An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13070 Search : far
panspermia
  پان‌دانه‌وری، سراسردانه‌وری   
pân-dâne-vari, sarâsar-dâne-vari

Fr.: panspermie   

The hypothesis that life exists and is distributed throughout the Universe in the form of "seeds" that develop in the right environment. The oldest record of this idea may be traced back to the ancient Greek philospher Anaxagoras, who lived in the fifth century B.C.

N.L., from Gk. panspermia "mixture of all seeds," from → pan- + -sperm, a combining form of sperma "seed" + -ia a noun suffix.

Pân-dâne-vari, sarâsar-dâne-vari, from pân-, sarâsar-, → pan-, + dâné "seed, grain" (Mid.Pers. dân, dânag "seed, corn," Av. dânô- in dânô.karš- "carrying grains; an ant," Skt. dhânâ- "corn, grain," Tokharian B tâno "grain," cf. Lith. duona "corn, bread") + -var suffix of possession, variant -ur (Mid.Pers. -uwar, -war; from O.Pers. -bara, from bar- "to bear, carry") + -i noun suffix.

pantheism
  پان‌یزدان‌باوری   
pân-yazdân-bâvari

Fr.: panthéisme   

1) The doctrine that God is the transcendent reality of which the material universe and human beings are only manifestations: it involves a denial of God's personality and expresses a tendency to identify God and nature.
2) Any religious belief or philosophical doctrine that identifies God with the universe (Dictionary.com).

pan-; → theism.

paper
  ۱) کاغذ؛ ۲) وتار   
1) kâqaz; 2) vetâr (#)

Fr.: papier   

1) A thin sheet made from fibrous material (wood pulp, rags, straw, etc.) suitable for writing or printing on.
2) A written or printed document or the like.

From M.E. papire, from L. papyrus "paper," from Gk. papyros "any plant of the paper plant genus," may be of Egyptian origin.

Kâqaz "paper," probably a transliteration of old Chinese gu zhi; cf. Sogd. kāγaδā "paper," Skt. kakali, kakari, Marathi kagad, Tamil kagidam, Malayalam kayitam (Y. Kumar, 2005, A History of Sino-Indian Relations).

para-water
  پارا-آب   
pârâ-âb

Fr.: eau para   

The → water molecule in which the → nuclear spins of the constituent → hydrogen atoms are → antiparallel (→ parahydrogen). See also: → ortho-water.

para-; → water.

parabola
  سهمی   
sahmi (#)

Fr.: parabole   

A plain curve obtained by slicing a cone with a plane parallel to one side of the cone. A parabola can be considered an ellipse with an infinite major axis. It is one of the types of conic sections.

N.L., from Gk. parabole "comparison, application," literally "a throwing beside," from → para- + bole "throwing," related to ballein "to throw."

Sahmi, of unknown origin.

parabolic
  سهمی   
sahmi

Fr.: parabolique   

Having the form of a parabola.

of or pertaining to → parabola.

parabolic antenna
  آنتن ِ سهمی   
ânten-e sahmi (#)

Fr.: antenne parabolique   

An antenna comprising a parabolic reflector with a receiving and/or transmitting element positioned at or near its focal point.

parabolic; → antenna.

parabolic mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ سهمی   
âyene-ye sahmi (#)

Fr.: miroir parabolique   

A concave mirror that has the form of a paraboloid of revolution.

parabolic; → mirror.

parabolic orbit
  مدار ِ سهمی   
madâr-e sahmi

Fr.: orbite parabolique   

An orbit whose overall shape is like a parabola; it is the limiting case between an elliptical orbit (eccentricity less than 1) and a hyperbolic orbit (eccentricity larger than 1). The speed necessary to form a parabolic orbit is known as the escape velocity.

parabolic; → orbit.

parabolic velocity
  تندای ِ سهمی   
tondâ-ye sahmi

Fr.: vitesse parabolique   

The speed necessary to form a parabolic orbit around a gravitational center. It is also the minimum speed necessary to escape from the gravitational pull of a body.

parabolic; → velocity.

paraboloid
  سهمی‌وار   
sahmivâr (#)

Fr.: paraboloïde   

A solid formed by the revolution of a parabola about its axis.

From parabol(a), → parabola, + → -oid.

paradigm
  پرادیش، پارادیش   
parâdiš, pârâdiš

Fr.: paradigme   

1) General: A typical example of something.
2) Grammar: A set of word forms giving all of the possible inflections (declensions, conjugations) of a word.
3) Philosophy of science: A framework of concepts, results, and procedures within which subsequent work is carried out, as defined by the influential Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) in his classic The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962). "Normal science" proceeds within such a framework or paradigm. When a paradigm has to be changed (→ paradigm shift), there comes about a crisis and then scientific revolution. For example, Newton's mechanical paradigm was replaced by the paradigm of Einstein's relativistic universe. Each paradigm is an interpretation of the world, rather than an objective explanation. For criticism of Kuhn's views, see, e.g., Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
4) Term now occurring frequently in every kind of discourse, usually to mean something like "way of thinking" or "approach to a problem."

L.L. paradigma "pattern, example," especially in grammar, from Gk. paradeigma "pattern, model," from paradeiknynai "to exhibit, show side by side," from → para- "beside" + deiknynai "to show," related to dokein "to appear, seem, think," cognate with Av. daēs- "to show" (Mod.Pers. andišé, andiš "thought, think," see below); Skt. diś- "to show, point out," diśati "he shows;" L. dicere "to utter;" PIE base *deik- "to show, to pronounce."

Parâdiš, pârâdiš, from parâ-, pârâ, → para- + diš "to show," as in andiš, andišidan "to → think" (related to dis, disé, → form); Sogd. andiš "to seem," andêš "to show," andêšik "appearing;" ultimately from Av. daēs- "to show," s-aorist forms dāiš-, dôiš-, diš-, akin to Gk. deiknynai "to show," as above, dike "manner, custom;" Skt. diś- "to show, point out;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon, Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach."

paradigm shift
  کیب ِ پرادیش، دگرگونی ِ ~   
kib-e parâdiš, degarguni-ye ~

Fr.: changement de paradigme   

1) Philosophy of science: A process of revolutionary change in scientific → paradigms, whereby established scientific ideas are replaced by new ones. For instance, Copernicus' evidence that the Earth revolved around the Sun caused a paradigm shift in astronomy.
2) The idea of paradigm shift has been transferred from the sciences to other areas of society and culture, referring to a fundamental reorganization of how people think about an entire topic.

paradigm; → shift; → change.

paradox
  پارادخش   
pârâdaxš (#)

Fr.: paradoxe   

A statement, proposition, or situation that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality is or may be true. → Fermi paradox; → faint early Sun paradox; → twins paradox; → paradox of youth.

From L. paradoxum "contrary to expectation," from Gk. paradoxon, from neuter of adj. paradoxos "contrary to common opinion, unbelievable," from → para- "contrary to" + dox(a) "opinion, belief" + -os adj. suffix. The main component dox, from dokein "to appear, seem, think," is cognate with Av. daēs- "to show;" Skt. diś- "to show, point out," diśati "he shows;" L. dicere "to utter;" PIE base *deik- "to show, pronounce solemnly."

Pârâdaxš (on the model of Gk. paradoxos), from pârâ-, → para-, + daxš, from Av. daxš- "to reveal, instruct, point out," fradaxštar- "teacher," *daxšārə "revelations;" Mod.Pers. daxš "task, effort;" cf. Skt. daks- "to be able," dáksa- "able, expert."

paradox of youth
  پارادخش ِ جوانی   
pârâdaxš-e javâni

Fr.: paradoxe de jeunesse   

The observed presence of young stars in the immediate vicinity of the → supermassive black hole (SMBH), → Sgr A*, residing in the center of our Galaxy. The stellar population within 1 pc of the SMBH contains a variety of young and → massive stars orbiting the SMBH. Some of them are only about 20 Myr old and get as close as a few light-days to the SMBH, while from 0.1 to 0.4 pc even younger stars are found with ages of 3-7 Myr. The presence of these stars so near to the SMBH is a paradox. Their → in situ formation should be almost impossible, since the environment is too hostile for these stars to form. Indeed the strong → tidal influence of the SMBH should hamper their formation. On the other hand, the scenario considering their → migration from other places does not seem to be adequate. The time required for the migration from > 1 pc by dynamical friction would exceed their inferred ages unless the migration rate were somehow accelerated. This apparent contradiction was termed "paradox of youth" by Ghez et al. (2003, ApJ 586, L127). See also Genzel et al. (2010, Rev.Mod.Phys. 82, 3121, also at astro-ph/1006.0064).

Youth, the condition of being → young; → paradox.

parahydrogen
  پارا-هیدروژن   
pârâ-hidrožen

Fr.: parahydrogène   

Molecular hydrogen in which the nuclei (protons) of the two hydrogen atoms contained in the molecule have spins in opposite directions. → orthohydrogen

para-; + → hydrogen.

parallactic
  دیدگشتی   
didgašti

Fr.: parallactique   

Of or pertaining to a parallax.

Adj. form of → parallax.

parallactic angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دیدگشتی   
zâviye-ye didgašti

Fr.: angle parallactique   

Of an object in the sky, the angle between the → celestial pole, the object, and the → zenith. Since parallactic angle describes the orientation on the sky of the object for a particular observer, it can be an important quantity in some observations.

parallactic; → angle.

parallactic ellipse
  بیضی ِ دیدگشت   
beyzi-ye didgašt

Fr.: ellipse de parallaxe   

The path on the sky of the apparent position of a star as seen from the Earth, due to the Earth's annual motion around the Sun.

parallactic; → ellipse.

parallactic inequality
  ناهموگی ِ دیدگشتی   
nâhamugi-ye didgašti

Fr.: inégalité parallactique   

An irregularity in the Moon's motion caused by the Sun's gravitational attraction, which sets the Moon ahead or behind its normal orbital position. The Moon is about 2 arcminutes ahead of its expected position at first quarter, and a similar amount behind at last quarter.

parallactic; → inequality.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut aut axi Baa bal Bal bar bar bea beh Bes bia big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo Cal cal Can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir cis cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cov cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg DA dar dat de deb dec dec ded def def dei dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig Dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dow dri dur dus dyn dyn ear eav ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai far Fec fem fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso ite jet Jou Jup kap Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea med men mer Mes met met mic Mic Mie Mil min mis mJy mod mol mon moo mot mul mul mut nad nas nat neb neg net neu New New nig Noe non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort osm out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res Reu rhe Rie rig ris Roe Ros rot Rud ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sim sin ske sle smo Sob sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver ver vin vir vis Vog von wal wat wav wax wea wei Whi wil win WN7 wor X-r Yar You zer zod > >>