An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
kinetic potential
  توند ِ جنبشیک   
tavand-e jonbešik

Fr.: potentiel cinétique   

Same as → Lagrangian function.

kinetic; → potential.

kinetic temperature
  دمای ِ جنبشی   
damâ-ye jonbeši (#)

Fr.: température cinétique   

The temperature of a gas defined in terms of the average kinetic energy of its atoms or molecules.

kinetic; → temperature.

kinetic theory of gases
  نگره‌ی ِ جنبشی ِ گاز‌ها   
negare-ye jonbeši-ye gâzhâ (#)

Fr.: théorie cinétique des gaz   

A theory that explains macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion.

kinetic; → theory; → gas.

Kippenhahn diagram
  نمودار ِ کیپنهان   
nemudâr-e Kippenhahn

Fr.: diagrame de Kippenhahn   

A plot representing the evolution of the internal structure of a star as a function of time. The x-axis indicates the time, the y-axis the mass, and a color or shading specifies convective regions. A vertical line through the graph corresponds to a model at a particular time.

Named after Rudolf Kippenhahn (1926-), a German astrophysicist; → diagram

Kirchhoff's law
  قانون ِ کیرشهوف   
qânun-e Kirchhoff (#)

Fr.: loi de Kirchhoff   

The radiation law which states that at thermal equilibrium the ratio of the energy emitted by a body to the energy absorbed by it depends only on the temperature of the body.

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887), a German physicist who made major contributions to the understanding of electric circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation from heated objects; → law.

Kirkwood gaps
  گاف‌های ِ کرک‌وود   
gâfhâ-ye Kirkwood (#)

Fr.: lacunes de Kirkwood   

Regions in the asteroid belt within which few asteroids are found. The Kirkwood gaps are due to the perturbing effects of Jupiter through resonances with Jupiter's orbital period.

Named for the American astronomer Daniel Kirkwood (1814-1895), who Discovered them in 1866; → gap.

Kiso 5639
  کیسو ۵۶۳۹   
Kiso 5639

Fr.: Kiso 5639   

A → dwarf galaxy with a → kiloparsec size → starburst at one end, giving the system a → tadpole or → cometary shape. Also called LEDA-36252, KUG 1138+327. Its distance is 24.5 → megaparsecs (Mpc). The rotation speed of ~ 35 km s-1 combined with a radius of 1.2 kpc in the bright part of the disk implies that the corresponding → dynamical mass is 3 × 108/ sin2i Msun. This estimate is a factor of ~ 6 larger than the → stellar mass of 5 × 107 Msun from the → Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry, but is comparable to the total → neutral hydrogen (H I) mass of ~ 3 × 108 Msun. The metallicity in the → starburst "head" appears to be less than in the rest of the galaxy (the "tail"). This peculiar pattern of metallicity, seen also in several other comparable galaxies, suggests that the starbursts in these systems were triggered by accreting a gas with lower metallicity than in the rest of the galaxy. The → Hubble Space Telescope observations of Kiso 5639 in six UV-optical and Hα filters were used to resolve the head and derive the star formation properties. The head contains 14 young → star clusters more massive than 104Msun and an overall clustering fraction for star formation of 25-40%. The Hα luminosity of the core region of the head is 8.8 ± 0.16 × 1039 erg s-1 inside an area of 3.6 × 3.6 square arcsec. The corresponding → star formation rate is ~ 0.04 Msun yr-1 (Elmegreen et al., 2018, arxiv/1805.08253, and references).

Kiso Survey of UV Bright Galaxies (Miyauchi-Isobe et al., 2010, Pub.Nat.Astro.Ob.Japan, 13, 9).

kite
  زغن   
zaqan (#)

Fr.: milan   

Any of several small birds of the hawk family Accipitridae that have long, pointed wings, feed on insects, carrion, reptiles, rodents, and birds, and are noted for their graceful, gliding flight (Dictionary.com).

M.E. kyte, O.E. cyta, cognate with Ger. Kauz "owl."

Zaqan "kite," of uknown origin.

Kleinmann-Law nebula
  میغ ِ کلاینمن-لاؤ   
miq-e Kainman-Law

Fr.: nébuleuse de Kleinmann-Law   

An strong, extended infrared source in the Orion Nebula, about 1 arcminute NW of the Trapezium and about 12 arcseconds south of the → Becklin-Neugebauer object. It dominates the infrared emission at wavelengths above 20 microns. It probably represents a cluster of young and forming stars embedded in a dusty molecular cloud.

Named after Douglas E. Kleinmann (1942-) and Frank J. Low (1933-), who first studied this object in 1967; → nebula.

Klotho
  کلوتو   
klotho (#)

Fr.: Klotho, Clotho   

A → main belt asteroid (97) discovered by the German astronomer Ernst W. Temple in 1868 working at Marseille Observatory.

Named after Klotho (literally "spinner") the Gk. goddess of fate who spins the thread of life, from klothein "to spin."

klystron
  کلیسترون   
klistron (#)

Fr.: klystron   

An electron tube for converting direct-current energy into radio frequency energy by alternately speeding up and slowing down the electrons. It is used as a microwave amplifier or oscillator in radar and high-frequency radio work.

From Gk. kluzein, klus- "to wash, break over" + -tron.

knee
  زانو   
zânu (#)

Fr.: genou   

1) The joint of the leg that allows for movement between the femur and tibia and is protected by the patella; the central area of the leg between the thigh and the lower leg.
2) Something resembling a bent knee, especially a rigid or braced angle between two framing members (Dictionary.com). → alpha element knee

M.E. kne; O.E. cneo, cneow "knee" (cognates: O.Norse kne, O.Sax. kneo, M.Du. cnie, Dutch knie, O.H.G. kniu, Ger. Knie; cf. Pers. zânu, as below.

Zânu "knee," Mid.Pers. šnûg "knee;" Av. žnu- "knee;" cognates: Skt. jānu-, Hittite genu "knee;" Gk. gonu "knee," gonia "corner, angle;" L. genu "knee;" O.E. cneo, as above; PIE *gnéwo-.

knife
  کارد   
kârd (#)

Fr.: couteau   

1) An instrument for cutting, consisting essentially of a thin, sharp-edged, metal blade fitted with a handle.
2) Any blade for cutting, as in a tool or machine (Dictionary.com).

M.E. knif; O.E. cnif, probably from O.N. knifr; cf. M.L.G. knif, M.Du. cnijf, Ger. Kneif; of uncertain origin.

Kârd "knife," from Mid.Pers. kârt "knife;" Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut," karəta- "knife;" Proto-Ir. *kart- "to cut."

knife-edge test
  آزمون ِ کارد   
âzmun-e kârd (#)

Fr.: contrôle par foucaultage   

The same as → Foucault knife-edge test.

knife; → edge; → test.

know
  دانستن   
dânestan (#)

Fr.: savoir   

1) To perceive or understand as fact or truth; to apprehend clearly and with certainty.
2) To have established or fixed in the mind or memory (Dictionary.com).

M.E. knowen, knawen, from O.E. cnâwan, akin to O.H.G. bichnâan "to recognize," L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know," Gk. gignoskein, Pers. šenâxtan, dânestan, as below.

Dânestan "to know;" Mid.Pers. dânistan "to know;" variant šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know" (Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize"); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know, as above; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

knowledge
  شناخت   
šenâxt (#)

Fr.: connaissance   

1) All the information, facts, truths, and principles learned throughout time.
2) Acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study or investigation.

M.E. cnawlece, from O.E. cnawan, cf. O.H.G. bi-chnaan, ir-chnaan "to know;" cognate with Pers. šenâxt, as below.

Šenâxt, past stem of šenâxtan, šenâsidan "to know, discern, distinguish, be acquainted with;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânestan "to know;" O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge;" L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.E. cnawan; E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

Knudsen layer
  لایه‌ی ِ کنودسن   
lâye-ye Knudsen

Fr.: couche de Knudsen   

The thin layer of → vapor immediately adjacent to an irradiated surface. The thickness of the Knudsen layer is generally recognized to be in the order of a few → mean free paths from the surface.

Named after Danish physicist Martin Knudsen (1871-1949); → layer.

Kochab (β Ursae Minoris)
  کوکب   
Kowkab (#)

Fr.: Kochab   

The second brightest star in the constellation → Ursa Minor. It is a reddish, evolved → giant of → spectral type K4 with a visual magnitude of 2.1. It is almost 500 times more luminous than the Sun and lies at a distance of 126 light years. Also called Kocab, Kochah.

Kochab, from Ar. al-Kaukab (الکوکب) "star," shortened from al-Kaukab al-shemali (الکوکب الشمالی) "North Star."

Kolmogorov constant
  پایای ِ کولموگوروف   
pâyâ-ye Kolmogorov (#)

Fr.: constante de Kolmogorov   

The proportionality constant C in Kolmogorov's mathematical analysis of → turbulence which states that the spectral energy E(k) in the range of turbulent scales is E(k) =C ε2/3 k-5/3, where k represents the → wave number (inversely proportional to the wavelength or → eddy size), and ε is the average energy dissipation per unit mass in the fluid. Experimental measurements give C close to 1.5.

Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903-1987), a prominent Soviet mathematician, who made major advances in different scientific fields, mainly probability theory, topology, turbulence, classical mechanics, and computational complexity; → constant.

Kolmogorov scale
  مرپل ِ کولموگوروف   
marpel-e Kolmogorov

Fr.: échelle de Kolmogorov   

Length scale of → turbulent flow below which the effects of molecular → viscosity are non-negligible.

Kolmogorov constant; → scale.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>