# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

Homepage

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
 mass spectrometry   بیناب‌سنجی ِ جرم   binânsanji-ye jermFr.: spectrométrie de masse   An analytical technique for identification of chemical structures, determination of mixtures, and quantitative elemental analysis, in which ions are separated according to the mass/charge ratio and detected by a suitable detector.→ mass; → spectrometry. mass spectrum   بیناب ِ جرم   binâb-e jerm (#)Fr.: spectre de masse   A spectrum of charged particles, arranged in order of mass or mass-to-charge ratios. → mass spectrometry.→ mass; → spectrum. mass transfer   تراوژ ِ جرم   tarâvaž-e jermFr.: transfert de masse   The process in which the evolved member of a close binary system passes gaseous material to its companion star.→ mass; → transfer. mass transport   ترابرد ِ جرم   tarâbord-e jerm (#)Fr.: transport de masse   In fluid mechanics, the motion of a given amount of material carried by a fluid from one point to another.→ mass; → transfer. mass-energy equivalence   هموگ‌ارزی ِ جرم-کاروژ   hamug-arzi-ye jerm-kâružFr.: équivalence masse-énergie   The principle of interconversion of mass and energy, described by the → mass-energy relation.→ mass; → energy; → equivalence. mass-energy relation   باز‌آنش ِ جرم-کاروژ   bâzâneš-e jerm-kâružFr.: relation masse-énergie   The famous equation proposed by Einstein as a consequence of his special theory of relativity describing the equivalence of mass and energy: E = mc2, where E is energy, m is the equivalent amount of mass, and c is the velocity of light.→ mass; → energy; → relation. mass-luminosity ratio   وابر ِ جرم-تابندگی   vâbar-e jerm-tâbandegiFr.: rapport masse-luminosité   The ratio of the mass of a system, expressed in solar masses, to its visual luminosity, expressed in solar luminosities. The Milky Way Galaxy has a mass-luminosity ratio in its inner regions of about 10, whereas a rich cluster of galaxies such as the Coma Cluster has a mass-luminosity ratio of about 200, indicating the presence of a considerable amount of dark matter.→ mass; → luminosity; → ratio. mass-luminosity relation   باز‌آنش ِ جرم-تابندگی   bâzâneš-e jerm-tâbandegiFr.: relation masse-luminosité   A relationship between luminosity and mass for stars that are on the main sequence, specifying how bright a star of a given mass will be. Averaged over the whole main sequence, it has been found that L = M3.5, where both L and M are in solar units. This means, for example, that if the mass is doubled, the luminosity increases more than 10-fold.→ mass; → luminosity; → relation. mass-metallicity relation (MZR)   بازانش ِ جرم-فلزیگی   bâzâneš-e jerm-felezigiFr.: relation masse-métallicité   A correlation between the → stellar mass (or → luminosity) and the → gas metallicity of → star-forming galaxies (Lequeux et al. 1979) according to which massive galaxies have higher gas metallicities. Several large galaxy surveys, such as the → Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), have confirmed that galaxies at all → redshifts with higher stellar masses retain more metals than galaxies with lower stellar masses. Besides the dependence on stellar mass, other studies have found further dependences of gas metallicity on other physical properties at a given mass, such as → specific star formation rate, → star formation rate, and stellar age. These higher dimensional relations could provide additional constraints to the processes that regulate the metal enrichment in galaxies. In addition to gas metallicity, also the → stellar metallicity of galaxies is found to correlate with the stellar mass, suggesting the mass-metallicity relation already existed at early epochs of galaxy evolution (Lian et al., 2017, MNRAS 474, 1143, and references therein).→ mass; → metallicity; → relation. mass-size relation   بازانش ِ جرم-اندازه   bâzâneš-e jerm-andâzeFr.: relation masse-taille   The relation between the → stellar mass and the physical size of a galaxy. Studies show that the sizes increase with stellar mass, but that the relation weakens with increasing → redshift. Separating galaxies by their → star formation rate, model simulations show that → passive galaxies are typically smaller than → active galaxies at a fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations; the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size-mass relations is of the order of 0.1 dex for redshifts < 1 and 0.2-0.3 dex from redshift 1 to 2. Known also as the → luminosity-size relation (Furlong et al., 2016, MNRAS 465, 722, and references therein).→ mass; → size; → relation. massive   پرجرم   porjerm (#)Fr.: massif   Consisting of or forming a large mass.From M.Fr. massif (feminine massive) "bulky, solid," from O.Fr. masse "lump."Porjerm, from por "full, much, very, too much," (Mid.Pers. purr "full;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru- "much, abundant;" Gk. polus "many," plethos "great number, multitude;" O.E. full) + jerm, → mass. massive black hole   سیه‌چال ِ پرجرم   siyahcâl-e porjermFr.: trou noir massif   A black hole with a mass between millions and billions of solar masses residing in galactic nuclei. The mass of this type of black holes represents about 0.2% of the bulge mass. When matter is swallowed by the black hole, this gives rise to the tremendous energetic phenomena observed in quasars and active galactic nuclei.→ massive; → black hole. massive close binary   دورین ِ کیپ ِ پرجرم   dorin-e kip-e porjermFr.: binaire serrée massive   A → close binary system composed of two → massive stars. massive halo   هاله‌ی ِ پرجرم   hâle-ye porjermFr.: halo massif   Spheroidal distribution of dark matter surrounding a galaxy.→ massive; → halo. massive star   ستاره‌ی ِ پرجرم   setâre-ye porjerm (#)Fr.: étoile massive   A star whose mass is larger than approximately 10 → solar masses. The → spectral types of massive stars range from about B3 (→ B star) to O2 (→ O star) and include → Wolf-Rayet stars as well as → Luminous Blue Variables. Massive stars are very rare; for each star of 20 solar masses there are some 100,000 stars of 1 solar mass. Despite this rarity, they play a key role in astrophysics. They are major sites of → nucleosynthesis beyond oxygen and, therefore, are mainly responsible for the → chemical evolution of galaxies. Due to their high ultraviolet flux and powerful → stellar winds, they bring about interesting phenomena in the → interstellar medium, like → H II regions, → turbulence, → shocks, → bubbles, and so on. Massive stars are progenitors of → supernovae (→ type Ia, → type Ic and → type II), → neutron stars, and → black holes. The formation processes of massive stars is still an unresolved problem. For massive stars the → accretion time scale is larger than the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale. This means that massive stars reach the → main sequence while → accretion is still going on.→ massive; → star. master   مستر   mastar (#)Fr.: maître   1) A person with the ability or power to use, control, or dispose of something. 2) An employer of workers or servants. 3) The male head of a household (Dictionary.com).M.E. maistre, maister, from O.E. magister, from L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher," ultimately from PIE root *meg- "great," cf. Pers. meh-, as below.(Aftari) Mastar "elder; larger," (Dari Kermân) mastar "leader, guide," variants (Aftari, Tafreši) mester "elder; great," massar "large, great, high," from (Nâini, Sangesari, Dari Yazd, Kermâni) mas "great, large," variant of meh "great, large, principal," cognate with L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher;" → Big Bang, + comparative suffix -tar. match   کاد   kâdFr.: match, partie   A game or contest in which two or more contestants or teams oppose each other (Dictionary.com).Originally "one of a pair, an equal;" O.E mæcca, "companion, mate, one of a pair, wife, husband, an equal," from gemæcca; cf. O.S. gimaco "fellow, equal," O.H.G. gimah "comfort, ease," M.H.G. gemach "comfortable, quiet," Ger. gemach "easy, leisurely."Kâd, from Mid.Pers. kâdag "game," Sogd. kâtak "game, play;" cf. Kurd. (Sorani) kâya "game," Zazaki kây, Abyâneyi, Anâraki, Nâini kâye, Qohrudi kâda, Shamerzâdi ke, Zefrehi kê "game, play;" Av. kā- "to take pleasure, desire;" Skt. kā- "to desire, wish." mater   مادر   mâdar (#)Fr.: mère, matrice   The body of the → planispheric astrolabe which is a thin circular plate, with a hole in the center. It has a thicker, raised, and graduated edge, called the → limb. The hollow of the mater holds the → tympanum and the rotating → rete. The upper part of the mater carries a jointed ring, called the → throne. By slipping one's thumb into the ring, one raises the instrument so that its weight and symmetrical design keeps it perpendicular to the ground. On the back of the mater are engraved several circular scales (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum).From L. mater, → mother. material   ۱) ماده‌ای، مادی، مادیگ؛ ۲) مادیگ   1) mâdeyi, mâddi, mâdig; 2) mâdigFr.: 1, 2) matériel   1) (adj.) Formed or consisting of matter. 2) (n.) The substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something.From L.L. materialis (adj.) "of or belonging to matter," from L. materia, → matter, + → -al.Mâdig, from mâd, mâddé, → matter, + -ig, → -ic. materialism   مادّه‌باوری   mâddebâvari (#)Fr.: matérialisme   Belief that physical matter is the only reality and that everything, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena.N.L. materialismus; → material + -ism.Mâddebâvari, from mâddé, → matter, + bâvari, from bâvar "belief" (Mid.Pers. wâbar "beleif;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing").