An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>

Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
liquid helium
  هلیوم ِ آوه   
heliom-e âvé

Fr.: hélium liquide   

The state of helium (4He) below its boiling point of 4.2 K. Its normal form is called → helium I, but converts into superfluid → helium II below 2.17 K (→ lambda point). Liquid helium is colorless and transparent so that it is impossible to see the surface of the liquid with the naked eye. Helium was first liquefied in 1911 by the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1936), Physics Nobel Prize 1913.

liquid; → helium.

liquid mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ آوه   
âyene-ye âvé

Fr.: miroir liquide   

A mirror composed of liquid, taking advantage of the parabolic shape of a spinning liquid and the fact that the mirror's focal length can be adjusted by altering the velocity at which the liquid's container spins.

liquid; → mirror.

liquid water
  آب ِ آوه   
âb-e âvé

Fr.: eau liquide   

Water in a state that is neither ice nor vapor.

liquid; → water.

liquidus
  آوگان   
âbvegân

Fr.: liquidus   

In the → phase diagram of a → mixture (such as an → alloy) at constant pressure, the → curve that separates the all liquid phase from the liquid+solid phase. Below the liquidus the mixture will be partly or entirely → solid. See also → solidus.

From L. liquidus, → liquid.

LISA Pathfinder
  رهیاب لایزا   
rahyâb LISA

Fr.: LISA Pathfinde   

An → ESA spacecraft that was launched on December 3, 2015 to test technologies needed for the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), an ESA → gravitational wave observatory planned to be launched in 2034. LISA Pathfinder paves the way for future missions by testing in flight the very concept of gravitational wave detection.

LISA, short for → Laser Interferometer Space Antenna; → pathfinder.

Lissajous figure
  خم ِ لیساژو   
xam-e Lissajous (#)

Fr.: courbe de Lissajous, figure de ~   

A curve traced out by a point which is oscillating simultaneously in two mutually perpendicular directions. In general, the amplitude and frequency may be different in the two directions, and the two oscillations may have an arbitrary initial phase difference. The simplest pattern is a straight line, being obtained from two oscillations of equal frequency in phase with each other. The patterns can become very involved if the ratio of the frequencies is not a simple one.

After the French physicist Jules Antoine Lissajous (1822-1880), who first demonstrated such curves (Comptes-Rendus, 1857, 44, 727); → figure.

Xam, → curve.

Lissajous orbit
  مدار ِ لیساژو   
madâr-e Lissajous

Fr.: orbite de Lissajous   

A quasi-periodic path resembling a → Lissajous figure around the L1 or L2 → Lagrangian points of a two-body system. Lissajous orbits, resulting from a combination of planar and vertical components, are used by certain space telescopes (such as → WMAP, → Planck Satellite, and → Herschel Satellite) that are required to be in a stable position relative to the Earth and Sun while making long-term observations.

Lissajous figure; → orbit.

list
  ۱) لیست؛ ۲) لیستیدن   
1) list; 2) listidan

Fr.: 1) liste; 2) faire (dresser) la liste de   

1a) A series of names or other items written or printed together in a meaningful grouping or sequence so as to constitute a record.
1b) Computers: A series of records in a file.
2) To set down together in a list; make a list of (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. liste "border, edging, stripe," from O.Fr. liste "border, band, row," also "strip of paper," or from O.It. lista "border, strip of paper, list," both from Germanic sources (compare O.H.G. lista "strip, border, list," O.Norse lista "border."

List, loan from Fr. liste, as above.

listing
  لیستش   
listeš

Fr.: liste, cotation, listing   

1) A list; the act of compiling a list; something listed.
2) Computers: A display or printed list of lines in a program or digital data.

list; → -ing.

liter
  لیتر   
litr

Fr.: litre   

A metric unit of volume, formerly defined as the volume of one kilogram of pure water under standard conditions; now equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm3); hence 1 liter = 0.001 m3 and 1000 liter = 1 m3.

From Fr. litre, from litron, obsolete Fr. measure of capacity for grain, from M.L. litra, from Gk. litra "pound."

literature
  نوشتارگان   
neveštârgân (#)

Fr.: littérature   

1) Writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays.
2) The entire body of writings of a specific language, period, people, etc.
3) The writings dealing with a particular subject (Dictionary.com).

From L. literatura/litteratura "writing, grammar, learning," from litera/littera "letter."

Neveštârgân, from neveštâr, literally "written; writing," verbal noun from neveštan, nevis- "to write;" Mid.Pers. nibištan, nibes- "to write;" Av./O.Pers. nī- "down; in, into," → ni- (PIE), + paēs- "to paint; to adorn," paēsa- "adornment" (Mid.Pers. pēsīdan "to adorn"); O.Pers. pais- "to adorn, cut, engrave" (Mod.Pers. pisé "variegated"); cf. Skt. piśáti "adorns; cuts;" Gk. poikilos "multicolored;" L. pingit "embroiders, paints;" O.C.S. pisati "to write;" O.H.G. fēh "multicolored;" Lith. piēšti "to draw, adorn;" PIE base *peik- "colored, speckled," + -gân suffix of suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag.

lithium
  لیتیوم   
litiom (#)

Fr.: lithium   

A metallic → chemical element; symbol Li. → Atomic number 3; → atomic weight 6.941; → melting point about 180.54°C; → boiling point about 1,342°C. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal. It is the lightest metal and one of the alkali metals in Group 1 of the → periodic table. Lithium does not occur on Earth in its free form. It is a minor part of almost all igneous rocks and is found in many natural brines, in total 0.0007% of the Earth's crust. It has two stable → isotopes, 7Li (92.5%) and 6Li (7.5%). The element was discovered in the mineral petalite, LiAl(Si2O5)2, by the Swedish mineralogist Johan August Arfwedson in 1817. It was isolated by W.T. Brande and Sir Humphrey Davy. Many uses have been found for lithium and its compounds. Lithium has the highest → specific heat (3.6 J/gK) of any solid element and is used in heat transfer applications. It is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. It is also used as an alloy with → aluminum, → copper, and → manganese to make high performance aircraft parts. It is used to make special glasses and ceramics, including the Mount Palomar telescope's 5 m mirror. Lithium also has various nuclear applications, for example as a coolant in nuclear breeder reactors and a source of → tritium, which is formed by bombarding lithium with neutrons. In medicine it is used to treat bipolar disorder (manic depression), a serious mental illness that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and functioning.
In astrophysics, → Spite plateau.

Lithium, from L. lithos "stone" because lithium was thought to exist only in minerals.

lithium I line
  خط ِ لیتیوم I   
xatt-e litiom I

Fr.: raie de lithium I   

A → resonance line of → lithium at 6707.81 Å doublet 6707.76 and 6707.91 Å.

lithium; I for → neutral atom; → line.

lithium star
  ستاره‌ی ِ لیتیومی   
setâre-ye litiomi (#)

Fr.: étoile à lithium   

A peculiar evolved star of spectral type G or M whose spectrum displays a high abundance of lithium.

lithium; → star.

lithium test
  آزمون ِ لیتیوم   
âzmun-e litiom

Fr.: test du lithium   

The presence or not of the lithium absorption line at 6708 Å, which is considered to be a sufficient condition for → substellarity in → L dwarfs. It has been shown that any object with lithium absorption and → effective temperature less than 2670 K is a → brown dwarf. For a discussion of potential problems with the lithium test see Kirkpatrick et al. (1993, ApJ 406, 701).

lithium; → test.

litho-
  لیتو-، سنگ-   
lito-, sang-

Fr.: litho-   

A prefix meaning "stone," used in the formation of compound words.

From Gk. lithos "stone."

Lito-, loan from Gk., as above.
Sang-, from sang, → stone.

lithophile
  سنگدوست، لیتودوست   
sangdust, litodust

Fr.: lithophile   

lithophile element.

litho-; → -phile.

lithophile element
  بن‌پار ِ سنگدوست، ~ لیتودوست   
bonpâr-e sangdust, ~ litodust

Fr.: élément lithophile   

In the → Goldschmidt classification, a → chemical element that shows an → affinity for → silicate phases and is concentrated in the silicate portion of the Earth (→ crust and → mantle). This group includes → lithium (Li), → beryllium (Be), → sodium (Na), → magnesium (Mg), → potassium (K), → calcium (Ca), → barium (Ba), → titanium (Ti), → chromium (Cr), → aluminium (Al), → silicon (Si), → phosphorus (P), → chlorine (Cl), etc.

lithophile; → element.

lithosphere
  سنگ‌سپهر، لیتوسپهر   
sangsepehr (#), litosepehr

Fr.: lithosphère   

The solid portion of the → Earth, as compared to the → atmosphere and the → hydrosphere. The lithosphere consists of semi-rigid plates that move relative to each other on the underlying → asthenosphere. The process is known as → plate tectonics and helps explain → continental drift.

litho-; → sphere.

Little Dipper
  هفت خواهران، چمچه‌ی ِ کوچک   
haft xâharân (#), camce-ye kucak (#)

Fr.:   

An asterism in the constellation → Ursa Minor. This group of stars ends at → Polaris, the pole star of the Northern Hemisphere.

Little, from M.E., O.E. lytel, from W.Gmc. *lutila- (cf. Du. luttel, O.H.G. luzzil, Ger. lützel, Goth. leitils), from PIE *leud- "small;" dipper, from dip, O.E. dyppan "immerse," from P.Gmc. *dupjanan.

Haft xâharân "the seven sisters," from haft "seven" (Mid.Pers. haft; Av. hapta; cf. Skt. sapta; Gk. hepta; L. septem; P.Gmc. *sebun; Du. zeven; O.H.G. sibun; Ger. sieben; E. seven; PIE *septm) + xâharân plural of xâhar "sister;" Mid.Pers. xwâhar "sister;" Av. xvanhar- "sister;" cf. Skt. svásar- "sister;" Sogdian xwār; Gk. eor; L. soror (Fr. soeur); Arm. k'oyr; O.C.S., Rus. sestra; Lith. sesuo; O.Ir. siur; Welsh chwaer; M.Du. suster; Du. zuster; O.H.G. swester; Goth. swistar; Ger. Schwester; Swed. sister; Dan. søster; O.E. sweostor, swuster; E. sister.
Camcé "a spoon, ladle; a wooden bowl or cup;" kucak "small" (Mid.Pers. kucak "small"), related to kutâh "short, small, little," kudak "child, infant," kutulé, → dwarf, Mid.Pers. kôtâh "low," kôtak "small, young; baby;" Av. kutaka- "little, small").

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>