An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t bai Bal bar bar Be bee Bes bi- bif bin bin bio bis bla bli blu Boe Bol bor bou bra bri Bro bum CAI cal Can cap car car cat cat CCD Cel cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det dev dia dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dou dri dup dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre Fre Fro fus G-t gal gal Gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla gol gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gui H a haf Hal har har He- hea hel Hel her Her hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil kly L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mec mem mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo MOS mul mul mut nai nas nat neb neg Neu neu New New Nih noi non non non nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove oxi pac Pal par par Par par pas Pau Pel per per per per per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pip Pla pla pla pla pla Plu Poi pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res rev rhe Rie Rig Rit roe Ros rot Ruf Ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste Ste sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur swo syn sys tak Tay Tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thu tid tim toa top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro Tru tur twi Typ UBV ult unb uni uni uni up ura uti val var vec Vel ver ver vig vir vis VLT vol wad was wav wav wea wei Whe Wie win WN5 Wol X-r yea You zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12929 Search : far
lithophile element
  بن‌پار ِ سنگدوست، ~ لیتودوست   
bonpâr-e sangdust, ~ litodust

Fr.: élément lithophile   

In the → Goldschmidt classification, a → chemical element that shows an → affinity for → silicate phases and is concentrated in the silicate portion of the Earth (→ crust and → mantle). This group includes → lithium (Li), → beryllium (Be), → sodium (Na), → magnesium (Mg), → potassium (K), → calcium (Ca), → barium (Ba), → titanium (Ti), → chromium (Cr), → aluminium (Al), → silicon (Si), → phosphorus (P), → chlorine (Cl), etc.

lithophile; → element.

lithosphere
  سنگ‌سپهر، لیتوسپهر   
sangsepehr (#), litosepehr

Fr.: lithosphère   

The solid portion of the → Earth, as compared to the → atmosphere and the → hydrosphere. The lithosphere consists of semi-rigid plates that move relative to each other on the underlying → asthenosphere. The process is known as → plate tectonics and helps explain → continental drift.

litho-; → sphere.

Little Dipper
  هفت خواهران، چمچه‌ی ِ کوچک   
haft xâharân (#), camce-ye kucak (#)

Fr.:   

An asterism in the constellation → Ursa Minor. This group of stars ends at → Polaris, the pole star of the Northern Hemisphere.

Little, from M.E., O.E. lytel, from W.Gmc. *lutila- (cf. Du. luttel, O.H.G. luzzil, Ger. lützel, Goth. leitils), from PIE *leud- "small;" dipper, from dip, O.E. dyppan "immerse," from P.Gmc. *dupjanan.

Haft xâharân "the seven sisters," from haft "seven" (Mid.Pers. haft; Av. hapta; cf. Skt. sapta; Gk. hepta; L. septem; P.Gmc. *sebun; Du. zeven; O.H.G. sibun; Ger. sieben; E. seven; PIE *septm) + xâharân plural of xâhar "sister;" Mid.Pers. xwâhar "sister;" Av. xvanhar- "sister;" cf. Skt. svásar- "sister;" Sogdian xwār; Gk. eor; L. soror (Fr. soeur); Arm. k'oyr; O.C.S., Rus. sestra; Lith. sesuo; O.Ir. siur; Welsh chwaer; M.Du. suster; Du. zuster; O.H.G. swester; Goth. swistar; Ger. Schwester; Swed. sister; Dan. søster; O.E. sweostor, swuster; E. sister.
Camcé "a spoon, ladle; a wooden bowl or cup;" kucak "small" (Mid.Pers. kucak "small"), related to kutâh "short, small, little," kudak "child, infant," kutulé, → dwarf, Mid.Pers. kôtâh "low," kôtak "small, young; baby;" Av. kutaka- "little, small").

Little Ice Age
  عصر ِ یخ ِ کوچک   
asr-e yax-e kucek

Fr.: petit âge glaciaire   

A roughly 400-year period from the mid-16th through the mid-19th centuries when temperatures over much of Europe were unusually cold. Glaciers in the Alps advanced and European rivers froze much more often than during the past century. Harvests failed, livestock perished, and poor people suffered from famine and disease. The Little Ice Age coincided with two successive low → solar activity periods, the → Sporer minimum and the → Maunder minimum.

little; → ice; → age.

Littrow prism
  منشور ِ لیترو   
manšur-e Littrow

Fr.: prisme de Littrow   

A prism having angles of 30, 60, and 90°, which uses the same face for input and dispersed radiation. The beam is reflected at the face opposite to the 60° angle because it is coated to be highly reflecting. A beam entering at the → Brewster angle undergoes minimum deviation and hence maximum dispersion. Littrow prisms are used in laser cavities to fine tune lasers by selection of wavelength.

Joseph Johann Littrow (1781-1840), Austrian astronomer; → prism.

Lloyd's mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ لوید   
âyene-ye Lloyd (#)

Fr.: miroir de Lloyd   

An optical arrangement in which light from a source is allowed to fall on a plane mirror at → grazing incidence. The light directly coming from the source interferes with the light reflected from the mirror forming an → interference pattern. See also → Fresnel's biprism, → Fresnel's mirrors.

After the Irish physicist Humphry Lloyd (1800-1881); → mirror.

load
  ۱) بار؛ ۲) بار کردن   
1) bâr; 2) bâr kardan (#)

Fr.: 1) charge; 2) charger   

1) Something that is borne or carried.
2) Computers: To bring (a program or data) into main storage from external or auxiliary storage.
To place (an input/output medium) into an appropriate device, as by inserting a disk into a disk drive. See also: → download, → upload, → overload.

From M.E. lode, originally the same word as lode, from O.E. lāad "way, course, carrying;" cf. O.N. leith "way, route," O.H.G. leita "procession."

Bâr kardan "to load," composite verb from bâr "load, charhe, burden," (Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. base bar- "to bear, carry;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" Gk. baros "weight;" Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Skt. guru; L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy," *bher- "carry, give birth") + kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

loading
  بارکرد   
bârkard

Fr.: chargement   

The act of a person or thing that loads. See also: → download, → upload.

Verbal noun of → load.

lobate scarp
  تنده‌ی ِ لاپه‌ای   
tonde-ye lâpe-yi

Fr.: escarpe lobée   

A surface feature on a planet or satellite in the form of a line of cliffs. Lobate scarps are formed when planetary or lunar mantle cools down and contracts inside. The loss of volume squeezes portions of the outer crust together. Eventually, the crust breaks and some of it is pushed up, creating long cliffs that look like wrinkles. Lunar scarps are generally tens of kilometers long and less than 100 m high. They have formed during the last billion years.

Lobate "having the form of a → lobe;" → scarp.

lobe
  لپ   
lap (#)

Fr.: lobe   

General: A roundish projection that is part of a larger structure.
Radioastronomy: In an antenna pattern, a region of local maximum in the emitted intensity. The strongest lobe is in the pointing direction of a directional antenna and is called the main lobe.
Quasar: One of the two lobe-like structures well apart from the central source, observed in radio images of some quasars. Same as radio lobe.

From M.L. lobus, from L.L. lobus "hull, husk, pod," from Gk. lobos "lobe of the ear, vegetable pod," probably related to leberis "husk of fruits;" from PIE base *lep- "to peel, flay."

Lap "lobe," variants lâp, lâb "piece, big piece, big cut," lappé "split pea; any of the two parts of a timber split through the length," maybe cognate with Gk. lobos, as above. Alternatively, related to Pers. las "loose," PIE *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart" (cf. Gk. lyein "to loosen, untie, slacken," lysus "a loosening;" L. luere "to loose, release;" → analysis).

lobe pattern
  ا ُلگوی ِ لپ‌ها   
olgu-ye laphâ

Fr.: fonction de lobe   

The configuration of the response lobes of a radiotelescope.

lobe; → pattern.

lobe-dominated quasar
  کو‌آسار ِ لپ چیره   
kuasâr-e lap ciré

Fr.: quasar à lobes dominants   

A → radio-loud quasar in which the lobes dominate the whole emission. It has been conjectured that this phenomenon is an → orientation effect. If the → jet is close to the plane of the sky, the lobes will dominate. See also → core-dominated quasar.

lobe; → dominate; → quasar.

local
  محلی   
mahali (#)

Fr.: local   

Pertaining to, characteristic of, or restricted to a particular place or particular places.
See also:
local arm, → Local Bubble, → Local Group, → local inertial frame, → local interstellar cloud, → local Lorentz invariance, → local maximum, → local meridian, → local oscillator, → local position invariance, → local sidereal time, → local standard of res, → Local Supercluster, → local thermodynamic equilibrium, → local time, → local Universe, → Local Volume, → localization, → localize, → non-local thermodynamic equilibrium.

From O.Fr. local, from L.L. localis "pertaining to a place," from L. locus "place."

Mahali, related to mahal "place, locality," from Ar.

Local Arm
  بازوی ِ محلی   
bâzu-ye mahali

Fr.: bras local   

One of the → spiral arms of the → Milky Way Galaxy which contains our → solar system. Same as → Orion Arm.

local; → arm.

Local Bubble
  تنگل ِ محلی، حباب ِ ~   
tangol-e mahali, hobâb-e ~

Fr.: Bulle locale   

A region of low density in the → interstellar medium surrounding the → Solar System. It extends at least 300 → light-years in most directions and encompasses the stars of the immediate → solar neighborhood. The Local Bubble contains a hot, million-degree ionized hydrogen gas that emits in → X-rays. → Neutral hydrogen has a density approximately one tenth of the average for the interstellar medium in the Milky Way. The bubble is thought to be a result of the → shock waves from → supernovae sweeping through the region within the past two to four million years.

local; → bubble.

Local Group
  گروه ِ محلی   
goruh-e mahali (#)

Fr.: Groupe local   

A small → galaxy cluster of about 50 galaxies to which our → Milky Way galaxy belongs. The Local Group occupies a volume of space nearly 10 million → light-years across centered somewhere between the → Andromeda Galaxy (M31) and the Milky Way, which are the dominant galaxies of the group; Andromeda being the principal member. Both of these galaxies exhibit spiral structures, and each is attended by a large family of satellite → dwarf galaxies. The Local Group also includes a third spiral galaxy known as → Triangulum (M33), which is bound to Andromeda. The remaining members span a range of → Hubble classification types from dwarf spheroidal to Irr to Sb and Sc and cover a factor of 10 in → metallicity. The total mass of the Local Group is estimated to be about 2 × 1012 solar masses, although this value is still uncertain to within a factor of about 2. The velocities of the individual galaxies of the Local Group are not particularly high. Therefore no member is believed to be able to escape the group, which is thus considered to be gravitationally → bound. Another remarkable member of the Group is → IC 10.

local; → group.

local inertial frame
  چارچوب ِ لختی‌ناک ِ محلی، ~ لختی‌مند ِ ~   
cârcub-e laxtnâk-e mahali, ~ laxtimand-e ~

Fr.: référentiel inertiel local   

A coordinate system or frame of reference defined in the vicinity of the Earth in which Newton's first law of motion is valid; that is, a non-rotating and non-accelerating reference frame.

local; → inertial; → time.

local interstellar cloud
  ابر ِ اندر-اختری ِ محلی   
abr-e andar-axtari-ye mahali

Fr.: nuage interstellaire local   

An → interstellar cloud that surrounds the → heliosphere.

local; → interstellar; → cloud.

local Lorentz invariance
  ناورتایی ِ لورنتز ِ محلی   
nâvartâyi-ye Lorentz-e mahali

Fr.: invariance de Lorentz locale   

Einstein equivalence principle.

local; → Lorentz; → invariance.

local maximum
  بیشینه‌ی ِ محلی   
bišine-ye mahali

Fr.: maximum local   

The point x = c in an → interval where the value of the → function  f(y) is larger than the value anywhere else in that interval. In other words, f(c) ≥ f(x) for all x in the interval.

local; → maximum.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t bai Bal bar bar Be bee Bes bi- bif bin bin bio bis bla bli blu Boe Bol bor bou bra bri Bro bum CAI cal Can cap car car cat cat CCD Cel cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det dev dia dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dou dri dup dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre Fre Fro fus G-t gal gal Gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla gol gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gui H a haf Hal har har He- hea hel Hel her Her hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil kly L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mec mem mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo MOS mul mul mut nai nas nat neb neg Neu neu New New Nih noi non non non nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove oxi pac Pal par par Par par pas Pau Pel per per per per per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pip Pla pla pla pla pla Plu Poi pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res rev rhe Rie Rig Rit roe Ros rot Ruf Ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste Ste sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur swo syn sys tak Tay Tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thu tid tim toa top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro Tru tur twi Typ UBV ult unb uni uni uni up ura uti val var vec Vel ver ver vig vir vis VLT vol wad was wav wav wea wei Whe Wie win WN5 Wol X-r yea You zer zod > >>