An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
asteroid survey
  بردید ِ سیارکها   
bardid-e sayyarakhâ

Fr.: recherche systématique d'astéroïdes   

Systematic observation of the sky in particular searching for → asteroids that may have a close approach to the Earth. → near-Earth object.

asteroid; → survey.

Bardid, → survey; sayyârakhâ plural of sayyârak, → asteroid.

asteroseismologic
  اخترلرزه‌شناسی، اخترلرزه‌شناسیک   
axtarlarzešenâsi, axtarlarzešenâsik

Fr.: astérosismologique   

Of or relating to → asteroseismology.

spectropolarimetry; → -ic.

asteroseismology
  اخترلرزه‌شناسی   
axtarlarzešenâsi

Fr.: astérosismologie   

The study of the → internal structure of stars through the interpretation of their pulsation periods (→ stellar pulsation). The radial pulsations are the result of → sound waves resonating in the stars interior. Different → pulsation modes penetrate to different depths inside a star. If a large number of pulsation modes occurs, then the stellar interior, which is not directly observable, can be probed from oscillation studies because the modes penetrate to various depths inside the star. Using a complex mathematical analysis, very detailed investigations of the structure of the star's interior can be carried out. Applied to the Sun, it is called → helioseismology.

From → astero- "star," from aster-, → astro-, + → seismology.

Axtarlarzešenâsi, from axtar "star," → astro-, + larzešenâsi, → seismology.

asthenosphere
  سست‌سپهر   
sostsepehr (#)

Fr.: asthénosphère   

A layer of soft, partly molten, rock in the → Earth's mantle, located at a depth of 100 to 250 km, over which the more rigid plates of the → lithosphere are in motion.

Asthenosphere, from Gk. asthenes "weak" + → sphere.

Sostsepehr, from sost "weak, tender" + sepehr, → sphere.

astigmatic
  ۱) ناگراور، ۲) ناگرابین   
1) nâgerâvar, 2)nâgerâbin

Fr.: astigmate   

The optical system which is affected by → astigmatism.

astigmatism.

astigmatism
  ۱) ناگراوری، ۲) ناگرابینی   
1) nâgerâvari, 2) nâgerâbini

Fr.: astigmatisme   

1) An imperfection in an optical system whereby light from a point source is formed into an image as a straight line, ellipse, or circle. The rays of light in two perpendicular planes appear as two lines at right angles.
2) A common eye defect in which the unequal curvature of one or more refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea, prevents light rays from focusing clearly at one point on the retina, resulting in blurred vision.

From astigmatic, from Gk. → a- "without" + stigmatos, from stigma "a mark, spot, puncture."

1) Nâgerâvari, from nâ- "without, un" + gerâ, stem of gerâyidan "to converge," + -var, agent forming suffix, + -i, noun forming suffix.
2) The same as above with -bini "seeing, discerning".

astrate
  ستاریدن   
setâridan

Fr.:   

Verbal form of → astration.

astration.

astration
  ستارش   
setâreš

Fr.: astration   

The cyclic process in which interstellar matter is incorporated into newly formed stars, where it undergoes nuclear processing, is thus enriched with heavier elements, and then returns into the interstellar medium through supernova explosion or stellar winds to be used in the formation of a newer generation of stars.

Astration, from astrate, from astr-, → astro-, + noun-forming suffix -ation.

Setâreš, from setâridan (from setâré "star" + verb-making suffix -idan) + noun-builder -eš.

astro-
  اختر-   
axtar- (#)

Fr.: astro-   

A combining form with the meaning "pertaining to stars or celestial bodies" used in the formation of compound words. Variants aster-, and astr- before a vowel. → star.

Gk. astron "star," akin to L. stella (Fr. étoile, from O.Fr. esteile, from V.L. *stela), Skt. str-, tara-, Av. star-, Mid.Pers. star, stârag, Mod.Pers. setâré, axtar, see below; cf. O.E. steorra, E. star, Du. ster, O.H.G. sterro, Ger. Stern, PIE *ster- "star."

Mod.Pers. axtar, → star, from Mid.Pers. axtar. The variants star-, estâr, estâré, setâré are obvious. Note also the following dialectal forms: (Lori, Laki) âsâra, (Tabari) essâra, (Laki) hasâra, (Shughni) xiterj, xtarag. The form axtar is less straightforward, leading some philologists to suggest different origins for setâré and axtar. According to W. Eilers (Iranica), axtar is a back-fomation from Mid.Pers. apâxtar "planet; north" produced by artificial dropping of the first component. Apart from phonological difficulties inherent in this suggestion, one must also explain how axtar meaning "planet" became a general designation for star, as for example in Mid.Pers. axtarmâr "astronomer," despite the relatively infinitesimal number of planets known in ancient times. W. Eilers' suggestion is pure theoretical construction; no factual evidence support it. On the other hand, in Pahlavi texts, e.g. Bundahishn, axtar is extensively used for "star, planet, and the signs of zodiac."

We suggest that both words star and axtar are etymologically related. This idea is based on the fact that "s" and "x" phonemes interchange in Persian and other IE languages. For example, the PIE *swesor "sister" has evolved into Av. xvanhar-, Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers. xâhar (Skt. svasar-, L. soror, Fr. soeur, Gk. eor "daughter, cousin, relative," Arm. k'oyr, O.H.G. swester, Ger. Schwester, Du. zuster, E. sister). Similarly, *saewel- "sun" has become Av. hvar- "sun," Mid.Pers. xavr, Mod.Pers. xor, while keeping its Av. h in Mod.Pers. hur "sun" (cf. Skt. svar-, surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, Goth. sauil, Lith. saule). Finally, *su- "hog, pig, swine" also has changed its "s" into both "h" and "x" in Av. and Mod.Pers. hu- and xuk respectively (Skt. sukara- "boar, hog, pig," Gk. hys, L. sus, Welsh hucc, Ger. Schwein, E. swine).

astroarchaeology
  اخترباستان‌شناسی، باستان‌اخترشناسی   
axtarbâstânšenâsi(#) , bâstânaxtaršenâsi (#)

Fr.: astroarchéologie   

Same as → archaeoastronomy, megalithic astronomy.

astrobiology
  اخترزیست‌شناسی   
axtarzistšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrobiologie   

The study of life throughout the Universe, also known as exobiology.

Astrobiology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + bio "life" + -logy "science, study."

Axtarzistšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → astro- + zistšenâsi, → biology.

astrobleme
  اخترخست   
axtarxast

Fr.: astroblème   

A geological structure on the Earth's surface from an ancient meteorite impact.

Astrobleme, from → astro- + Gk. blema "scar, wound, missile," from ballein "to throw;" PIE *gwele- "to throw".

Axtarxasts, from axtar "star," → astro- + xast "wounded; scratched," from xastan "to wound, wound by scratching," Mid.Pers. xst, xs "to injure," Av. vixad- "to crush," Proto-Iranian *xad- "to wound, hurt," Skt. khad- "to hurt."

astrochemistry
  اخترشیمی   
axtaršimi (#)

Fr.: astrochimie   

The study of the chemical interactions between the gas and dust of the interstellar medium.

Astrochemistry, from → astro- "star" + → chemistry.

Axtaršimi, from axtar, → astro-, + šimi, → chemistry.

astrodynamics
  اخترتوانیک   
axtartavânik

Fr.: astrodynamique   

The science dealing with the motion of satellites, rockets, and spacecrafts. It uses the principles of celestial mechanics.

Astrodynamics, from → astro- "star" + → dynamics.

Axtartavânik, from axtar, → astro-, + tavânik, → dynamics.

astrogeology
  اخترزمین‌شناسی   
axtarzaminšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrogéologie   

A science concerned with the geology of solid bodies in the Solar system, such as planets, satellites, asteroids, and meteorites.

Astrogeology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + → geology.

Axtarzaminšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → + zaminšenâsi, → geology.

astrograph
  اخترنگار   
axtarnegâr (#)

Fr.: astrographe   

A photographic instrument with great light gathering power which is used to photograph a large field in a single exposure.

Astrograph, from → astro- + → graph.

Axtarnegâr, from axtar, → astro-, + -negâr, → -graph.

astrolabe
  اسطرلاب   
ostorlâb (#)

Fr.: astrolabe   

An ancient instrument for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky. It had many uses, including telling time during the day or night, finding the time of sunrise and sunset and, thus, the length of the day, and locating celestial objects in the sky. It was widely used until replaced by the → sextant. The → planispheric astrolabe, which is the most common type of the instrument, is typically made up of a graduated disk hanging vertically, which is rotated so that it can be directed to the star chosen. The local time can thus be read from the face of the astrolabe, and different tables, at various latitudes, can be used. More specifically, a planispheric astrolabe is made up of the following main components: → mater, → tympanum, → rete, → alidade, → throne, → limb, → pin, → horse, → front, and → back. The astrolabe was invented by Greeks, and some historians have attributed it to Hipparchus (c190-c120 BC). Modern, sophisticated versions (such as → prismatic astrolabe and → Danjon astrolabe), are used for high precision measurements of star positions. See also → particular astrolabe, → spherical astrolabe, and → universal astrolabe.

M.E., from O.Fr. astrelabe, from M.L. astrolabium, from Gk. astrolabos (organon) "star taking (instrument)," from astron "star," → astro- + lambanein "to take."

Ostorlâb, from Ar. usturlab, from Gk. astrolabos, as above.

astrologer
  اخترگو   
axtargu (#)

Fr.: astrologue   

One who practices → astrology; one who professes to foretell events by the aspects and situation of the stars.

Agent noun from → astrology.

Axtargu, a classical term used by e.g. Jalâleddin Rumi (Mowlavi), 13th century poet, → astrology.

astrology
  اخترگویی   
axtarguyi (#)

Fr.: astrologie   

A → pseudoscience based on the belief that the apparent positions and → aspects of a small number of celestial bodies influence the course of human life and terrestrial events. Although the Sun and Moon have a gravitational influence on Earth, there is no known force that can cause celestial bodies to affect human affairs in the way claimed by → astrologers. Generally speaking, astrology is baseless and incoherent. In the astrological belief the influence of celestial bodies does not depend upon their distance from Earth, but on their positions and apparent angular separations. Outer planets can have a similar degree of influence as the inner planets. As a consequence, the billions of planets in our Galaxy and in billions of other galaxies should also influence us, and logically the effect of those planets must overwhelm any influence of the planets we see. Nevertheless astrologers do not care, and this fact makes astrological deductions absurd even in their scheme. Historically, the planets → Uranus, → Neptune, and → Pluto were not used in astrological predictions. They were added from the 18th century onward, after their discovery. Now that Pluto is disqualified as a planet, will astrologers remove it from their theories? If the answer is negative, they must logically include the numerous other similar → dwarf planets (such as → Charon, → Quaoar, → Sedna) residing in the → Kuiper belt. In brief, astrology is a superstition chiefly based on ignorance and man's need for mental contentment.

astro-; → -logy.

Axtarguyi, literally "star-telling," from axtar "star," → astro- + guyi verbal noun from goftan "to tell, speak, talk;" Mid.Pers. guftan "to say, tell, utter;" O.Pers. gaub- "to say."

astrometric binary
  درین ِ اخترسنجیک   
dorin-e axtarsanjik

Fr.: binaire astrométrique   

A binary star in which the presence of an unresolved companion is revealed by small oscillations in the movement of the visible component caused by the gravitational influence of the unseen component.

astrometry; → binary.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>