# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 legendary   چیروکی   cirokiFr.: légendaire   Of, relating to, or of the nature of a legend.→ legend; → -ary. Legendre equation   هموگش ِ لوژاندر   hamugeš-e LegendreFr.: équation de Legendre   The → differential equation of the form: d/dx(1 - x2)dy/dx) + n(n + 1)y = 0. The general solution of the Legendre equation is given by y = c1Pn(x) + c2Qn(x), where Pn(x) are Legendre polynomials and Qn(x) are called Legendre functions of the second kind.Named after Adrien-Marie Legendre (1752-1833), a French mathematician who made important contributions to statistics, number theory, abstract algebra, and mathematical analysis; → equation. Legendre transformation   ترادیسش ِ لوژاندر   tarâdiseš-e LegendreFr.: transformation de Legendre   A mathematical operation that transforms one function into another. Two differentiable functions f and g are said to be Legendre transforms of each other if their first derivatives are inverse functions of each other: df(x)/dx = (dg(x)/dx)-1. The functions f and g are said to be related by a Legendre transformation. legislation   قانونگذاری   gânungozâri (#)Fr.: législation   1) The act of making or enacting laws. 2) A law or a body of laws enacted (Dictionary.com).From Fr. législation, from L.L. legislationem, from legis latio, "proposing (literally 'bearing') of a law," → legislator.Qânungoz&acric;ri "act or process followed by the qânungoz&acric;r", → legislator. legislator   قانونگذار   qânungozâr (#)Fr.: législateur   1) A person who gives or makes laws. 2) A member of a legislative body (Dictionary.com).From L. legis lator "proposer of a law," from legis, genitive of lex, → law, + lator "proposer," agent noun of latus "borne, brought, carried."Qânungozâr, literally "he who places the law," from qânun, → law, + gozâr, present stem and agent noun of gozâštan "to place, put; perform; allow, permit," related to gozaštan "to pass, to cross," → trans- Lemaître Universe   گیتی ِ لومتر   giti-ye Lemaître (#)Fr.: Univers de Lemaître   A cosmological hypothesis, based on Einstein's relativity, in which the expanding Universe began from an exploding "primeval atom." In the Lemaître Universe the rate of expansion steadily decreases.Named after Monsignor Georges Edouard Lemaître (1894-1966), a Belgian Roman Catholic priest, honorary prelate, professor of physics and astronomer; → universe. lemma   نهک   nehakFr.: lemme   1) A subsidiary proposition, proved for use in the proof of another proposition. 2) Linguistics: A word considered as its citation form together with all the → inflected forms. For example, the lemma go consists of go together with goes, going, went, and gone. 3) An argument or theme, especially when used as the subject or title of a composition (Dictionary.com).From L. lemma, from Gk. lemma "something received or taken; an argument; something taken for granted," from root of lambanein "to take," → analemma.Nehak, from neh present stem of nehâdan "to place, put; to set," → position, + -ak a diminutive suffix of nouns. lemniscate of Bernoulli   لمنیسکات ِ برنویی   lemniskât-e BernoulliFr.: lemniscate de Bernoulli   A closed curve with two loops resembling a figure 8. It is represented by the Cartesian equation (x2 + y2)2 = a2(x2 - y2), where a is the greatest distance from the origin (pole) to the curve. Its polar equation is r2 = a2 cos 2θ.From L. Latin lemniscatus "adorned with ribbons," from lemniscus "a pendent ribbon," from Gk. lemniskos "ribbon;" First described by Jacques Bernoulli (1654-1705) in 1694. length   درازا، طول   derâzâ (#), tul (#)Fr.: longueur   A distance determined by the extent of something specified. → Jeans lengthM.E. length(e), O.E. lengthu "length," from P.Gmc. *langitho, noun of quality from *langgaz (root of O.E. lang "long," cognate with Pers. derâz, as below) + -itho, abstract noun suffix. Cognate with O.N. lengd, O.Fris. lengethe, Du. lengte.Derâzâ quality noun of derâz "long," variants Laki, Kurdi derež; Mid.Pers. drâz "long;" O.Pers. dargam "long;" Av. darəga-, darəγa- "long," drājištəm "longest;" cf. Skt. dirghá- "lon (in space and time);" L. longus "long;" Gk. dolikhos "elongated;" O.H.G., Ger. lang; Goth. laggs "long;" PIE base *dlonghos- "long;" tul loan from Ar. ţaul, used in → wavelength. length contraction   ترنگش ِ درازا   terengeš-e derâzâFr.: contraction de longueur   Same as → Lorentz contraction.→ length; → contraction. lengthy   کشناک   kešnâk (#)Fr.: long, interminable   1) Having or being of great length; very long. 2) Tediously verbose; very long; too long (Dictionary.com).From → length + -y.Kešnâk "lengthy" (Bardsiri, Kermâni), from kešidan, kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry," → tide. Bardesir, Kermân lens   عدسی   adasi (#)Fr.: lentille   A transparent optical component consisting of one or more pieces of optical glass with surfaces so curved (usually spherical) that they serve to converge or diverge the transmitted rays from an object, thus forming a real or virtual image of that object.From L. lens (gen. lentis) "lentil," cognate with Gk. lathyros, on analogy of the double-convex shape.Adasi, related to adas "lentil," from Ar. 'adas. The original Pers. terms for lentil are: mažu, mažâné, (Gilaki, Tabari) marju, marji, murje, marjum, (Laki) noži, (Aftari) marju, Mid.Pers. mijûg "lentil;" cf. Skt. masura- "lentil." lens system   راژمان ِ عدسی   râžmân-e adasiFr.: système de lentilles   → lens; → system. Lense-Thirring effect   اسکر ِ لنزه-تیرینگ   oskar-e Lense-ThirringFr.: effet Lense-Thirring   An effect predicted by → general relativity whereby a rotating body alters the → space-time around it. This effect can be thought of as a kind of "dragging of inertial frames," as first named by Einstein himself. A massive spinning object pulls nearby objects out of position compared to predictions for a non-rotating object. The effect is important for rapidly rotating → neutron stars and → black holes, but that near Earth is extraordinarily small: 39 milli-arc second per year, about the width of a human hair seen from 400 meters away.Named after Austrian physicists Joseph Lense (1890-1985) and Hans Thirring (1888-1976), who first discovered this phenomenon in 1918; → effect. lensing   ۱) لنزش؛ ۲) لنزنده   1) (n.) lenzeš; 2) (adj.) lenzandéFr.: 1) effet de lentille; 2) amplificateur   1) The act or effect produced by a lens, in particular a → gravitational lens. 2) Pertaining to the object that produces the lensing effect. → lensing galaxy.From → lens + → -ing.1) Lenzeš, verbal noun of lenzidan, verb formed from E. lens + -idan infinitive suffix. 2) Lenzandé, verbal adj. from lenzidan, as above. lensing effect   ا ُسکر ِ لنزش   oskar-e lenzešFr.: effet de lentille   Effect created by a → gravitational lens.→ lensing; → effect. lensing galaxy   کهکشان ِ لنزنده   kahkeâân-e lenzandéFr.: galaxie amplificatrice   A galaxy that acts as a → gravitational lens. The effect can also be due to a cluster of galaxies.→ lensing; → galaxy. lensing object   بر‌آخت ِ لنزنده   barâxt-e lenzandéFr.: objet amplificateur   An astronomical object that creates → gravitational lensing. See also → lensing galaxy.→ lensing; → object. lensing potential   توند ِ لنزش   tavand-e lenzešFr.: potentiel de l'effet de lentille gravitationnelle   An important quantity in the characterization of → gravitational lensing. The lensing potential is obtained by projecting the three-dimensional Newtonian potential on the lens plane and by properly re-scaling it. It is a two-dimensional analog to the → gravitational potential.→ lensing; → potential. lenticula   کک‌مک   kakmakFr.: lenticule   Circular and elliptical features on the surface of → Europa with diameters ranging from 10 to 100 km. Many are domes that seem to have been pushed up from below. These domes might have been formed by warm water rising between the cold ices of the outer crust, in a scenario recalling the → magma chambers on Earth.From L. lenticula "freckle," diminutive of lens (genitive lentis) "lentil," → lens.Kakmak "freckle."