An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Kolmogorov spectrum
  بیناب ِ کولموگوروف   
binâb-e Kolmogorove

Fr.: spectre de Kolmogorov   

The distribution of energy over different scales in a → turbulent flow where → energy cascade occurs. Let E be the energy per unit → wave number (k) and ε the energy → dissipation parameter, E = E(k,ε). → Dimensional analysis yields: E = Cε2/3k-5/3, where C is the → Kolmogorov constant.

A. N. Kolmogorov, 1941, Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible fluid for very large Reynolds numbers, Doklady Acad Sci. USSR 31, 301; → spectrum.

Kozai-Lidov mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ کوزایی-لیدوف   
sâzokâr-e Kozai-Lidov

Fr.: mécanisme de Kozai-Lidov   

In the → three-body problem, the → perturbation of the orbit of a → secondary body by the garvity of a third body located at a distance much larger than the separation between the → primary body and the secondary. The secondary's orbit oscillates about a constant value involving a periodic exchange between the extreme values of its → inclination and orbital → eccentricity. The Kozai-Lidov mechanism results from the conservation of the quantity (1 - e2)1/2.cos i for each component, where e is eccentricity and i is inclination. The total → angular momentum of the system remains constant while the angular momentum is exchanged betwwen the components. It has been suggested that the Kozai mechanism is responsible for the high eccentricities observed in the orbits of → extrasolar planets. If the parent star has a massive yet unseen substellar companion, orbiting at a great distance, and in an orbit highly inclined to the plane of the planets' orbits, the mechanism should induce high eccentricities into the orbits of the planets. Similarly, this mechanism may be responsible for the high eccentricities observed in the orbits of many → Kuiper Belt Objects such as 2003 UB313.

Named for the japanese Yoshihide Kozai (1962, Astronomical J. 67, 591), and the Russian Michael Lidov (1962, Planetary & Space Science 9, 719).

Kramers' law
  قانون ِ کرامرز   
qânun-e Kramers (#)

Fr.: loi de Kramers   

An approximate expression for deriving the → opacity that depends upon temperature with a power law: κ ∝ ρT-3.5, where ρ represents the density. In → partial ionization zones, a part of the energy released during a layer's compression can be used for further ionization, rather than raising the temperature of the gas. As the temperature of the compressed layer has not substantially increased, the increase in density produces a corresponding increase in the opacity of the layer. Likewise, during the expansion phase, the temperature does not decrease significantly since the ions release energy when they recombine with electrons.

Derived in 1923 by the Dutch physicist Henrik Kramers (1894-1952); → law.

Kramers' opacity law
  قانون ِ کدری ِ کرامرز   
qânun-e kederi-ye Kramers (#)

Fr.: loi de l'opacité de Kramers   

Same as → Kramers' law.

Named after Henrik Kramers (1894-1952); → law.

Kronecker delta
  دلتای ِ کرونکر   
deltâ-ye Kronecker (#)

Fr.: delta de Kronecker   

The function δik of two variables i and j defined by δik = 1 if i = j, and δik = 0 if i ≠ j.

Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), a German mathematician; delta, Gk. letter of alphabet.

Kruskal diagram
  نمودار ِ کروسکال   
nemudâr-e Kruskal

Fr.: diagramme de Kruskal   

A diagram used to plot trajectories in → space-time near a → black hole. The vertical and horizontal axes are two complicated functions of time and distance from the black hole. Lines of constant time radiate from the origin of the diagram, with steeper slopes corresponding to later times. Lines of constant distance are hyperbolas, lines of constant time pass through the origin; photons always travel along diagonal lines at ±45° to the vertical. The trajectory of an object falling into the black hole is shown as a curving line moving upward on the diagram at less than 45° to the vertical.

Named after the American physicist Martin David Kruskal (1925-2006); → diagram.

krypton
  کریپتون   
kripton (#)

Fr.: krypton   

A colorless, odorless, highly un-reactive gaseous chemical element and a member of the inert gas family. Symbol Kr; atomic number 36; atomic weight 83.80; melting point -156.6°C; boiling point -152.3°C.

Krypton, from Gk. kryptos "concealed, hidden". It was discovered in liquefied atmospheric air by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English chemist Morris William Travers in 1898.

Kuiper belt
  کمربند ِ کویپر   
kamarband-e Kuiper (#)

Fr.: ceinture de Kuiper   

A region of the → Solar System extending roughly from the orbit of → Neptune, or 30 → astronomical units (AU), to 50 AU from the Sun that contains many small icy bodies. The Kuiper belt is now considered to be the source of the → short-period comets.

Named after Gerard Peter Kuiper (1905-1973), a Dutch-born American astronomer, who predicted the belt in 1951. He is also considered the father of modern planetary science for his contributions to the study of our solar system; → belt.

Kuiper belt object (KBO)
  بر‌آخت ِ کمربند ِ کویپر   
barâxt-e kamarband-e Kuiper

Fr.: objet de la ceinture de Kuiper   

A → Solar System object belonging to the → Kuiper belt. The largest known objects of this type are → Pluto and its moon → Charon, → Quaoar, → Sedna, and → Orcus. See also → trans-Neptunian object.

Kuiper belt; → object.

kurtosis
  افراشتگی   
afrâštegi (#)

Fr.: aplatissement   

The measure of "peakedness" of the curve describing a frequency distribution in the region about its mode. The kurtosis of the normal distribution is 0.

From Gk. kurtosis "bulging, curvature," from kurtos "convex," kirkos "a ring;" cf. Av. skarəna- "round;" L. circus "circle, ring;" PIE base *sker- "to turn, bend."

Afrâštegi condition, state adj. of afrâšté "elevated, erect, upright," p.p. of afrâštan "to raise, exalt, extole," from Mid.Pers. abrâstan, abrâz- "to lift, raise," from ab-, from O.Pers./Av. abiy-/aiwi- "to, upon, against;" cf. Skt. abhi-, Gk. amphi- + râst "straight, direct, true;" from O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule."

L dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ L   
kutule-ye L

Fr.: naine L   

A type of → brown dwarf with an → effective temperature ranging from about 2200 K to about 1300 K, corresponding to luminosities about 4 x 10-4 to 3 x 10-5 times that of the Sun. L dwarfs are intermediate in temperature between M and → T dwarfs. Their spectra in the optical show weak titanium oxide (TiO) and vanadium oxide (VO) absorption lines and strong metallic hydrides CrH (8611 and 9969 Å) and FeH (8692 and 9896 Å). Also are present strong neutral atomic lines of alkali metals Na I (8183, 8195 Å), K I (7665, 7699 Å), Rb I (7800, 7948 Å), Cs I (8521, 8943 Å), and sometimes Li I (6708 Å). The prototype of the L-dwarf class is → GD 165B. The spectral classification was first defined by Kirkpatrick et al. 1999, ApJ 519, 802 and Martin et al. 1999, AJ 118, 2466.

For the reasoning behind the choice of the letter L, see Kirkpatrick et al. 1993, ApJ 406, 701; → dwarf.

L2 Puppis
   L2پسال   
L2 Pasâl

Fr.: L2 Puppis   

A → semiregular variable with a period of 141 days. It has a → spectral type of M5 III corresponding to an → effective temperature of ~ 3500 K. It has a radial velocity relative to the → Local Standard of Rest of 33.3 km s-1. At a distance of 64 → parsecs, L2 Pup is the second nearest → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star next to R Doradus; it is ~ 30% closer than → Mira. Recent → near-infrared JHKL band observations by Kervella et al. (2014, 2015) show a compact dust disk around the central star, with an inner rim of 6 → astronomical units and an outer edge of 13 au, at an inclination of approximately 82°. The → circumstellar environment of L2 Pup was observed with → ALMA. The → molecular emission shows a → differentially rotating disk, inclined to a nearly edge-on position (Homan et al., 2017, A&A 601, A5 and references therein).

Star name in the → Bayer designation scheme; → Puppis.

La Nina
  لا نی‌نیا   
La Ninya (#)

Fr.: La Niña   

La Niña. A condition in which a significant decrease (more than 0.5 °C from average water temperatures) occurs in sea surface temperature (cold event) in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. La Niña has a natural 3-6 year cycle and can persist for 1-3 years. It is the counterpart to the → El Nino (warm event), and its spatial and temporal evolution in the equatorial Pacific is, to a considerable extent, the mirror image of El Niño, although La Niña events tend to be somewhat less regular in their behavior and duration.

American Sp. La Niña "the girl," to distinguish it from → El Nino.

La Silla Observatory
  نپاهشگاه ِ لا سی‌یا   
nepâhešgâh-e La Silla

Fr.: Observatoire de La Silla   

The site of the → European Southern Observatory's first observatory in Chile, inaugurated in 1969. It is located 160 km north of the town of La Serena and 600 km north of Santiago at an altitude of 2,400 m bordering the southern extremity of the Atacama Desert. La Silla is equipped with several optical telescopes with mirror diameters of up to 3.6 m. The 3.5 m New Technology Telescope was the first in the world to have a computer-controlled main mirror, a technology developed at ESO. The ESO 3.6 m telescope is now home to the world's largest extrasolar planet hunter: HARPS (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher), a spectrograph with unrivalled precision.

From Sp. la silla "the saddle," after the apparent shape of the mountain on which the observatory is situated. Originally known as Cinchado.

laboratory
  آزمایشگاه   
âzmâyešgâh (#)

Fr.: laboratoire   

A building or place equipped for carrying out scientific research, experimentation, investigation, observation, etc.

M.L. laboratorium "a place for labor or work," from L. laboratus, p.p. of laborare "to work."

Âzmâyešgâh, from âzmâyeš, → experiment, + -gâh "place, time," → university.

Lacerta
  چلپاسه   
calpâse (#)

Fr.: Lézard   

The Lizard. A small constellation in the northern hemisphere, at about 22h right ascension, 45° north declination. Its brightest star is only of magnitude +3.8, and the constellation contains no other star above fourth magnitude. Its most famous object is BL Lacerta, the prototype → BL Lac objects. Abbreviation: Lac; genitive: Lacertae.

From L. lacertus (fem. lacerta) "lizard," of unknown origin.

Calpâsé "lizard," variants karpâsa, karisa, kelpasa; cf. Skt. krakacapad- "saw-footed, a lizard, chameleon," from krakaca- "saw" + pad "foot" (Pers. ).

lack
  ۱) نست؛ ۲) نستیدن   
1) nast; 2) nastidan

Fr.: 1) manque; 2) manquer   

1a) Deficiency or absence of something needed, desirable, or customary.
1b) Something missing or needed. See also → default, → deficiency, → shortage.
2a) (v.tr.) To be without or deficient in; to fall short in respect of.
2b) (v.intr.) to be absent or missing, as something needed or desirable (Dictionary.com).

M.E. lak; cognate with M.L.G. lak, M.Du. lac "deficiency;" akin to O.Norse lakr "deficient."

Nast, from negation prefix na- "in-, non," → not, + ast, hast "is," from astan, hastan "to be," → exist.

lacking
  نستان، نستنده   
nastân, nastandé

Fr.: manquant   

Absent; wanting; deficient.

lack; → -ing.

ladder
  نردبان   
nerdebân (#)

Fr.: échelle   

1) A piece of equipment consisting of a series of bars or steps between two upright lengths of wood, metal, or rope, used for climbing up or down something.
2) A series of ascending stages by which someone or something may progress (OxfordDictionaries.com).

M.E. laddre, O.E. hlæder "ladder, steps" (cognates: M.Du. ledere, O.H.G. leitara, Ger. Leiter), from PIE root *klei- "to lean," → incline.

Nardebân "ladder."

lag
  ۱) لک؛ ۲) لکیدن   
1) lek; 2) lekidan

Fr.: 1) retard, décalage; 2) rester en arrière traîner   

1a) A lagging or falling behind; retardation.
1b) Mechanics: The amount of retardation of some motion.
1c) Electricity: The retardation of one alternating quantity, as current, with respect to another related alternating quantity, as voltage.
2) To fail to maintain a desired pace or to keep up; fall or stay behind (Dictionary.com).

Possibly from Scandinavian; cf. Norwegian lagga "to go slowly."

Lek, from lek lek kardan "to walk slowly, to lag behind."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>