# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 ordinary differential equation   هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای شونیک   hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye šunikFr.: équation différentielle ordinaire   A → differential equation in which the unknown function depends on only one → independent variable, as contrasted with a → partial differential equation.→ ordinary; → differential; → equation. ordinary point   نقطه‌ی ِ شونیک   noqte-ye šunikFr.: point ordinaire   The point M0(x0,y0) of the curve F(x,y) = 0, where at least one of the partial derivatives ∂F/∂x and ∂F/∂y does not vanish. → singular point→ ordinary; → point. ordinary ray   پرتوِ شونیک   partov-e šunikFr.: rayon ordinaire   The ray that has an → isotropic speed in a → doubly refracting crystal. It obeys → Snell's law upon refraction at the crystal surface. See also → extraordinary ray→ ordinary; → ray. ordinary year   سال ِ شونیک   sâl-e šunikFr.: année ordinaire   A → calendar year that contains 365 days and therefore is not a → leap year.→ ordinary; → year. ordinate   آرا   ârâ (#)Fr.: ordonnée   Math.: In plane Cartesian coordinates, the distance of a point from the x-axis measured parallel to the y-axis. → abscissa.Ordinate, from N.L. (linea) ordinate (applicata) "(line applied) in order;" from ordinatus "arranged."Ârâ, from ârâstan "to arrange, to set in order, adorn," Mid.Pers. ârây-, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn;" O.Pers. rās- "to be right, straight, true," rāsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), rād- "to prepare;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" Gk. oregein "to stretch out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line." ore   کانه   kâné (#)Fr.: minerai   A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.Ore, merger of M.E. ore, O.E. ora "ore, unworked metal" and M.E. or(e) "ore, metal," O.E. ar "brass, copper, bronze" (cf. O.N. eir "brass, copper;" Ger. ehern "brazen;" Erz "oar;" Goth. aiz "bronze;" O.H.G. ēr "ore"), from PIE *aus- "gold;" cf. Mod/Mid..Pers. âhan "iron;" Av. aiianhaēna- "made of metal," from aiiah- "metal;" Skt. áyas- "iron, metal;" L. aes "brass"Kâné, from kân "mine," from kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Av. kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (→ ex- for prefix us-); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs"). organ   ۱) اندام؛ ۲) ا ُرگ؛ ۳، ۴) ا ُرگان   1) andâm; 2 org; 3, 4) orgânFr.: 1, 3, 4) organe; 2) orgue   1) Biology: A structure consisting of tissues and performing some specific function in an organism, e.g. the heart, kidneys, liver, stomach. 2) A large musical keyboard instrument producing a wide range of musical effects using compressed air passed through pipes. 3) An organization or body acting on behalf of a larger institution. 4) A newspaper or magazine regarded as a means of communication, especially one communicating the views of a particular group such as a political party.O.E. organe, from O.Fr. orgene "musical instrument," from L. organa, pluriel of organum, from Gk. organon "implement, musical instrument, organ of the body," literally "that with which one works," from PIE *werg-ano-, from base *werg- "to do, to work" related to Gk. ergon "work" (cf. Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" Mod.Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue").1) Andâm, from Mid.Pers. handam "member, limb;" Av. handāma- "limb;" from Proto-Iranian *ham-dāman-, from prefix ham-→ com- + *dāman- "created;" Av. dā- "to give, grant; to put; to create; to determine" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give;" cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do"); cf. Skt. sandháy- "joint, articulation." 2), 3), 4) loanwords from Fr., as above. organic   ۱) ارگانیک، آلی؛ ۲) سازماندار؛ ۳) ارگانیک   1) orgânik, âli; 2) sâzmândâr; 3) orgânikFr.: organique   1) Of, relating to, or derived from living organisms: organic matter. 2) Characterized by the systematic arrangement of parts; organized; systematic. 3) Chemistry: Of or designating carbon compounds.From L. organicus, from Gk. organikos "of or pertaining to an organ," from organon "instrument," → organ, + → -ic.1) Orgânik, loan from Fr.; âli loan from Ar.; 2) sâzmândâr, from sâzmân, → organization, + dâr "having, possessor" (from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support"). organic chemistry   شیمیِ ارگانیک، ~ ِ آلی   šimi-ye orgânik, ~ âliFr.: chimie organique   The study of compounds that contain carbon chemically bound to hydrogen.→ organic; → chemistry. organic molecule   مولکول ِ ارگانیک   molekul-e orgânikFr.: molécule organique   A molecule that is normally found in or produced by living systems. Organic molecules typically consist of carbon atoms in rings or long chains, where other atoms (e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) are attached, except for → carbon monoxide (CO) and → carbon dioxide (CO2), etc.→ organic; → molecule. organism   سازواره   sâzvâré (#)Fr.: organisme   1) Biology: A living individual composed of mutually interdependent parts that maintain various vital processes. 2) Any organized body or system conceived of as analogous to a living being. → microorganismFrom → organ + -ism a suffix appearing in loanwords from Gk. denoting several senses, among which state or condition, principles, doctrines.Sâzvâré, from sâz present stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -vâré, from -vâr a suffix meaning "resembling, like" (from Mid.Pers. -wâr; Av. -vara, -var; cf. Skt. -vara). organization   سازمان   sâzmân (#)Fr.: organisation   1) The act or process of organizing. 2) The state or manner of being organized. 3) A group of persons organized for some end or work.M.E. organizacion, from M.L. organization-, from organizatus p.p. of organizare "organize" + -ate.Sâzmân, from sâz present stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -mân verbal noun suffix used with present and past stems, as in zâymân, câymân; sâxtemân, goftemân. Note 1: The suffix -mân occurs extensively in some dialects, in particular in Garkuye-yi where it replaces the infinitive suffix -idan: resâmon (= rasidan "to arrive"), kešâmon (= kešidan "to draw"), kartemon (= kardan "to do"), bartemon (= bordan "to carry, bear"), paxdemon (= poxtan "to cook"), esbârtemon (= sepordan "entrust, make over to"), bâfdemon (= bâftan "to weave"), ašnofdemon (= šenidan "to hear"), terakâmon (= tarakidan "to blast"), teknâmon (= tekândan "to shake"). Note 2: -mân may be related to Av. suffix -man, which forms a number of derivative action-nous: rasman- "column, rank," from raz- "to direct;" vaēsman- "dwelling," from vaes- "to be or keep ready as, to serve as;" nāman- "name;" asman- "stone, heaven." organize   سازمان‌دادن، سازمانیدن   sâzmân dâdan, sâzmânidanFr.: organiser   To form as or into a whole consisting of interdependent or coordinated parts.From M.L. organizare "to contrive, arrange," from L. organ(um) "instrument, organ," → organ + -izare→ -ize.Sâzmân dâdan, from sâzmân, → organization, + dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do"); sâzmânidan, from sâzmân + -idan infinitive suffix. organohalogen   ارگانوهالوژن   orgânohâloženFr.: organohalogène   A class of molecules that contain at least one → halogen atom bonded to → carbon. Organohalogens are abundant on the Earth where they are mainly produced through industrial and biological processes. They have been proposed as → biomarkers in the search for life on → exoplanets. Simple halogen hydrides have been detected in → interstellar medium sources and in → comets. → Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the most abundant organohalogen in the Earth's atmosphere, has both → natural and → synthetic production pathways (Fayolle et al., 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 703).From organo-, → organ, + → halogen. orient   ۱) خاور؛ ۲) سو دادن؛ سو یافتن   1) xâvar; 2) su dâdan; su yâftanFr.: 1) orient; 2) orienter; s'orienter   1) East. The countries of Asia, especially East Asia. 2a) To place in a definite relation to the points of the compass or other fixed or known directions. 2b) To turn toward the east or in any specified direction.M.E., from O.Fr. orient "east," from L. orient-, oriens rising sun, east," from pr.p. of oriri "to rise," cognate with Pers. ras-, rasidan "to arrive;" O.Pers./Av. rasa- present stem of ar- to move, go or come forward;" cf. Skt. ar- "to reach, come toward, meet with," rccháti "reaches;" Gk. erkhomai "to go, to reach."1) Xâvar, → east. 2) su dâdan literally "to give direction, orientation;" su yâftan "to acquire direction," from su "direction, side," from Mid.Pers. sôk "direction, side," + dâdan "to give," → datum; yâftan "t find, obtain," → find. orientation   ۱) سو؛ ۲) سودهی؛ سویابی   1) su (#); 2) sudahi (#); suyâbi (#)Fr.: orientation   1) The position in relation to a specific place or object. 2) The act or process of orienting; the state of being oriented.Verbal noun of → orient. origin   خاستگاه   xâstgâh (#)Fr.: origine   1) General: The beginning or starting point. 2) Math.: The point of intersection of two or more axes.M.E., from L. origin-, origo "beginning, source, lineage," from oriri "to rise," cognate with Pers. ras-, rasidan "to arrive;" O.Pers./Av. rasa- present stem of ar- to move, go or come forward;" cf. Skt. ar- "to reach, come toward, meet with," rccháti reaches;" Gk. erkhomai "to go, to reach."Xâstgâh, from xâst past stem of xâstan, xizidan "to rise, get up" (Mid.Pers. xyz- "to stand up, rise;" Proto-Iranian *xiz- "to rise, ascend; increase") + -gâh suffix of time and place (Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come"). Orion   شکارگر، ا ُریون   Šekârgar (#), Orion (#)Fr.: Orion   The Hunter. A prominent constellation, one of the largest in the sky, located on the celestial equator around 5h 30m right ascension, 0° declination. This constellation is rich in bright stars and nebulae. The brightest star is Rigel (β Orionis), visual magnitude 0.2. The second brightest star is → Betelgeuse (α Orionis), magnitude between 0.2 and 1.0. A key feature of Orion's constellation is his Belt of three bright stars that form a nearly straight line across its central parts. It contains also the → Orion Nebula, the only region of massive star formation visible to the unaided eye.In Gk. mythology, Orion was a giant hunter and the enemy of Artemis the huntress, who according to some tales was responsible for his death. Other stories, though, tell how he pursued the Pleiades and with them was turned into a constellation to chase them forever across the sky.Šekârgar, "→ hunter." Orion Arm   بازویِ شکارگر، ~ ِ ا ُریون   bâzu-ye Šekârgar, ~ OrionFr.: bras d'Orion   A minor → spiral arm of the → Milky Way Galaxy close to which the → Sun is located. It is some 3,500 → light-years across and approximately 10,000 light-years in length. The solar system lies close to the inner rim of this spiral arm, about halfway along its length. Its name derives from the fact that the stars closest to the Sun which actually lie within the arm are in the constellation → Orion. Its other designations are → Local Arm, → Local Spur, → Orion Bridge, → Orion Spur, and → Orion-Cygnus Arm.→ Orion; → arm. Orion association   آهزشِ شکارگر، ~ اُریون   âhazeš-e Šekârgar, ~ OrionFr.: association d'Orion   A large OB stellar association centered on the → Orion Nebula. Lying some 1500 → light-years away, it is about 400 light-years across and contains the main stars of Orion, except → Betelgeuse.→ Orion; → association.