1) The set of elements that a given function from one set to a second set maps into the identity of the second set.
2b) Let A be a linear transformation of the vector space U into the vector space V . The collection of all those vectors x in U such that Ax = 0 is called the kernel of A and is denoted by ker(A).
3) Computers: The set of functions that make up the operating system, the core that provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system. → core = maqzé (مغزه); → nucleus = hasté (هسته).

Kernel, from M.E. kirnel, from O.E. cyrnel, from P.Gmc. *kurnilo- (cf. M.H.G. kornel, M.Du. cornel), from *kernan- (root of corn "seed, grain"), akin to L. granium, + -el, diminutive suffix, variant of → -al.

Astel, from asté "kernel, fruit stone," variants hasté, ostoxân "bone," from Mid.Pers. astak "fruit stone, bone," ast "bone;" Av. ast- "bone;" cf. Skt. asthi- "bone;" Gk. osteon; L. os; Hittite hashtai-; PIE base *os- + Pers. diminutive suffix -el-al.

Kerr black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ کر   
siyah câl-e Kerr (#)

Fr.: trou noir de Kerr   

A → black hole that possesses only mass (not electric charge) and rotates about a central axis. It has an → ergosphere and a → stationary limit.

Named after the New Zealand mathematician Roy P. Kerr (1934-) who, in 1963, was the first to solve the → field equationss of Einstein's theory of → general relativity for a situation of this kind; → black hole.

Kerr-Newman black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ کر-نیومن   
siyah câl-e Kerr-Newman

Fr.: trou noir de Kerr-Newman   

A rotating charged black hole. Compare with the → Kerr black hole and the → Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

Named after Roy P. Kerr and Ezra T. Newman (1929-) who in 1963 independently found this solution to Einstein's → field equations; → black; → hole.

Kerwan
  کروان   
Kerwan

Fr.: Kerwan   

The largest → impact cratrer on → Ceres, which has a diameter of about 280 km. It is distinctly shallow for its size.

Named for The crater is named after the Hopi spirit of sprouting maize, Kerwan. The name was approved by the IAU on July 3, 2015.[1]

ket
  کت   
ket

Fr.: ket   

In Dirac's notation, a vector which describes the state of a quantum system, whether it is in a space of finite or infinite dimensions. A ket vector, written as | A >, is the dual of the → bra. Like the bra, it appears as an incomplete → bracket expression.

From -ket the second syllable in → bracket.

keV
   keV   
keV

Fr.: keV   

Kilo (thousand) → electron volt. A unit of → energy used to describe the total energy carried by a → particle or → photon.

kilo- + → electron volt.

key
  کلید   
kelid (#)

Fr.: clé   

A usually metal instrument used to operate a lock's mechanism.

M.E. key(e), kay(e), O.E. cæg "key," of unknown origin,

Kelid, variants (Tabari) kali, (Lori) kelil, (Laki) kalil "key; lock," (Kurd) kilil, kolun "latch, bolt;" Mid.Pers. kilêl "key." See also → include.

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