An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13070 Search : far
parton
  پارتون   
pârton (#)

Fr.: parton   

In particle physics, a constituent of the hadron originally postulated in the theoretical analysis of high-energy scattering of particles off hadrons. In modern usage, the term parton is often used to mean a quark or a gluon.

Coined by the American physicist Richard Feynman (1918-1988), from part, from → particle + → -ion

parts per million (ppm)
  پار در میلیون   
pâr dar milion

Fr.: partie par million   

A fraction of a whole number in units of 1/1000,000. It is usually used to describe chemical concentrations, very small amounts of pollutants in air, water, body fluids, and uncertainty. For example 30 ppm is 3 x 10-5 or 0.003%.

part; → per; → million.

pascal (Pa)
  پاسکال   
pâskâl (#)

Fr.: pascal   

The → SI unit of → pressure, that of one → newton per → square → meter. Since 1 Pa is a small pressure, hPa (→ hectopascals) are more widely used. 1 Pa = 10 dyn cm-2, = 1.02 x 10-5 kgf cm-2 = 10-5 bars = 9.87 x 10-6 atm = 7.50 x 10-3 torr (mm Hg).

In honor of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher for his contribution in the study of hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, in particular establishing the principle of the barometer.

Pascal's barrel experiment
  آزمایش ِ چلیک ِ پاسکال   
âzmâyeš-e celik-e Pascal

Fr.: expérience du tonneau de Pascal   

An experiment carried out by Blaise Pascal in 1646 to demonstrate the hydraulic pressure. A long and narrow vertical pipe was connected to the content of a closed wooden barrel already full of water. He poured a small quantity of water into the pipe, whereby the height of the fluid within the pipe sharply increased. Due to the increase in hydrostatic pressure and → Pascal's law, the barrel could leak and even burst.

pascal (Pa); M.E. barel, from M.Fr. baril, O.Fr. barril; → experiment

Pascal's law
  قانون ِ پاسکال   
qânun-e pâskâl (#)

Fr.: loi de Pascal   

A change in the pressure of an enclosed incompressible fluid is conveyed undiminished to every part of the fluid and to the surfaces of its container.

Named after Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher for his contribution in the study of hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, in particular establishing the principle of the barometer.

Pascal's triangle
  سه‌بر ِ پاسکال   
sebar-e Pascal

Fr.: triangle de Pascal   

An array of numbers in the shape of a triangle, having a 1 at the top and also at the ends of each row. Each number is obtained by summing the two adjacent numbers to it in the preceding row. Each row is a set of → binomial coefficients. In the expansion of (x + y)n, the coefficients of x and y are given by the n-th row of Pascal's traingle.

pascal; → triangle.

Paschen series
  سری ِ پاشن   
seri-ye Paschen (#)

Fr.: série de Paschen   

The spectral series associated with the third energy level of the hydrogen atom. The series lies in the infrared, with Pα at 18,751 Å, and Paschen limit at 8204 Å.

In honor of Friedrich Paschen (1865-1947), German physicist; → series.

Paschen-Back effect
  ا ُسکر ِ پاشن-بک   
oskar-e Paschen-Back

Fr.: effet Paschen-Back   

An effect on spectral lines obtained when the light source is located in a strong magnetic field. The strong field disrupts the coupling between the orbital and spin angular momenta, resulting in a different pattern of splitting.

Named for the German physicists Friedrich Paschen (1865-1947) and Ernst E. A. Back (1881-1959); → effect.

Pasiphae
  پسیفاءه   
Pâsifâé

Fr.: Pasiphaé   

The fifteenth of Jupiter's known satellites, orbiting at 23,660,000 km from Jupiter; also known as Jupiter VIII. Its diameter is 36 km and orbital period 744 days.

In Gk. mythology, Pasiphae was the wife of Minos and mother, by a white bull, of the Minotaur.

passage
  گذر   
gozar (#)

Fr.: passage   

An act or instance of passing from one place, condition, etc., to another; transit. Same as → transit.

M.E, from O.Fr. passage, from passer "to go by;" originally "a road, passage."

Gozar "passage, transit, passing," from gozaštan "to pass, cross, transit," variant gozâštan "to put, to place, let, allow;" Mid.Pers. widardan, widâštan "to pass, to let pass (by);" O.Pers. vitar- "to pass across," viyatarayam "I put across;" Av. vi-tar- "to pass across," from vi- "apart, away from" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Av. vi- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over;" → trans-.

passband
  گذرباند   
gozar-bând

Fr.: bande passante   

The range of wavelengths that are transmitted by a filter. Same as → band-pass.

Pass from O.Fr. passer, from V.L. *passare "to step, walk, pass," from L. passus "step, pace;" cf. Pers. "foot," pey "step;" → band.

Gozar "passage, transit, passing," from gozaštan "to pass, cross, transit," variant gozâštan "to put, to place, let, allow;" Mid.Pers. widardan, widâštan "to pass, to let pass (by);" O.Pers. vitar- "to pass across," viyatarayam "I put across;" Av. vi-tar- "to pass across," from vi- "apart, away from" ( O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Av. vi- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over"); bând, → band.

passive
  اکار   
akâr

Fr.: passif   

Tending not to participate actively; not working or operating.

From L. passivus "submissive; capable of feeling or suffering," from passus, p.p. of pati "to experience, undergo, suffer."

Akâr "not working, not doing," from → a- negation prefix + kâr "work," varaint of kar, present stem of kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

passive cloud
  ابر ِ اکار   
abr-e akâr

Fr.: nuage passif   

A cumulus cloud that is no longer dynamically connected with the atmospheric boundary layer via updrafts or downdrafts.

passive; → cloud.

passive component
  همنه‌ی ِ اکار   
hamne-y akâr

Fr.: composante passive   

An electronic component which contains no source of power, in contrast to active components.

passive; → component.

passive galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اکار   
kahkešân-e akâr

Fr.: galaxie passive   

A galaxy lacking optical emission-line activity (e.g., [O II], Hα, [O III]) and showing only stellar absorption lines (e.g., the 4000 Å → calcium break, Mg I, Na I). Also called passively evolving galaxy.

passive; → galaxy.

passive system
  راژمان ِ اکار   
râžmân-e akâr

Fr.: système passif   

An electronic system which emits no energy, and is not detectable.

passive; → system.

passively evolving galaxy
  کهکشان با فرگشت ِ اکار   
kahkešân bâ fargašt-e akâr

Fr.: galaxie en évolution passive   

Same as → passive galaxy.

passive; → evolve; → galaxy.

password
  گذرواژ   
gozarvâž

Fr.: mot de passe   

An arbitrary string of characters chosen by a user or system administrator and used to authenticate the user when he attempts to log on, in order to prevent unauthorised access to his account (foldoc.org).

Pass, → passage; → word.

past
  گذشته   
gozašté (#)

Fr.: passé   

Of, having existed in, or having occurred during a time previous to the present; bygone (Dictionary.com).

M.E.; variant spelling of passed, p.p. of pass, from O.Fr. passer, from V.L. *passare "to step, walk, pass," from L. passus "step, pace;" cf. Pers. "foot," pey "step," → foot.

Gozašté, p.p. of gozaštan "to pass," → passage.

past participle
  پارگرته‌ی ِ گذشته   
pârgerte-ye gozašté

Fr.: participe passé   

A → participle that indicates a completed action or state.

past; → participle.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut aut axi Baa bal Bal bar bar bea beh Bes bia big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo Cal cal Can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir cis cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cov cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg DA dar dat de deb dec dec ded def def dei dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig Dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dow dri dur dus dyn dyn ear eav ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai far Fec fem fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso ite jet Jou Jup kap Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea med men mer Mes met met mic Mic Mie Mil min mis mJy mod mol mon moo mot mul mul mut nad nas nat neb neg net neu New New nig Noe non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort osm out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res Reu rhe Rie rig ris Roe Ros rot Rud ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sim sin ske sle smo Sob sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver ver vin vir vis Vog von wal wat wav wax wea wei Whi wil win WN7 wor X-r Yar You zer zod > >>