An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
normalization
  هنجارورش   
hanjârvareš

Fr.: normalisation   

1) A mathematical technique for adjusting a series of values (typically representing a set of measurements) according to some transformation function in order to make them comparable with some specific point of reference.
2) Process of introducing a numerical factor into an equation so that the area under the corresponding graph (if finite) shall be made equal to unity.
3) To change in scale so that the sum of squares or the integral of squares of the transformed quantity is zero.

Verbal noun of → normalize.

normalize
  هنجاروریدن، هنجارور کردن   
hanjârvaridan, hanjârvar kardan

Fr.: normaliser   

To change in scale so that the sum of squares, or the integral of the square, of the transformed quantity is unity.

normal + → -ize.

normalized
  هنجاروریده، هنجارور شده   
hanjârvaridé, hanjârver šodé

Fr.: normalisé   

The quality of something that has undergone → normalization.

P.p. of → normalize.

normalized Hubble parameter
  پارامون ِ هابل ِ هنجاروریده   
pârâmun-e Hubble-e hanjârvaridé

Fr.: paramètre Hubble normalisé   

A dimensionless parameter expressed by h(z) = H(z)/H0, where H(z) is the → Hubble parameter at → redshift z and H0 is the → Hubble constant.

normalized; → Hubble; → parameter.

north
  هودر   
hudar

Fr.: nord   

The → cardinal point at which the → meridian cuts the → horizon below the → north celestial pole.

M.E., O.E. norð, from P.Gmc. *nurtha- (cf. O.N. norðr, M.Du. nort, Du. noord, Ger. nord), ultimately from PIE *ner- "left, below."

Note: North is related to left since it is to the left when one faces the rising Sun. This occurs in, for example, the etymology of E. north, as above. The same goes for Ar. shimal, which also means "left."
Hudar, from hu(y), from Mid.Pers. hôy "left, left hand," from Av. haoiia- "left" (cf. Skt. savyá- "left hand;" O.C.S. šuji; Rus. šuj; Welsh aswy; PIE *seujos) + -dar, from -tar direction suffix, as in Mid.Pers. ošastar "east" (Av. ušastara- "easthern"), dôšastar "west" (Av. daôšatara-, daôšastara- "western"), abâxtar "north" (Av. apāxtara- "northern"), Mod.Pers. bâxtar, → west.

North America Nebula
  میغ ِ آمریکای ِ هودری   
miq-e Âmrikâ-ye hudari

Fr.: Nébuleuse de l'Amérique du Nord   

An → H II region in → Cygnus, also known as NGC 7000, resembling the continent North America in long exposure images. This nebula is lying three degrees from bright star → Deneb and spans on the sky over four times the angular size of the full Moon. A dark lane separates the North America Nebula from the → Pelican Nebula, actually part of the same enormous cloud some 2,000 → light-years away.

It was first photographed in 1890 by Max Wolf (1863-1932), a German astronomer, who also first called it the North America Nebula because of its resemblance to the Earth's continent. America, from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512), who made two trips to the New World as a navigator and claimed to have discovered it. The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil; → nebula.

north celestial pole
  قطب ِ آسمانی ِ هودر   
qotb-e âsmâni-ye hudar

Fr.: pôle nord céleste   

The point in the → northern hemisphere where the → rotation axis of Earth touches the → celestial sphere. The star → Polaris, also called the Pole Star, is located very near this point, at an angular separation of 42 degrees (about 1.4 lunar diameters).

north; → celestial; → pole.

North point
  نقطه‌ی ِ هودر   
noqte-ye hudar

Fr.: point Nord   

The point on → horizon in direction of → geographic north pole.

north; → point.

North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD)
  لردهای ِ لایه-لایه‌ی ِ قطب ِ هودر   
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Hudar

Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle nord   

A large area of the north polar region of Mars which is covered with alternating layers of water ice and dust. → South Polar Layered Deposits.

north; → polar; → layer; → deposit.

North Polar Spur
  شخاک ِ کهکشانی ِ هودری   
šaxâk-e kahkešâni-ye hudari

Fr.: éperon galactique nord   

One of the largest coherent structures in the radio sky, projecting from the → Galactic plane at → Galactic longitudel ~ 20° and extending to a very high → Galactic latitudeb ~ +80°. It was first identified in low frequency → radio surveys in the 1950s. The spur is also prominent in → soft X-rays. Its origins and nature have long been debated. However, what causes this phenomena is not well understood. It may be due to a combination of → OB associations and → supernova explosions.

north; → polar; → spur.

north pole
  قطب ِ هودر   
qotb-e hudar

Fr.: pôle nord   

1) An → imaginary → point in the → northern hemisphere representing the intersection of the → Earth's → rotation axis with the → globe or with the → celestial sphere.
2) For a → magnet, the pole which points toward the geographic north.
3) In a → magnetic field, the point from where a → line of force is leaves for the → south pole.

north; → pole.

northern
  هودری   
hudari

Fr.: nord   

1) Lying toward or situated in the → north.
2) North of the → celestial equator or of the → zodiac.

M.E., from O.E. norþerna, norðerne "northern," from norð "northern" + + -erne, suffix denoting direction

Hudari, relating to hudar, → north.

Northern Cross
  چلیپای ِ هودری   
calipâ-ye hudari

Fr.: Croix du Nord   

An arrangement of stars in the form of a cross in the constellation → Cygnus.

north; → cross.

northern hemisphere
  نیم‌سپهر ِ هودری   
nimsepehr-e hudari

Fr.: hémisphère nord   

The half of the → Earth or another → astronomical object between the → north pole and the → equator.

northern; → hemisphere.

nose
  ۱) دماغ، بینی؛ ۲) دماغه   
1) damâq (#), bini (#); 2) damâqé (#)

Fr.: nez   

1) The part projecting above the mouth serving as the organ of breathing and smelling.
2) Something like a nose in shape or position, especially the front end of an → aircraft. See also → nozzle.

M.E.; O.E. nosu (O.N. nös; Du. neus; O.H.G. nasa; Ger. Nase); PIE root *nas- "nose;" cf. Skt. nasa-; Av. nāh-; O.Pers. nāham; L. nasus; O.C.S. nasu; Lith. nosis. See also → nostril.

1) Damâq, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *damaka-, from *damH- "to breathe, to blow;" cf. Pers. dam-, damidan "to breathe, to blow;" Av. dāδmainya- "blowing up;" cf. Skt. dahm- "to blow," dhámati "blows;" Gk. themeros "austere, dark-looking;" Lith. dumti "to blow;" PIE dhem-/dhemə- "to smoke, to blow."
Bini "nose;" Mid.Pers. wênig "nose" (Av. vaēna- "nose"), related to wên "breath;" cognate with jân "vital spirit, soul," → animate.
2) Damâqé, from damâq + nuance suffix .

nostril
  ناگه   
nâge

Fr.: narine   

Either of the two external openings of the → nose; a naris.

M.E. nostrill, nosethirl, O.E. nosthyrl, literally "the hole of the nose," from nosu "nose"+ thyrel "hole."

Nâge, from (Fârs Province) Khuri nog, nug "nose," variants Sabzevâri nos, Shushtari, Bovir Ahmadi, Lori neft "nose;" Mid.Pers. nâk "nose;" cf. Sogd. nêc "nose, nostril" (from *nāhika-) O.Pers. nāh-, Av. nāh- "nose;" cognate with E. → nose.

not
  نه، نا، نی   
na, nâ, ni

Fr.: non; ne ... pas   

A → particle used to express → negation, → denial, refusal, or prohibition.

Not, variant of noht, naht "in no way," from O.E. nawiht "nothing" (from na "no, never" + whit "whit"), akin to Pers. na, nâ, as below.

Na "no, not," variants nâ, ni, ma- (prohibitive) "not;" from Mid.Pers. nê, ma "no, not;" O.Pers. naiy, nai "not;" Av. nôit, naē "not;" cf. Skt. "not;" cf. L. ne-, in-, un-; Gk. ni; Lith. ; O.C.S. ne "not;" E. not, as above; PIE *ne-.

notation
  نمادگان   
namâdgân (#)

Fr.: notation   

Representation of numbers, quantities, or other entities by symbols; a system of symbols for such a purpose.

From L. notationem (nom. notatio) "a marking, explanation," from notatus, p.p. of notare "to note."

Namâdgân, from namâd, → symbol, + -gân suffix denoting order, organization, multiplicity.

note
  نت   
not (#)

Fr.: note   

Musical sound of specified frequency (pitch) produced by a musical instrument, voice, etc.

From M.E., from O.F., from M.L. nota "sign for musical tone; mark, sign, lettering."

Not, loanword from Fr.

nothing
  هیچ   
hic (#)

Fr.: rien   

1) No thing; not anything; naught.
2) Nonexistence; nothingness.

M.E., from O.E. nathing, nathinc, from nan "not one," → non-, + → thing.

Mid.Pers. hêc, hêc(i), hâca "any."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>