<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat Ré rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>
lagoon mordâb (#) Fr.: lagune 1) A body of seawater that is almost completely cut off from the ocean by a barrier beach. Lagoon, from Fr. lagune, from It. laguna "pond, lake," from L. lacuna "pond, hole," from lacus "pond;" → nebula. Mordâb "lagoon," literally "dead water," from mord, mordé "dead"
+ âb "water." |
Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523) miq-e mordâb (#) Fr.: nébuleuse de la lagune A giant → H II region lying in the direction of → Sagittarius about 5,000 → light-years away. It represents a giant cloud of interstellar matter which is currently undergoing star formation, and has already formed a considerable cluster of young stars (NGC 6530). |
Lagrange's equations hamugešhâ-ye Lagrange Fr.: équation de Lagrange A set of second order → differential equations for a system of particles which relate the kinetic energy of the system to the → generalized coordinates, the generalized forces, and the time. If the motion of a → holonomic system is described by the generalized coordinates q_{1}, q_{2}, ..., q_{n} and the → generalized velocities q^{.}_{1}, q^{.}_{2}, ..., q^{.}_{n}, the equations of the motion are of the form: d/dt (∂T/∂q^{.}_{i}) - ∂T/∂q^{.}_{i} = Q_{i} (i = 1, 2, ..., n), where T is the kinetic energy of the system and Q_{i} the generalized force. → Lagrangian; → equation. |
Lagrangian lâgrânži Fr.: lagrangien 1) Of or relating to Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), see below. After the French/Italian mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813), who was the creator of the → calculus of variations (at the age of nineteen). He made also great advances in the treatment of → differential equations and applied his mathematical techniques to problems of → mechanics, especially those arising in astronomy. |
Lagrangian density cagâli-ye Lagranži Fr.: densité lagrangienne A quantity, denoted L_{d}, describing a continuous system in the
→ Lagrangian formalism, and defined as the
→ Lagrangian per unit volume.
It is related to the Lagrangian L by: → Lagrangian; → density. |
Lagrangian dynamics tavânik-e lâgrânži Fr.: dynamique lagrangienne A reformulation of → Newtonian mechanics in which dynamical properties of the system are described in terms of generalized variables. In this approach the → generalized coordinates and → generalized velocities are treated as independent variables. Indeed applying Newton's laws to complicated problems can become a difficult task, especially if a description of the motion is needed for systems that either move in a complicated manner, or other coordinates than → Cartesian coordinates are used, or even for systems that involve several objects. Lagrangian dynamics encompasses Newton dynamics, and moreover leads to the concept of the → Hamiltonian of the system and a process by means of which it can be calculated. The Hamiltonian is a cornerstone in the field of → quantum mechanics. → Lagrangian; → dynamics. |
Lagrangian formalism disegerâyi-ye Lâgranži Fr.: formalisme lagrangien A reformulation of classical mechanics that describes the evolution of a physical system using → variational principle The formalism does not require the concept of force, which is replaced by the → Lagrangian function. The formalism makes the description of systems more simpler. Moreover, the passage from classical description to quantum description becomes natural. Same as → Lagrangian dynamics. → Lagrangian; → formalism. |
Lagrangian function karyâ-ye lâgrânž (#) Fr.: Lagrangien, fonction de Lagrange A physical quantity (denoted L), defined as the difference between the → kinetic energy (T) and the → potential energy (V) of a system: L = T - V. It is a function of → generalized coordinates, → generalized velocities, and time. Same as → Lagrangian, → kinetic potential. → Lagrangian; → function. |
Lagrangian method raveš-e Lâgrânži Fr.: méthode lagrangienne Fluid mechanics: An approach in which a single fluid particle (→ Lagrangian particle) is followed during its motion. The physical properties of the particle, such as velocity, acceleration, and density are described at each point and at each instant. Compare with → Eulerian method. → Lagrangian; → method. |
Lagrangian multiplier bastâgar-e Lagrange Fr.: multiplicateur de Lagrange Math.: A constant that appears in the process for obtaining extrema of functions of several variables. Suppose that the function f(x,y) has to be maximized by choice of x and y subject to the constraint that g(x,y)≤ k. The solution can be found by constructing the → Lagrangian function L(x,y,λ) = f(x,y) + λ[k - g(x,y)], where λ is the Lagrangian multiplier. → Lagrangian point; → multiplier. |
Lagrangian particle zarre-ye Lâgrânži Fr.: particule lagrangienne Fluid mechanics: In the → Lagrangian method, a particle that moves as though it is an element of fluid. The particle concept is an approach to solving complicated fluid dynamics problems by tracking a large number of particles representing the fluid. The particle may be thought of as the location of the center of mass of the fluid element with one or more property values. → Lagrangian; → particle. |
Lagrangian point noqtehâ-ye Lagrange (#) Fr.: points de Lagrange On of the five locations in space where the → centrifugal force and the → gravitational force of two bodies (m orbiting M) neutralize each other. A third, less massive body, located at any one of these points, will be held in equilibrium with respect to the other two. Three of the points, L1, L2, and L3, lie on a line joining the centers of M and m. L1 lies between M and m, near to m, L2 lies beyond m, and L3 on the other side of M beyond the orbit. The other two points, L4 and L5, which are the most stable, lie on either side of this line, in the orbit of m around M, each of them making an equilateral triangle with M and m. L4 lies in the m's orbit approximately 60° ahead of it, while L5 lies in the m's orbit approximately 60° behind m. See also → Trojan asteroid; → Roche lobe; → equipotential surface; → horseshoe orbit. → Lagrangian; → point. |
lake daryâcé (#) Fr.: lac A body of fresh or salt water entirely surrounded by land. From O.Fr. lack, from L. lacus "pond, lake," related to lacuna "hole, pit," from PIE *lak- (cf. Gk. lakkos "pit, tank, pond," O.C.S. loky "pool, cistern," O.Ir. loch "lake, pond"). Daryâcé, from daryâ "sea" Mid.Pers. daryâp variant zrah; O.Pers. drayah-; Av. zrayah- "sea;" cf. Skt. jráyas- "expanse, space, flat surface" + -cé diminutive suffix, from Mid.Pers. -cak, variants -êžak (as in kanicak "little girl," sangcak "small stone," xôkcak "small pig"), also Mod.Pers. -ak. |
lamb barré, baré (#) Fr.: agneau A young sheep; the meat of a young sheep. M.E., O.E.; cognate with Du. lam, Ger. Lamm, Goth. lamb; akin to Gk. elaphos "deer." Mid.Pers. warrag "lamb; sheep;" warân "ram;" Av. varən-; cf. Skt. uaran-; L. vervex (Fr. brebis); Arm. garn; Baluci garând "ram;" Lori, Laki veran "ram;" PIE *wrhen- "lamb." |
Lamb shift kib-e Lamb Fr.: décalage de Lamb A tiny change in the → energy levels of the → hydrogen atom between the states 2S_{1/2} and 2P_{1/2}, which creates a shift in the corresponding → spectral lines. The 2P_{1/2} state is slightly lower than the 2S_{1/2} state, contrarily to the Schrodinger's solution. The difference is explained by the interaction between → vacuum energy fluctuations and the hydrogen electron in different orbitals. Named after Willis Eugene Lamb, Jr. (1913-2008), an American physicist who discovered this effect in 1951, and won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum;" → shift. |
lambda lâmbdâ Fr.: lambda The eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet.
In lower case, λ, it denotes → wavelength.
It is also used in the → Bayer designation system
to identify a specific star in a → constellation.
See also → lambda point. From Phoenician lamedh. |
Lambda Bootis star setâre-ye lâmbda Gâvrân Fr.: étoile lambda du Bouvier The prototype of a small class of stars (A-F types) which have weak metallic lines (indicating that they are depleted in metals heavier than Si, but with solar abundances of C, N, O, and S). Moreover, they have moderately large rotational velocities and small space velocities. Lambda Boo stars may be pre-main-sequence objects, or they may be main sequence stars that formed from gas whose metal atoms had been absorbed by interstellar dust. Named after the prototype, the star → Lambda (λ) of constellation → Bootes; → star. |
lambda cold dark matter model model-e lâmbdâ-mâde-ye-sard-e-târik Fr.: modèle ΛCDM The → standard model of → Big Bang that incorporates both → dark matter and → dark energy. See also → cold dark matter (CDM). → lambda, → cosmological constant; → cold; → dark; → matter; → model. |
Lambda Orionis Lâmbdâ-Šekârgar, ~-Oryon Fr.: Lambda (λ) Orionis Same as → Meissa. Lambda (λ), a Greek letter used in the → Bayer designation of star names. |
lambda point noqte-ye lâmbdâ Fr.: point lambda The temperature (roughly 2.17 K) at which → liquid helium (→ helium I) becomes → superfluid (→ helium II). The name was given by the Dutch physicist Willem Hendrik Keesom (1876-1956), who discovered the behavior of helium near this transition point and successfully solidified helium in 1926 (under an external pressure of 25 atmospheres). The name was originally suggested by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933), who was inspired by the shape of the → specific heat curve, which resembles the Gk. letter → lambda; → point. |
<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat Ré rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>