<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat Ré rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>
materiality mâddigi Fr.: matérialité The state or quality of being material. |
materialization 1) mâdigeš 2) mâdigâneš Fr.: matérialisation The act or process of materializing. Verbal noun of → materialize. |
materialize 1) mâdigidan; 2) mâdigândan Fr.: 1) se matérialiser; 2) matérialiser 1a) To come into material form. To take shape. |
mathematical mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#) Fr.: mathématique Of, relating to, or of the nature of mathematics. → mathematics; → -al. |
mathematical beauty zibâyi-ye mazdâhik Fr.: beauté mathématique Same as → mathematical elegance. → mathematical; → beauty. |
mathematical elegance qašangi-ye mazdâhik Fr.: élégance mathématique A mathematical solution or demonstration when it yields a result in a surprising way (e.g., from apparently unrelated theorems), is short, and is based on fundamental concepts. According to Henri Poincaré, what gives the feeling of elegance "is the harmony of the different parts, their symmetry, and their happy adjustment; it is, in a word, all that introduces order, all that gives them unity, that enables us to obtain a clear comprehension of the whole as well as of the parts. ... Elegance may result from the feeling of surprise caused by the un-looked-for occurrence together of objects not habitually associated. ... Briefly stated, the sentiment of mathematical elegance is nothing but the satisfaction due to some conformity between the solution we wish to discover and the necessities of our mind" (Henri Poincaré, Science and Method, 1908). According to Bertrand Russell, "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty -- a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show" (Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, 1945). → mathematical; → elegance. |
mathematical expectation omid-e mazdâhik, bayuseš-e ~, ~ riyâzi Fr.: espérance mathématique In probability and statistics, of a random variable, the summation or integration, over all values of the random variable, of the product of the value and its probability of occurrence. Also called → expectation, → expected value. → mathematical; → expectation. |
mathematical object barâxt-e mazdâhik, ~ riyâzi Fr.: objet mathématique An → abstract object dealt with in mathematics that has a definition, obeys certain properties, and can be the target of certain operations. It is often built out of other, already defined objects. Some examples are → numbers, → functions, → triangles, martices (→ matrix), → groups, and entities such as → vector spaces, and → infinite series. → mathematical; → object. |
mathematician mazdâhikdân Fr.: mathématicien An expert or specialist in → mathematics. M.E. mathematicion, from M.Fr. mathematicien, from mathematique, from L. mathematicus, → mathematics. Mazdâhikdân, from mazdâhik, → mathematics, + -dân "knower," present stem of dânestan "to know," → science. |
mathematics mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#) Fr.: mathématique A broad-ranging field of knowledge dealing with the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. M.E. mathematic, from L. mathematica (ars), from Gk. mathematike (tekhne) "mathematical science," from mathema (gen. mathematos) "science, knowledge," (+ -ike, → -ics), related to manthein "to learn, to know" from PIE base *men- "to think," (cf. Av. mazdāh- "memory," as below, Lith. mandras "wide-awake," O.C.S. madru "wise, sage," Goth. mundonsis "to look at," Ger. munter "awake, lively"). Mazdâhik, from Av. mazdāh- "memory," mazdā-
"wisdom," mazdāθa- "what must be borne in mind;" from PIE
base *men- "to think," as above; cf.
Skt. medhā- "mental power, wisdom, intelligence;"
Gk. manthein, mathematike, as above. |
matrix mâtris (#) Fr.: matrice 1) An orderly array of numbers, algebraic symbols, or mathematical
functions, especially when such arrays are added and multiplied
according to certain rule; e.g. → Jordan matrix. From O.Fr. matrice, from L. matrix "female animal kept for breeding," in L.L. "womb, source, origin," from mater, → mother. Mâtris, loan from Fr., as above. |
matrix calculus afmârik-e mâtrishâ Fr.: calcul matriciel The treatment of matrices whose entries are functions. |
matrix inverse mâtris-e vârun Fr.: matrice inverse For a → square matrix whose → determinant is not zero, the unique matrix A^{-1} satisfying the relation AA^{-1} = A^{-1}A = I, where I is the → identity matrix. |
matter mâddé (#) Fr.: matière 1) Physical or corporeal substance in general, whether solid, liquid, or
gaseous, especially as distinguished from incorporeal substance, as spirit
or mind, or from qualities, actions, and the like. M.E. mater(e), materie, from O.Fr. mat(i)ere, materie, from L. materia "substance from which something is made," also "hard inner wood of a tree," from mater, → mother, PIE base *mater-, see below. Mâddé, variant mâyé "substance, essence; quantity, amount;"
Mid.Pers. mâtak/mâdak "substance, the essential element of anything; materials"
(Sogd. patmâδé "matter, substance"),
from mât, mâd "mother; substance" (see E. matter, as above),
from O.Pers./Av. mātar-
"mother;" cf. Ossetic mad/madae "mother;" Khotanese mâta "mother;"
Skt. mātár- "mother;" Gk. meter, mater; L. mater
(Fr. mère, Sp. madre);
O.E. môdor from P.Gmc. *mothær (O.S. modar, Dan. moder,
Du. moeder, Ger. Mutter); Lith. mote "wife." |
matter era dowrân-e mâddé (#) Fr.: ère dominée par la matière A critical change in the history of the Universe, which occurred after the radiation era, when the density of energy contained within matter exceeded the density of energy contained within radiation. This transition started about 5000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature had fallen to 3 x 10^{4} K. Later, 380 000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature was 3000 K, matter and radiation were no longer coupled together and the Universe became transparent. |
matter-dominated Universe giti-ye mâdde-ciré Fr.: Univers dominé par la matière A Universe in which the matter energy density (Ω_{m} ≈ 1) provides most of the total energy density. According to the → Big Bang model, in the early history of the → Universe a → radiation-dominated phase preceded the matter-dominated phase. This phase is characterized by R/R_{0} ∝ t^{2/3}, where R is the → cosmic scale factor and t is time. |
Maunder minimum kamine-ye Maunder Fr.: minimum de Maunder A period from about 1645 to 1715 when the number of → sunspots was unusually low. This → solar activity minimum is attested also through the increased content of carbon 14 in tree rings in that period. The reason is that the cosmic rays which produce ^{14}C reach the Earth in a greater number when there is weak solar activity (see also → radiocarbon dating). The Maunder minimum occurred during a period of cooling of the Earth, called the → Little Ice Age. The Maunder minimum is one of a number of periods of low solar activity, including the → Dalton minimum, the → Sporer minimum, the → Wolf minimum, and the → Oort minimum. After the British astronomer Edward Walter Maunder (1851-1928) who, along with Gustav Spörer of Germany, first called attention to this phenomenon; → minimum. |
maximum bišiné (#) Fr.: maximum The greatest value attained (or attainable) by a function; the opposite of minimum. From L. maximum, neuter of maximus "greatest," superlative of magnus "great, large" cognate with Pers. meh "great, large" (Mid.Pers. mah, mas; Av. maz-, masan-, mazant- "great, important," mazan- "greatness, majesty," mazišta- "greatest;" cf. Skt. mah-, mahant-; Gk. megas; PIE *meg- "great"). Bišiné, from biš "much, more; great" (from Mid.Pers. veš "more, longer; more frequently," related to vas "many, much" (Mod.Pers. bas); O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + -in superlative suffix + -é nuance suffix. |
maximum density of water cagâli-ye bišine-ye âb Fr.: densité maximale de l'eau The density of pure water occurring at 3.98 °C, which is 1.0000 g cm^{-3}, or 1000 kg m^{-3}. Water when cooled down contracts normally until the temperature is 3.98 °C, after which it expands. Because the maximum density of water occurs at about 4 °C, water becomes increasingly lighter at 3 °C, 2 °C, 1 °C, and 0 °C (→ freezing point). The density of liquid water at 0 °C is greater than the density of frozen water at the same temperature. Thus water is heavier as a liquid than as a solid, and this is why ice floats on water. When a mass of water cools below 4 °C, the density decreases and allows water to rise to the surface, where freezing occurs. The layer of ice formed on the surface does not sink and it acts as a thermal isolator, thus protecting the biological environment beneath it. This property of water liquid is very unusual; molecules pack more closely than in the crystal structure of ice. The reason is that → hydrogen bonds between liquid water are not stable, they are continuously broken and new bonds are created. In the crystal structure of ice molecules have a fixed pattern creating empty space between molecules. |
maximum entropy method (MEM) raveš-e dargâšt-e bišiné Fr.: méthode d'entropie maximum A deconvolution algorithm which functions by minimizing a smoothness function in an image. The MEM seeks to extract as much information from a measurement as is justified by the data's signal-to-noise ratio. |
<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat Ré rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>