An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
limb
  لبه   
labé (#)

Fr.: bord   

1) The outer edge or border of the apparent disk of a celestial body. → limb brightening, → limb darkening.
2) The raised edge of the mater of a → planispheric astrolabe, bearing a scale divided into 360°. The limb is the reference against which the rete is rotated in the computation process so that the planispheric astrolabe will simulate the sky's appearance on a given day at a specific hour. Vice versa, the limb can be configured from the observation of the altitude of an celestial body on the horizon. In that case, the limb will indicate an angle that, thanks to the hour scale on the back, can be converted into the hour of day or night (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum).

From L. limbus "border, hem, fringe, edge," cognate with Skt. lambate "hangs down."

Labé "limb, edge," from lab "lip;" Mid.Pers. lap; cognate with L. labium, E. lip; Ger. Lefze.

limb brightening
  روشنش ِ لبه   
rowšaneš-e labé

Fr.: embrillancement centre-bord   

An observed increase in the intensity of radio, extreme ultraviolet, or X-radiation from the Sun from its center to its limb.

limb; → brightening.

limb darkening
  تاریکش ِ لبه   
târikeš-e labé

Fr.: assombrissement centre-bord   

An apparent decrease in brightness of the Sun near its edge as compared to its brightness toward the center. Limb darkening is readily apparent in photographs of the Sun. The reason is that when we look toward the disk's center we look into deeper and hence hotter layers along the line of sight. Toward the limb, we get radiation from higher and hence cooler and less bright layers of the → photosphere. Limb darkening has been detected in the case of several other stars. A similar phenomenon occurs in → eclipsing binaries where the effect of limb darkening on one or both components manifests itself in the shape of the system's → light curve.

limb; → darkening.

lime
  آهک   
âhak (#)

Fr.: chaux   

A white or grayish-white substance obtained by burning → limestone, used in mortars, plasters, cements, and in the manufacture of steel, paper, glass, and various chemicals of calcium.

M.E., O.E. lim; akin to Du. lijm, Ger. Leim, O.N. lim "glue;" L. limus "slime."

Âhak, probably a variant of xâk, → soil.

limestone
  سنگ ِ آهک   
sang-e âhak (#)

Fr.: castine, calcaire    

A → sedimentary rock composed principally of calcium carbonate. Limestone is usually formed from shells of once-living organisms or other organic processes, but may also form by inorganic precipitation.

lime; → stone.

limit
  حد   
hadd (#)

Fr.: limite   

1) General: The final, utmost, or furthest → boundary or → point as to extent, amount, continuance, procedure, etc.
2a) Math.: Of a → sequence, a → number which is approached ever more closely, but never reached, by the successive terms of a convergent infinite sequence.
2b) Of a → variable, a constant C which has the property with respect to some variable V that, as the variable approaches C in value (according to some formula), the numerical difference (C - V) between the constant and the variable diminishes toward 0 but is always greater than 0.

From O.Fr. limite "a boundary," from L. limitem (nom. limes) "a boundary, embankment between fields, border," related to limen "threshold."

Loan from Ar. Hadd "limit, term."

limited
  حدمند   
haddmand

Fr.: limité   

Confined within limits; restricted or circumscribed.

Adj. of → limit.

limiting magnitude
  برز ِ حد   
borz-e hadd

Fr.: magnitude limite   

The faintest magnitude reachable by an instrument.

limit; → magnitude.

limonite
  لیمونیت   
limonit (#)

Fr.: limonite   

A widely occurring ore of yellowish-brown to black color that consists of amorphous oxides of iron.

Gk. leimon "meadow" in reference to its occurrence as "bog ore" in meadows and marshes + → -ite.

Lindblad resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ لیندبلاد   
bâzâvâyi-ye Lindblad

Fr.: résonance de Lindblad   

A kinematic resonance hypothesized to explain the existence of galactic → spiral arms. It occurs when the frequency at which a star encounters the spiral → density wave is a multiple of its → epicyclic frequency. Orbital resonances occur at the location in the disk where Ωp = Ω ± κ/m, where Ωp is → pattern speed, κ → epicyclic frequency, and m an integer representing the number of spiral arms. The minus sign corresponds to the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) and the plus sign to the outer Lindblad resonance (OLR). The corotation resonance corresponds to Ωp = Ω. In general, the Lindblad resonances are defined for two spiral arms (m = 2), and low order. There are other less important resonances corresponding to higher m values. These resonances tend to increase the object's orbital eccentricity and to cause its longitude of periapse to line up in phase with the perturbing force. Lindblad resonances drive spiral density waves both in galaxies (where stars are subject to forcing by the spiral arms themselves) and in Saturn's rings (where ring particles are subject to forcing by Saturn's moons).

After the originator of the model, Bertil Lindblad (1895-1965), a Swedish astronomer, who made important contributions to the study of the rotation of the Galaxy; → resonance.

line
  خط، خت   
xatt (#), xat (#)

Fr.: ligne   

1) A mark or stroke long in proportion to its breadth, made with a pen, pencil, or other tools.
2) Math.: A continuous extent of length, straight or curved, without breadth or thickness; the trace of a moving point.

M.E. li(g)ne "cord, rope, stroke, series," from O.E. line "rope, row of letters," partly from O.Fr. ligne, from L. linea "linen thread, string, line," from phrase linea restis "linen cord," from fem. of lineus (adj.) "of linen," from linum "flax, linen."

Xatt, xat, used also in Ar., but it has no Hebrew counterpart. Xat is probably of Iranian origin, from *kerš-/*xrah- "to draw, plow;" cf. Av. karš- "to draw; to plow," karša- "furrow;" Mid/Mod.Pers. kešidan, kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry," dialectal Yaqnavi xaš "to draw," Qomi xaš "streak, stria, mark," Lori kerr "line;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."

line blanketing
  پتومندی ِ خط   
patumandi-ye xatt

Fr.:   

In stellar atmosphere models, the effect of metallic lines on the atmospheric structure of stars. The additional opacities of thousands of metallic lines alter the radiative transfer, leading to changes in the temperature. The emergent spectrum is consequently modified.

line-blanketed model.

line blending
  توهم‌شد ِ خط‌ها   
tuhamešod-e xatthâ

Fr.: confusion de raies   

Mixing of two or more spectral lines of adjacent wavelengths into a broad, single line due to insufficient dispersion of the spectrograph.

line; → blend.

line blocking
  بند‌آری ِ خط‌ها   
bandâri-ye xatthâ

Fr.: blocage par raies   

Reduction of the radiative flux in a model atmosphere due to absorption by a large number of lines. Line blocking affects the radiative transfer, ionisation and temperature structures, and the atmosphere's hydrodynamics.

line; block, from M.E. blok "log, stump," from O.Fr. bloc "log, block," via M.Du. bloc "trunk of a tree."

Bandâri "blocking," from band âvardan "to block," from band "dam, tie, chain," from bastan "to bind, shut, close up" (Mid.Pers. bastan, band; Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," bandhah "a tying, bandage;" Goth bandi "that which binds;" O.Fr. bande, bende; O.E. bend; M.E. bende; E. band; PIE base *bendh- "to bind") + âvari verbal noun of âvardan "to cause, produce; to bring" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

line broadening
  پهنش ِ خط   
pahneš-e xatt

Fr.: élargissement de raie   

A widening of → spectral lines due to any of several factors, including the → Doppler broadening, → instrumental broadening, → microturbulence, → pressure broadening, → rotational broadening, the → Stark effect, and the → Zeeman effect.

line; → broadening.

line cooling
  سردش ِ خط   
sardeš-e xatt

Fr.: refroidissement dû aux raies   

In stellar atmosphere models, the decrease of temperature in the outer layers of atmosphere due to the escape of photons through optically thin metallic lines. Energy is transferred from the thermal pool to photons and is lost for the atmosphere, leading to a temperature decrease.

line; → cooling.

line identification
  ایدانش ِ خط   
idâneš-e xatt

Fr.: identification de raies   

The process of recognizing the spectral lines in a spectrum.

line; → identification.

line intensity
  درتنویی ِ خط   
dartanuyi-ye xatt

Fr.: intensité de raie   

A measure of the total effect of an absorption or emission line. The line intensity is equal to the integration of the absorption coefficient over the entire shape of the absorption line.

line; → intensity.

line of action
  خط ِ ژیرش، ~ کنش   
xatt-e žireš, ~ koneš

Fr.: ligne d'action   

Of a force, the straight line along which the force → vector is directed. The action of a force on a → rigid body does not change when its point of application is displaced along the line of action. Hence, forces applied to a rigid body can be regarded as non-localized, or sliding, vectors.

line; → action.

line of apsides
  خط ِ هباک‌ها   
xatt-e habâkhâ

Fr.: ligne des apsides   

Of an elliptical orbit, the straight line drawn from the → perigee to the → apogee.

line, → apsides.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>