An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Penrose process
  فراروند ِ پنروز   
farâravand-e Penrose

Fr.: processus de Penrose   

A hypothetical means of extracting energy from a rotating black hole. If a particle spirals into the ergosphere of a black hole in a direction counter to the rotation of the black hole, and if the particle then breaks up into two fragments inside the ergosphere, one of the fragments can escape with energy greater than the energy of the original particle.

Named after Roger Penrose, English physicist (1931-), who devised the process; → process.

Penrose theorem
  فربین ِ پنروز   
farbin-e Penrose

Fr.: théorème de Penrose   

A collapsing object whose radius is less than its Schwarzschild radius must collapse into a singularity.

Penrose process; → theorem.

Penrose-Carter diagram
  نمودار ِ پنروز-کارتر   
nemudâr-e Penrose-Carter (#)

Fr.: diagramme de Penrose-Carter   

A diagram involving → formal compactification of → space-time used in → general relativity to describe the causal properties of the space-time. Only two of the space dimensions are shown and horizontal lines represent space, while vertical lines belong to time. The → null geodesicss are at 45°, which facilitates the visualization of → light cones. The major feature of Penrose-Carter diagram is representing the whole space-time on a finite surface, while putting → spacelike and → timelike infinities at finite distance.

Named for Roger Penrose (1931-) and Brandon Carter (1942-) who introduced it independently; → diagram.

penta-
  پنج-   
panj- (#)

Fr.: penta-   

Prefix denoting five, fivefold (e.g. pentacyclic, pentahedron, pentahydrate).

From Gk. pent-, penta-, combining forms from pente "five;" cognate with Pers. panj, E. five, as below.

Panj, from Mid.Pers. panj, Av. panca; cf. Skt. pánca; Gk. pente; L. quinque; O.E. fif, from P.Gmc. *fimfe (O.S. fif, O.H.G. funf); from PIE base *penkwe "five."

penumbra
  نیمسایه   
nimsâyé (#)

Fr.: pénombre   

1) The portion of a shadow in which light from an extended source is partially but not completely cut off by an intervening body; the area of partial shadow surrounding the umbra.
2) The lighter part of a shadow during an eclipse. An observer standing in the penumbra of a Solar eclipse will see a partial eclipse.
3) The lighter zone surrounding the dark area (→ umbra) of a → sunspot. It consists of fine, light filaments which are approximately radial for sunspots with circular outline, but irregular for complex spots.

N.L., from L. pæne "almost" + → umbra "shadow."

Nimsâyé, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Skt. néma- "half") + sâyé, → shadow; →umbra.

penumbral
  نیمسایه‌ای   
nimsâye-yi (#)

Fr.: pénombral   

Of or relating to a → penumbra.

penumbra; → -al.

penumbral lunar eclipse
  ماه‌گرفت ِ نیمسایه‌ای   
mâhgereft-e nimsâye-yi

Fr.: éclipse de lune pénombrale   

A lunar eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes through the Earth's → penumbra, but misses the darker umbral shadow. Because the Moon is only partially dimmed, a penumbral eclipse is not impressive. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, that portion of the Moon which is closest to the umbra can appear somewhat darker than the rest of the Moon.

penumbral; → eclipse.

peony
  پیونیا   
payoniyâ

Fr.: pivoine   

Any plant of the genus Paeonia, having showy, pink, red, or white, globular flowers. Originally cultivated in the temperate regions of Asia, China, Europe, and the northwest parts of North America.

M.E., from M. Fr. peonie, pioiné, from L.L. peonia, from L. pæonia, from Gk. paionia, perhaps from Paion, physician of the gods. The plant was recognized to possess many remedial properties, and was thus given an association with the gods.

Payoniyâ, loan from Gk, as above.

Peony star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیونیا   
Setâre-ye Payoniyâ

Fr.: Etiole Pivoine   

A peony-shaped nebula around the → Wolf-Rayet star WR 102ka as shown by the → Spitzer Space Telescope image at 24 μm. The formation of this infrared bright nebula is attributed to the recent evolutionary history of WR 102ka during → LBV-type eruptions and/or its strong → stellar wind (see, e.g., A. Barniske et al. 2008, A&A 486, 971).

peony; → star.

people
  مردم   
mardom (#)

Fr.: gens, personnes, peuple, public   

1) Persons indefinitely or collectively; persons in general.
2) Human beings, as distinguished from animals or other beings (Dictionary.com).

M.E. peple, from O.Fr. peupel "people, population, crowd; mankind," from L. populus "a people, nation; a multitude, crowd," of unknown origin.

Mardom "man, human being, mankind, people;" from Mid.Pers. mardôm "human being, man, mankind, people" (from *mard-tohm "seed of man"), from mard "man, humanity" (cognate with mordan "to die"); O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death."

per-
  پر-   
1) par-; 2) per-

Fr.: per-   

1) A prefix meaning "through, thoroughly, utterly, very."
2) Chemistry: A prefix used in the names of inorganic chemical compounds containing an element in its highest oxidation state or containing a large or the largest possible proportion of an element.

From L. per "through, during, by means of, on account of," cognate with Pers. par-, pirâ-, as below; cf. Gk. → peri- "around, about, beyond;" O.C.S. pre-; Russ. pere- "through;" Lith. per "through;" Goth. fair-; Ger. ver-; O.E. fer-.

Par-, per-, variants of pirâ- "around, about," from Mid.Pers. pêrâ; O.Pers. pariy "around, about;" Av. pairi "around, over," per- "to pass over, beyond;" cf. Skt. pari; Indo-Iranian *pari- "around;" cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" L. per "through," as above; PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond."

perceive
  آگرتیدن   
âgertidan

Fr.: concevoir   

1) To become aware of, know, or identify by means of the senses.
2) To recognize, discern, envision, or understand (Dictionary.com).

M.E. perceiven, from Anglo-Fr. *perceivre, from O.Fr. percoivre "perceive, notice, see; understand," from L. percipere "obtain, seize entirely, take possession of," from L. → per- "thoroughly" + capere "to take," → concept.

&ACIRC;gertidan, from â- intensive prefix + gertidan "to take, seize," → concept.

percept
  آگرته   
âgerté

Fr.:   

The mental product of the act of perceiving, as distinguished from the thing perceived.

perception.

perception
  آگرتش   
âgerteš

Fr.: perception   

The process of recognizing or identifying something. Usually employed of sense perception, when the thing which we recognize or identify is the object affecting a sense organ.

Verbal noun of → perceive.

perchlorate
  پرکلرات   
perklorât (#)

Fr.: perchlorate   

Any salt of perchloric acid.

per-; → chlorate.

perchloric acid
  اسید پرکلریک   
asid perklorik (#)

Fr.: acide perchlorique   

A colorless liquid, HClO4, that reacts explosively with organic matter or other reducible materials.

perchlorate; → -ic; → acid.

perfect
  ۱) فرساخت، فرساز؛ ۲) فرساختن   
1) farsâxt, farsâz; 2) farsâxtan

Fr.: 1) parfait; 2) parfaire   

1a) Corresponding to an ideal standard or abstract concept.
1b) Exactly fitting the need in a certain situation or for a certain purpose.
2) To bring to perfection or completion. See also: → perfect cosmological principle, → perfect cube, → perfect gas, → perfect lens, → perfect number, → perfect power, → perfect set, → perfect square.

From M.E. parfit, from O.Fr. parfit, from L. perfectus "completed," p.p. of perficere "accomplish, finish, complete," from per- "through, thoroughly, utterly, very" + facere "to make, do, perform;" cognate with Pers. dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do").

Farsâxt, farsâz, literally "thorougly made," from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly" (Mid.Pers. fra- "forward, before; much; around;" O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; excessive;" cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron;" Gk. pro "before, in front of;" L. pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for;" PIE *pro-) + sâxt, sâz "made," short for sâxté, sâzidé "made; make, construction, structure; style," present stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").

perfect cosmological principle
  پروز ِ کیهان‌شناسیک ِ فرساخت   
parvaz-e keyhânšenâsik-e farsâxt

Fr.: principe cosmologique parfait   

The → assumption, adopted by the → steady-state theory, that all observers, everywhere at all times, would view the same large-scale distribution of matter in the → Universe in all regions and in every direction. In contrast to the → cosmological principle, the perfect cosmological principle adds the assumption that the Universe does not change with time on the large scale.

perfect; → cosmological; → principle.

perfect cube
  کاب ِ فرساخت   
kâb-e farsâxt

Fr.: cube parfait   

An → integer of the form n3, where n is a → positive number. In other words, a → perfect power when k = 3.

perfect; → cube.

perfect gas
  گاز ِ فرساخت   
gâz-e farsâxt

Fr.: gaz parfait   

A hypothetical gas with molecules of negligible size that exert no intermolecular forces. Also called → ideal gas.

perfect; → gas.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>