An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
maser emission
  گسیل ِ میزری   
gosil-e meyzeri (#)

Fr.: émission maser   

An emission arising from the → maser process.

maser; → emission.

mask
  ۱) ماسک؛ ۲) ماسک زدن   
1) mâsk (#); 2) mâsk zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) masque; 2) masquer   

1) Something that serves to cover or conceal.
Electronics: A pattern used to control the configuration of conducting material deposited or etched onto a semiconductor chip.
2) Electronics: To override one signal with a stronger one.

From M.Fr. masque "covering to hide or guard the face," from It. maschera, from M.L. masca "mask, specter, nightmare," of uncertain origin.

1) Mâsk, loan from Fr., as above; 2) with verb zadan "to make, to do," originally "to strike, beat; to do; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

masking
  ماسک‌زد   
mâskzad

Fr.: masque, masquage   

1) A method of improving → spatial resolution of images. → pupil masking; → unsharp masking.
2) Computers: The process of specifying a number of values that allow extracting desired information from a set of characters or bits while suppressing the undesired information.

Verbal noun of → mask.

mass
  ۱) جرم، غند؛ ۲) توده، انبوه   
1) jerm (#), qond (#); 2) tudé (#), anbuh (#)

Fr.: masse   

1) A measure of the amount of material in an object, defined either by the inertial properties of the object or by its gravitational influence on other bodies. See also → inertial mass, → gravitational mass.
2) A considerable assemblage, number, or quantity.

From O.Fr. masse "lump," from L. massa "kneaded dough, lump," from Gk. maza "barley cake, lump, mass, ball," related to massein "to knead."

Jerm, from Ar. jirm.
Qond "assembled, collected; a crowd," related to gondé "coarse, thick; big;" Mid.Pers. gund "troop, group, gathering;" loaned into Arm. gund and Ar. jund.
Tudé "heap, stack, tumulus;" cf. Kurd. tavda "all, total;" Tati tâya "heap, mass;" Sogd. tuδē "heap, mass." Perhaps related to PIE *teuta- "people, tribe;" cf. Lith. tauta, Oscan touto, O.Irish tuath, Goth. þiuda, O.E. þeod "people, folk, race."
Anbuh "numerous, abundant," from Proto-Iranian *ham-buH- "to come together," from ham- "together," → com- + *buH- "to be , become," Av. ham.bauu- "to come together, unite," from ham- as above + bauu-, bu- "to be, become," O.Pers. bav- "to be, become," Mod.Pers. budan "to be," Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," PIE base *bheu-, *bhu- "to grow, become;" cf. Gk. phu- "become," P.Gmc. *beo-, *beu-, E. be.

mass absorption coefficient
  همگر ِ درشم ِ جرمی   
hamgar-e daršm-e jermi

Fr.: coefficient d'absorption de masse   

A measure of the rate of absorption of radiation, expressed as the linear absorption coefficient divided by the density of the medium through which radiation is passing.

mass; → absorption; → coefficient.

mass defect
  کاست ِ جرم   
kâst-e jerm

Fr.: défaut de masse   

The difference between the rest mass of an atomic nucleus (made up of protons and neutrons) and the sum of the masses of its individual protons and neutrons. The mass difference is equal to the released binding energy. Also called mass deficiency

mass; → defect.

mass density
  چگالی ِ جرمی   
cagâli-ye jermi

Fr.: densité massique   

The mass per unit area of the ring material, integrated through the thickness of the ring. Sometimes called → surface density (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

mass; → density.

mass discrepancy
  ناهم‌خوانی ِ جرم   
nâhamxâni-ye jerm

Fr.: écart de masse   

1) For → massive stars and → supergiants, the difference between the → spectroscopic mass and the → evolutionary mass. Early studies found that the spectroscopic mass was systematically less than the evolutionary mass by as much as a factor of 2 for supergiants. Improvements in the stellar atmosphere models (taking into account → line blanketing) have decreased or eliminated the size of the discrepancy for Galactic stars. There is still a mass discrepancy for the hottest → O stars in the → Magellanic Clouds (See, e.g. Massey et al. 2009, ApJ 692, 618).
2) For a → cluster of galaxies, the apparent difference between the mass of the cluster obtained by using the → virial theorem, and the mass inferred from the total luminosities of the member galaxies.

mass; → discrepancy.

mass energy
  کاروژ ِ جرم   
kâruž-e jerm

Fr.: énergie de masse   

The energy (E) associated with a mass (m), as specified by the → mass-energy equivalence  E = mc2, where c is the → speed of light. For a moving body the total energy of the particle is expressed by: E2 = m2c4 + p2c2, where m is → rest mass and p → momentum.

mass; → energy.

mass extinction
  خاموشی ِ انبوه   
xâmuši-ye anbuh

Fr.: extinction en masse   

An event in the history of life on Earth in which large numbers of species (sometimes more than 90% of some species) vanish in a relatively short period of time. In spite of controversy, it is generally recognized that there have been at least six major mass extinctions. These occurred in the late Cambrian (500 million years ago), in the late Ordovician (440 million years ago), in the late Devonian (365 million years ago), at the end of the Permian (245 million years ago), in the late Triassic (208 million years ago), and at the end of the Cretaceous (65 million years ago).

mass; → extinction.

mass flow
  تچان ِ جرم   
tacân-e jerm

Fr.: écoulement de masse   

The mass of a fluid that passes a specified unit area in a unit amount of time.

mass; → flow.

mass formula
  دیسول ِ جرم   
disul-e jerm

Fr.: formule de masse   

An → equation expressing the → atomic mass of a → nuclide as a function of its → mass number and the → atomic mass unit.

mass; → formula.

mass fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ جرم   
barxe-ye jerm

Fr.: fraction de masse   

The fractional amount (by mass) of a given → chemical element or → nuclide in a given → chemical composition. In chemical composition studies of astrophysical objects the mass fractions of → hydrogen, → helium, and all the remaining chemical elements are usually denoted by the parameter X, Y, and Z, respectively. Their sum is defined as X + Y + Z = 1. The parameter Z is usually referred to as → heavy elements or → metals.

mass; → fraction.

mass function
  کریای ِ جرم   
karyâ-ye jerm

Fr.: fonction de masse   

1) The number of a class of objects as a function of their mass. → initial mass function (IMF); → present-day mass function (PDMF).
2) A numerical relation between the masses of the two components of a → spectroscopic binary that provides information on the relative masses of the two stars when the spectral lines of only one component can be seen. If Mp is the mass of primary (whose spectrum is known), Ms is the mass of secondary, and i the → angle of inclination of the orbit, the mass function is given by: (Ms3. sin3i) / (Mp + Ms)2.

mass; → function.

mass loss
  دسترفت ِ جرم   
dastraft-e jerm

Fr.: perte de masse   

The outpouring of particles and gas from a star, occurring at varying rates and by a variety of processes throughout a star's lifetime. → Bipolar flows are believed to be due to mass loss by forming → protostars, while → massive stars lose their mass through powerful → stellar winds.

mass; → loss.

mass loss rate
  نرخ ِ دسترفت ِ جرم   
nerx-e dastraft-e jerm

Fr.: taux de perte de masse   

The rate with which the → mass loss process takes place, usually expressed in → solar mass per year. → radiation-driven mass loss. The mass loss rate and the → terminal velocity are anti-correlated, since the → wind momentum is constant, → bi-stability jump.

mass loss; → rate.

mass number
  عدد ِ جرمی   
adad-e jermi (#)

Fr.: nombre de masse   

The total number of → protons and → neutrons in the → atomic nucleus (symbol A). The mass number is written either after the → chemical element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of oxygen is oxygen-16, or 16O, which has 8 protons and 8 neutrons.

mass; → number.

mass outflow
  استچان ِ جرم   
ostacân-e jerm

Fr.: écoulement de masse   

The flowing out of mass through various processes from an object, for example in a star forming region or in a close binary.

mass; → outflow.

mass segregation
  سوایش ِ جرم   
savâyeš-e jerm

Fr.: ségrégation de masse   

A consequence of the → dynamical relaxation process in a gravitationally → bound system, such as a → star cluster or a → globular cluster, where massive and low-mass members occupy different volumes. Massive members sink toward the center, while less massive members tend to move farther away from the center.

mass; → segregation.

mass shift
  کیب ِ جرمی   
kib-e jermi

Fr.:   

The portion of the isotope shift which results from the difference between the nuclear masses of different isotopes.

mass; → shift.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>