An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
modulation transfer function (MTF)
  کریای ِ تراوژ ِ دگر‌آهنگش   
karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e degarâhangeš

Fr.: fonction de transfert de modulation   

A measure of the ability of an optical system to reproduce (transfer) various levels of detail from the object to the image, as shown by the degree of contrast (modulation) in the image. → optical transfer function.

modulation; → transfer; → function.

modulator
  دگر‌آهنگار   
degarâhangâr

Fr.: modulateur   

Any device for effecting the process of modulation.

from L. modulator, from → modulate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs.

Vâhangâr, from vâhang, → modulation, + -âr, contraction of âvar agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

module
  مدول، ترزول   
modul, tarzul

Fr.: module   

A distinct and separable element of a spacecraft or space station.

From M.Fr. module, from L. modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner," → mode.

Modul, loan as above. Tarzul, from tarzmode + -ul, → -ula.

Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)
     
MESA

Fr.: MESA   

An open-source, one-dimensional astrophysical code which is capable of calculating the evolution of stars in a wide range of environments. It works according to the → Henyey method and uses many modules that deal with various aspects of the theoretical models, such as the → equation of state (EOS), → nuclear reaction networks, → chemical composition, micro-physics, or macro-physics. The EOS and corresponding opacities or nuclear networks are provided in tabulated formats and can be selected by the user, while the micro-physics and macro-physics can be controlled by inlists of relevant parameters and settings (Paxton et al. 2015, ApJS 220, 15 and references therein).

module; → experiment; → stellar; → astrophysics.

modulus
  پیمون   
peymun

Fr.: module   

A real, positive quantity that measures the magnitude of some number. For instance, the modulus of a complex number is the square root of the sum of the squares of its components. Often it means, simply, the numerical ("absolute") value of an algebraic quantity.

From L. modulus, → module.

Peymun, variant of peymâné "a measure either for dry or wet goods; a bushel, cup, bowl," from peymudan, peymâyidan "to measure," from Mid.Pers. patmudan, paymudan "to measure (against)," from *pati-māya-. The first element *pati- "against, back" (cf. Mod.Pers. pâd- "agaist, contrary to;" Mid.Pers. pât-; O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti). The second element from *mā- "to measure;" O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure." Apart from peymâné, several other terms in Mod.Pers. are related to this second element, which occurs also as mun, mân, man, mâ, mu, and mây: pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun, âzmây- "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," man "a measure weighing forty seers"), nemudan, ne- "to show, display," âdan, âmây- "to prepare."

modulus of rigidity
  پیمون ِ سخت‌پایی   
peymun-e saxtpâyi

Fr.: module de rigidité   

Same as → shear modulus.

modulus; → rigidity.

molar
  مولی   
moli (#)

Fr.: molaire   

Describing a quantity of substance that is proportional to its molecular weight. Relating to a → mole.

mole + → -ar.

molar concentration
  دبزش ِ مولی   
dabzeš-e moli

Fr.: concentration molaire   

Of a gas included in the composition of a → gas mixture, the ratio of the number of moles of this gas to the total number of moles of all the gases in the mixture. Same as mole fraction and mole-fraction concentration.

molar; → concentration.

molar heat capacity
  گنجایش ِ گرمایی ِ مولی   
gonjâyeš-e garmâyi-ye moli

Fr.: capacité thermique molaire   

The → heat capacity of one → mole of substance: Cμ = μ C, where μ is the → molecular weight and C the → specific heat capacity. The molar heat capacity of water is practically 18 cal/mole.C°.

Molar, adj. of → mole; → heat; → capacity.

molar heat of vaporization
  گرمای ِ بخارش ِ مولی   
garmâ-ye boxâreš-e moli

Fr.: chaleur de vaporisation molaire   

The amount of heat energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid at its → boiling point, usually expressed in kJ/mol.

molar; → heat; → vaporization.

mole
  مول، ملکول-گرم، اتم-گرم   
mol, molekul-geram, atom-geram

Fr.: mole   

The → SI unit of amount of → substance; symbol mol. One mole contains exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the → Avogadro constant, NA, when expressed in the unit mol-1.

From Ger. Mole, short for Molekül, from Fr. → molecule.

molecular
  مولکولی   
molekuli (#)

Fr.: moléculaire   

Of or pertaining to or caused by molecules.

From → molecule + -ar variant of the adjective-forming suffix → -al, joined to words in which an l precedes the suffix.

Molekuli, from molekulmolecule + -i adj. suffix.

molecular band
  باند ِ مولکولی   
bând-e molekuli (#)

Fr.: bande moléculaire   

A band of molecular origin present in a spectrum. See for example → cyanogen band, → S star.

molecular; → band.

molecular cloud
  ابر ِ مولکولی   
abr-e molekuli (#)

Fr.: nuage moléculaire   

A relatively dense, cold region of interstellar matter where the atoms are primarily bound together as molecules rather than free atoms or ionized particles. Molecular clouds represent the coldest and densest phase of the → interstellar medium. They consist primarily of → molecular hydrogen (H2), with temperatures in the range 10-100 K. Molecular hydrogen is not directly observable under most conditions in molecular clouds. Therefore, almost all current knowledge about the properties of molecular clouds has been deduced from observations of molecules such as → carbon monoxide (CO), which have strong emission lines mainly in the → millimeter portion of the → electromagnetic spectrum. So far 129 molecular species have been detected in molecular clouds, among which complex organic molecules. → Dust grains in molecular clouds play a crucial role in the formation of molecules. Molecular clouds are the principal sites where stars form. → giant molecular cloud; → Orion molecular cloud.

molecular; → cloud.

molecular clump
  گوده‌ی ِ مولکولی   
gude-ye molekuli

Fr.: grumeau moléculaire   

One of many compact and dense sub-structures in a → molecular cloud. Their typical sizes are about 0.5-10 → parsecs and their masses range from about 50 to 103 → solar masses. The gas temperatures are about 10-20 K, and the number densities from about 103 to 104 cm-3.

molecular; → clump.

molecular emission
  گسیل ِ مولکولی   
gosil-e molekuli

Fr.: émission moléculaire   

An → electromagnetic radiation emitted by → interstellar molecules through → transitions between → energy states of → molecules.

molecular; → emission.

molecular formula
  دیسول ِ مولکولی   
disul-e molekuli

Fr.: formule moléculaire   

The formula of a chemical compound, showing the kind and arrangement of atoms.

molecular; → formula.

molecular hydrogen
  هیدروژن ِ مولکولی   
hdirožen-e molekuli (#)

Fr.: hydrogène moléculaire   

A molecule consisting of two hydrogen atoms (H2) which is the most abundant molecule in the Universe. Molecular hydrogen plays a fundamental role in many astrophysical contexts. It is found in all regions where → self-shielding against the ultraviolet photons, responsible for its → photodissociation, is sufficiently large. Containing two identical hydrogen atoms, H2 is highly symmetric. Due to this property, the molecule has no → dipole moment and all → rotation-vibrational transitions within the electronic → ground state are → quadrupolar with low → spontaneous emission  → Einstein coefficient values. The molecule exists in two almost independent states, namely → orthohydrogen and → parahydrogen. H2 may be excited through several mechanisms, including: 1) → far ultraviolet (FUV) induced → optical pumping and → collisional excitation in → photodissociation regions (PDRs) associated with → star formation; 2) → hard X-rays penetrating and heating regions within → molecular clouds, which in turn excite H2 via collisions with electrons or hydrogen atoms; and 3) collisional excitation of H2 due to acceleration produced by interstellar → shock waves. H2 is thought to be chiefly produced via surface reactions on → interstellar grains, but the exact formation mechanism is not fully understood.

molecular; → hydrogen.

molecular outflow
  اُستچان ِ مولکولی   
ostacân-e molekuli

Fr.: flot moléculaire   

An outflow of molecular material, often → bipolar, observed in the regions of → star formation. Molecular outflows are thought to be driven by → bipolar jets from → protostars. They are probably → bow shocks which have had time to cool and be observable in molecular lines. Molecular outflows are poorly → collimated compared to the jets and tend to be slow moving (velocities 10-20 km s-1). Some bipolar outflows may be driven by → stellar winds.

molecular; → outflow.

molecular polarizability
  قطبش‌پذیری ِ مولکولی   
qotbeš-paziri molekuli

Fr.: polarisabilité moléculaire   

The ability of a molecular entity to be distorted from its normal shape by an external → electric field. When a molecule is subjected to an electric field there is a small displacement of electrical centers which induces a dipole in the molecule. More specifically, the molecular polarizability α is defined as the ratio of the induced → dipole moment (p) to the local electric field (E) that produces this dipole moment: α = p/E (in cgse units).

molecular; → polaizable; → -ity.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>