An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t bai Bal bar bar Be bee Bes bi- bif bin bin bio bis bla bli blu Boe Bol bor bou bra bri Bro bum CAI cal Can cap car car cat cat CCD Cel cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det dev dia dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dou dri dup dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre Fre Fro fus G-t gal gal Gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla gol gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gui H a haf Hal har har He- hea hel Hel her Her hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil kly L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mec mem mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo MOS mul mul mut nai nas nat neb neg Neu neu New New Nih noi non non non nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove oxi pac Pal par par Par par pas Pau Pel per per per per per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pip Pla pla pla pla pla Plu Poi pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res rev rhe Rie Rig Rit roe Ros rot Ruf Ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste Ste sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur swo syn sys tak Tay Tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thu tid tim toa top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro Tru tur twi Typ UBV ult unb uni uni uni up ura uti val var vec Vel ver ver vig vir vis VLT vol wad was wav wav wea wei Whe Wie win WN5 Wol X-r yea You zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12929 Search : far
observational effect
  ا ُسکر ِ نپاهشی   
oskar-e nepâheši

Fr.: effet observationnel   

A feature appearing in an observation, which is not intrinsic to the object observed, but is due to the inappropriate method used (e.g. limited angular resolution).

observational; → effect.

observational error
  ایرنگ ِ نپاهشی   
irang-e nepâheši

Fr.: erreur observationnelle   

The difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value.

observational; → error.

observatory
  نپاهشگاه   
nepâhešgâh

Fr.: observatoire   

A place or building equipped for making observations of astronomical, meteorological, or other natural phenomena, especially a place provided with a telescope for observing astronomical objects.

From Fr. observatoire, from L. observa(re), → observe, + -toire, from L. -torius, from -tor a suffix forming agent nouns + -ius adj. suffix.

Nepâhešgâh, from nepâheš, → observation, + -gâh suffix of place (O.Pers. gāθu-, Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot" (Skt. gátu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode," PIE *gwem- "to go, come").

observe
  نپاهیدن   
nepâhidan

Fr.: observer   

To watch carefully or note for a scientific or special purpose, e.g. to observe a star (astronomy), to observe the behavior of a patient (medicine, psychology), an animal (ethology, zoology), social groups (sociology), etc.

From O.Fr. observer, from L. observare "watch over, look to, attend to, guard," from ob "over" + servare "to watch, keep safe," from PIE base *ser- "to protect;" cf. Av. har- "to guard, observe, pay attention to," haraiti "guards, keeps," harətar- "protector, watcher," harəθra- "guarding, protection," hāra- "watched, guarded," Mod.Pers. zinhâr "beware!, mind!," Gk. heros "protector, hero."

Note 1: Observation is the most important basis of empirical sciences. All theories rely on observation, and must finally be supported by observational evidence. Persian, in contrast to European languages, lacks a distinct term that recognizes observation as a conceptual premise of sciences. In astronomy the Ar. rasad (رصد) is currently used, while in classical astronomical texts the Pers. pâyidan (پاییدن) is used mainly by prominent figures like Biruni and Tusi. However, the term rasad is never used for cases outside astronomy. The situation for other sciences is not clear. Often one resorts to the Ar. loanword mošâhedé "to look at each other," which lacks ability to form derivatives. Therefore, here we suggest a term that can be used in all fields of knowledge.

Nepâhian, from ne- + pâhidan. The prefix ne- "down; into" (as in negâh "look, glance," negaristan "to view, look at," nešastan "to sit down," nemudan "to display") from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down, into;" cf. Skt. ni "down," nitaram "downward," Gk. neiothen "from below," cf. E. nether, O.E. niþera, neoþera "down, downward, below, beneath," from P.Gmc. *nitheraz, Du. neder, Ger. nieder; PIE *ni- "down, below."
The second component pâhidan, variants pâyidan, pâsidan "to watch, observe, look steadily;" Mid.Pers. pây- "to protect, guard;" Sogdian p'y "to observe, protect, watch over;" O.Pers. pā- "to protect," pāta- "protected;" Av. pā- "to protect," pāti "guards," nipā(y)- (with ni-) "to watch, observe, guard," nipātar- "protector, watcher," nipāθri- "protectress;" cf. Skt. pā- "to protect, keep," tanû.pā- "protecting the body," paś.pā- "shepherd;" Gk. poma "lid, cover," poimen "shepherd;" L. pascere "to put out to graze," pastor "shepherd;" Lith. piemuo "shepherd;" PIE base *pā- "to protect, feed."

Note 2: Since pây-, pâyidan is used for → conserve, we adopt the variant pâh-, pâhidan, which is extant in Lâri and Gerâši dialects; cf. Gilaki pâstan, pâssan "to guard, pay attention." In fact the interchange of phonemes h, i and s is not rare in Indo-European languages.

Note 3: Examples of pâyidan "to observe" in astronomy, from Biruni's al-Tafhim (written c. 1029 A.D.)
p. 313: و بپای ارتفاع آ فتاب را.
p. 64: و بپای تا بدایره اندر آید.

Note 4: As indicated above, nepâh- exists in Av. as nipāy- "to watch, protect."

observed
  نپاهیده   
nepâhidé

Fr.: observé   

Pertaining to a value which has been measured, in contrast to one which is computed.

Past participle of → observe.

observer
  نپاهنده، نپاهشگر، نپاهگر   
nepâhandé, nepâhešgar, nepâhgar

Fr.: observateur   

1) Someone or something that observes.
2) Idealized person or piece of equipment, often hypothetical, that measures relevant properties of a physical system.

Agent noun, from → observe + → -or.

observer's cage
  قفس ِ نپاهگر، ~ نپاهنده   
qafas-e nepâhgar, ~ nepâhandé

Fr.: cage d'observateur   

A place located either at the top of the tube of a large telescope from where one observes or at the back of the tube where instruments are attached to the → Cassegrain focus.

observer; → cage.

observing report
  گزارش ِ نپاهش   
gozâreš-e nepâheš

Fr.: rapport d'observations   

A written report provided by a visiting astronomer to the observatory describing how his/her observing run has been carried out.

Observing, noun of → observe; → report.

observing run
  داو ِ نپاهش   
dâv-e nepâheš

Fr.: période d'observation   

A period of telescope time for observations allocated to a science project.

Observing, noun of → observe; → run.

observing slit
  شکاف ِ نپاهش، ~ ِ گنبد   
šekâf-e nepâheš, ~ gonbad

Fr.: fente d'observation   

The long opening in the dome of a telescope through which observation is conducted.

Observing, noun of → observe; → slit.

obsolescence
  پیتاری، پیتارستی   
pitâri, pitâresti

Fr.: obsolescence   

The state, process, or condition of being or becoming obsolete or outdated and no longer used.

obsolete; → -escence.

obsolescent
  پیتارشو، پیتارست   
pitâršo, pitârest

Fr.: obsolescent   

Becoming obsolete; passing out of use.

obsolete; → -escent.

obsolete
  ۱) پیتار؛ ۲) پیتاردن   
1) pitâr; 2) pitârdan

Fr.: 1) obsolète, désuet; 2) rendre obsolète   

1a) No longer in general use; fallen into disuse.
1b) Biology: (of a living organism) Reduced to a redument, or completely lacking, as compared with a corresponding part in related organisms.
2) To make obsolete by replacing with something newer or better.

From L. obsoletus "grown old, worn-out," p.p. of obsolescere "fall into disuse, be forgotten about, become tarnished," which probably is from ob "away" + an expanded form of solere "to be used to, be accustomed."

Pitâr, from Tabari pitâr "worn out," specifically "rotten tree," pitə-pât "anything worn out or useless," from pit, variant of Pers. pud "worn out, decayed," pusidan/pus- "to rot," cf. Pashto puda, Wakhi pitk "rotten, foul," Kurd. (Kurm.) puc "rotten, useless;" Av. pu- "to stink, rot," akin to Gk. puos, L. pus "pus."

obtuse angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ باز   
zâviye-ye bâz (#)

Fr.: angle obtus   

An angle whose measure is greater than 90° and less than 180°.

Obtuse, from M.Fr. obtus (fem. obtuse), from L. obtusus "blunted, dull," p.p. of obtundere "to beat against, make dull," from ob "against" + tundere "to beat," from PIE *(s)tud- "to beat, strike, push, thrust;" → angle.

Zâviyé, → angle; bâz "open," from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-, O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind."

occasion
  آکتن   
âkatan

Fr.: occasion   

1) A particular time, especially as marked by certain circumstances or occurrences.
2) A special or important time, event, ceremony, celebration, etc.
3) A convenient or favorable time, → opportunity, or juncture (Dictionary.com).

M.E. occasioun from O.Fr. ochaison, ocasion "cause, reason, pretext; opportunity," from L. occasionem (nominative occasio) "appropriate time," from occasum, occasus "fall; sunset," p.p. of occidere "fall down, go down," from ob "down, away" + cadere "to fall," → case.

Âkatan, from prefix â- + katan "to fall," cf. Laki: katen "to fall," kat "he/she fell," beko! "fall!" (an insult); katyâ "fallen;" Lori: kat "event, error;" Kurd. (Soriani): kawtin "to fall, befall," kett "fallen;" Kurd. (Kurmanji): da.ketin "to fall down;" Lârestâni: kata "to fall;" Garkuyeyi: darkat, varkat "he/she fell (sudden death);" Gilaki (Langarud, Tâleš): katan "to fall," bakatam "I fell," dakatan "to fall (in a marsh, in a pit)," vakatan "to fall from tiredness, be exhausted," fakatan "to fall from (i.e., lose) reputation;" Tabari: dakətə "fallen," dakətən "to crash down," dakət.gu "stray cow;" Proto-Iranian *kat- "to fall;" cf. L. cadere "to fall," → case, Pers. kâté.

occasional
  آکتنی   
âkatani

Fr.: occasionnel   

1) Occurring or appearing at irregular or infrequent intervals; occurring now and then.
2) Intended for supplementary use when needed.
3) Pertaining to, arising out of, or intended for the occasion (Dictionary.com).

occasion; → -al.

Occator
  اکاتور   
Occator

Fr.: Occator   

An → impact crater on the → dwarf planet  → Ceres. It has a diameter of about 90 km and a depth of about 4 km.

Named after the Roman agriculture deity of harrowing, a method of leveling soil.

occlude
  برکلاندن   
barkolândan

Fr.: occlure   

1) To block or stop up (a passage or opening); obstruct. To prevent the passage of.
2) Chem.: To entrap a substance (vapor, gas, liquid, solid) within another (by absorption).

From L. occludere "shut up, close up," from ob "in front of, against" + claudere "to shut, close," → include.

Barkolândan, from bar- "on; upon; against; before; at," → object, + kolândan "to shut," → include.

occlusion
  برکلانش   
barkolâneš

Fr.: occlusion   

1) The process of occluding. Something that occludes.
2) Phonetics: Closure at some point in the vocal tract that blocks the flow of air in the production of an oral or nasal stop (TheFreeDictionary.com). 3) Chem.: An absorption process by which a substance adheres strongly to another.

occlude; → -tion.

occlusive
  برکلانی   
barkolâni

Fr.: occlusive   

1) Occluding or tending to occlude.
2) Phonetics: An oral or nasal stop. → occlusive consonant.

occlude; → -ive.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t bai Bal bar bar Be bee Bes bi- bif bin bin bio bis bla bli blu Boe Bol bor bou bra bri Bro bum CAI cal Can cap car car cat cat CCD Cel cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det dev dia dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dou dri dup dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre Fre Fro fus G-t gal gal Gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla gol gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gui H a haf Hal har har He- hea hel Hel her Her hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil kly L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mec mem mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo MOS mul mul mut nai nas nat neb neg Neu neu New New Nih noi non non non nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove oxi pac Pal par par Par par pas Pau Pel per per per per per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pip Pla pla pla pla pla Plu Poi pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res rev rhe Rie Rig Rit roe Ros rot Ruf Ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste Ste sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur swo syn sys tak Tay Tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thu tid tim toa top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro Tru tur twi Typ UBV ult unb uni uni uni up ura uti val var vec Vel ver ver vig vir vis VLT vol wad was wav wav wea wei Whe Wie win WN5 Wol X-r yea You zer zod > >>