An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D r dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg del den dep des det deu dex dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai Fan Fea fem fer fie fil fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hub hun hyd hyd hyg Hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kel Kep kil kit Kui Lag lam lan Lar Lat law lea lem lep Li- lig lim lin lin lio lit loc lod lon Lor low Lum lun Lup Lyn mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor mov mul mur nab nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nua nuc nul Nun OBC obl obs occ oct off Ohm on- ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort Ost out ove p m Pal par par par par Pas pat Peg Peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe Spi spi spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T-s tar Tei tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur Tyc Typ ult unb und uni uni unr upp Urs vac van Var veg Ven ver vib vio vir vis vol VY war wat wav WC8 Web wes whi win WN1 wob wri X-r yoc zen Zhe > >>

Number of Results: 12937 Search : far
lion
  شیر   
šir (#)

Fr.: lion   

A large, usually tawny-yellow cat, Panthera leo, native to Africa and southern Asia, having a tufted tail and, in the male, a large mane (dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr., variant of leon, from L. leon- (stem of leo), from Gk. leon.

Mid.Pers. šagr "lion;" cf. Parth. šarg; Sogd. šarγu "lion;" its O.Pers. and Av. forms are not extant. Šir may be cognate with Skt. kēsarin- "lion; literally maned," from kēsar- "mane;" PIE *kaisar- "mane; hairs." If so, šir could be related to PIE *kaisaraka-, provided that the the initial *kai- is dropped and *saraka- has transformed in *sarg, šarg, šir.

Liouville's theorem
  فربین ِ لیوویل   
farbin-e Liouville

Fr.: théorème de Liouville   

A key theorem in statistical mechanics of classical systems which states that the motion of phase-space points defined by Hamilton's equations conserves phase-space volume.

After Joseph Liouville (1809-1882), a French mathematician; → theorem.

liquefaction
  آوش   
âveš

Fr.: liquéfaction   

1) The act or process of liquefying or making liquid.
2) The state of being liquefied.

liquefy; → -tion.

liquefy
  آویدن   
âvidan

Fr.: liquéfier   

1) To reduce to a liquid state.
2) To become liquid.

M.E. lyquefyen, from O.Fr. liquefier, from L. liquefacere "make → liquid, melt," from liquere "be fluid" + facere "to make," → -fy.

liquid
  آوه، آبگون   
âvé, âbgun (#)

Fr.: liquide   

The state of matter in which a substance exhibits a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, and relatively high incompressibility.

O.Fr. liquide, from L. liquidus "fluid, liquid, moist," from liquere "be fluid," related to liqui "to melt, flow."

Âvé, from âv, variant of âb "→ water" + nuance suffix -e.
Âbgun literally "resembling water," from âb "water," + gun "resembling; manner, fashion; color" (Mid.Pers. gônak "kind, species;" Av. gaona- "color").

liquid crystal
  بلور ِ آوه   
bolur-e âvé (#)

Fr.: cristaux liquides   

A type of material that possesses less geometrical regularity or order than normal solid crystals, and whose order varies in response to alterations in temperature, electric field, and other quantities.

liquid; → crystal.

liquid helium
  هلیوم ِ آوه   
heliom-e âvé

Fr.: hélium liquide   

The state of helium (4He) below its boiling point of 4.2 K. Its normal form is called → helium I, but converts into superfluid → helium II below 2.17 K (→ lambda point). Liquid helium is colorless and transparent so that it is impossible to see the surface of the liquid with the naked eye. Helium was first liquefied in 1911 by the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1936), Physics Nobel Prize 1913.

liquid; → helium.

liquid mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ آوه   
âyene-ye âvé

Fr.: miroir liquide   

A mirror composed of liquid, taking advantage of the parabolic shape of a spinning liquid and the fact that the mirror's focal length can be adjusted by altering the velocity at which the liquid's container spins.

liquid; → mirror.

liquid water
  آب ِ آوه   
âb-e âvé

Fr.: eau liquide   

Water in a state that is neither ice nor vapor.

liquid; → water.

liquidus
  آوگان   
âbvegân

Fr.: liquidus   

In the → phase diagram of a → mixture (such as an → alloy) at constant pressure, the → curve that separates the all liquid phase from the liquid+solid phase. Below the liquidus the mixture will be partly or entirely → solid. See also → solidus.

From L. liquidus, → liquid.

LISA Pathfinder
  رهیاب لایزا   
rahyâb LISA

Fr.: LISA Pathfinde   

An → ESA spacecraft that was launched on December 3, 2015 to test technologies needed for the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), an ESA → gravitational wave observatory planned to be launched in 2034. LISA Pathfinder paves the way for future missions by testing in flight the very concept of gravitational wave detection.

LISA, short for → Laser Interferometer Space Antenna; → pathfinder.

Lissajous figure
  خم ِ لیساژو   
xam-e Lissajous (#)

Fr.: courbe de Lissajous, figure de ~   

A curve traced out by a point which is oscillating simultaneously in two mutually perpendicular directions. In general, the amplitude and frequency may be different in the two directions, and the two oscillations may have an arbitrary initial phase difference. The simplest pattern is a straight line, being obtained from two oscillations of equal frequency in phase with each other. The patterns can become very involved if the ratio of the frequencies is not a simple one.

After the French physicist Jules Antoine Lissajous (1822-1880), who first demonstrated such curves (Comptes-Rendus, 1857, 44, 727); → figure.

Xam, → curve.

Lissajous orbit
  مدار ِ لیساژو   
madâr-e Lissajous

Fr.: orbite de Lissajous   

A quasi-periodic path resembling a → Lissajous figure around the L1 or L2 → Lagrangian points of a two-body system. Lissajous orbits, resulting from a combination of planar and vertical components, are used by certain space telescopes (such as → WMAP, → Planck Satellite, and → Herschel Satellite) that are required to be in a stable position relative to the Earth and Sun while making long-term observations.

Lissajous figure; → orbit.

list
  ۱) لیست؛ ۲) لیستیدن   
1) list; 2) listidan

Fr.: 1) liste; 2) faire (dresser) la liste de   

1a) A series of names or other items written or printed together in a meaningful grouping or sequence so as to constitute a record.
1b) Computers: A series of records in a file.
2) To set down together in a list; make a list of (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. liste "border, edging, stripe," from O.Fr. liste "border, band, row," also "strip of paper," or from O.It. lista "border, strip of paper, list," both from Germanic sources (compare O.H.G. lista "strip, border, list," O.Norse lista "border."

List, loan from Fr. liste, as above.

listing
  لیستش   
listeš

Fr.: liste, cotation, listing   

1) A list; the act of compiling a list; something listed.
2) Computers: A display or printed list of lines in a program or digital data.

list; → -ing.

liter
  لیتر   
litr

Fr.: litre   

A metric unit of volume, formerly defined as the volume of one kilogram of pure water under standard conditions; now equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm3); hence 1 liter = 0.001 m3 and 1000 liter = 1 m3.

From Fr. litre, from litron, obsolete Fr. measure of capacity for grain, from M.L. litra, from Gk. litra "pound."

literature
  نوشتارگان   
neveštârgân (#)

Fr.: littérature   

1) Writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays.
2) The entire body of writings of a specific language, period, people, etc.
3) The writings dealing with a particular subject (Dictionary.com).

From L. literatura/litteratura "writing, grammar, learning," from litera/littera "letter."

Neveštârgân, from neveštâr, literally "written; writing," verbal noun from neveštan, nevis- "to write;" Mid.Pers. nibištan, nibes- "to write;" Av./O.Pers. nī- "down; in, into," → ni- (PIE), + paēs- "to paint; to adorn," paēsa- "adornment" (Mid.Pers. pēsīdan "to adorn"); O.Pers. pais- "to adorn, cut, engrave" (Mod.Pers. pisé "variegated"); cf. Skt. piśáti "adorns; cuts;" Gk. poikilos "multicolored;" L. pingit "embroiders, paints;" O.C.S. pisati "to write;" O.H.G. fēh "multicolored;" Lith. piēšti "to draw, adorn;" PIE base *peik- "colored, speckled," + -gân suffix of suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag.

lithium
  لیتیوم   
litiom (#)

Fr.: lithium   

A metallic → chemical element; symbol Li. → Atomic number 3; → atomic weight 6.941; → melting point about 180.54°C; → boiling point about 1,342°C. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal. It is the lightest metal and one of the alkali metals in Group 1 of the → periodic table. Lithium does not occur on Earth in its free form. It is a minor part of almost all igneous rocks and is found in many natural brines, in total 0.0007% of the Earth's crust. It has two stable → isotopes, 7Li (92.5%) and 6Li (7.5%). The element was discovered in the mineral petalite, LiAl(Si2O5)2, by the Swedish mineralogist Johan August Arfwedson in 1817. It was isolated by W.T. Brande and Sir Humphrey Davy. Many uses have been found for lithium and its compounds. Lithium has the highest → specific heat (3.6 J/gK) of any solid element and is used in heat transfer applications. It is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. It is also used as an alloy with → aluminum, → copper, and → manganese to make high performance aircraft parts. It is used to make special glasses and ceramics, including the Mount Palomar telescope's 5 m mirror. Lithium also has various nuclear applications, for example as a coolant in nuclear breeder reactors and a source of → tritium, which is formed by bombarding lithium with neutrons. In medicine it is used to treat bipolar disorder (manic depression), a serious mental illness that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and functioning.
In astrophysics, → Spite plateau.

Lithium, from L. lithos "stone" because lithium was thought to exist only in minerals.

lithium I line
  خط ِ لیتیوم I   
xatt-e litiom I

Fr.: raie de lithium I   

A → resonance line of → lithium at 6707.81 Å doublet 6707.76 and 6707.91 Å.

lithium; I for → neutral atom; → line.

lithium star
  ستاره‌ی ِ لیتیومی   
setâre-ye litiomi (#)

Fr.: étoile à lithium   

A peculiar evolved star of spectral type G or M whose spectrum displays a high abundance of lithium.

lithium; → star.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D r dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg del den dep des det deu dex dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai Fan Fea fem fer fie fil fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hub hun hyd hyd hyg Hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kel Kep kil kit Kui Lag lam lan Lar Lat law lea lem lep Li- lig lim lin lin lio lit loc lod lon Lor low Lum lun Lup Lyn mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor mov mul mur nab nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nua nuc nul Nun OBC obl obs occ oct off Ohm on- ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort Ost out ove p m Pal par par par par Pas pat Peg Peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe Spi spi spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T-s tar Tei tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur Tyc Typ ult unb und uni uni unr upp Urs vac van Var veg Ven ver vib vio vir vis vol VY war wat wav WC8 Web wes whi win WN1 wob wri X-r yoc zen Zhe > >>