An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>

Number of Results: 12982 Search : far
pencil beam
  تابه‌ی ِ باریک   
tâbe-ye bârik

Fr.: faisceau étroit   

A beam of radiant energy in the form of a narrow cone or cylinder.

pencil; → beam.

Pencil Nebula (NGC 2736)
  میغ ِ کلک   
miq-e kelk

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Crayon   

A small part of the → Vela supernova remnant with a narrow appearance. The Pencil Nebula measures about 0.75 → light-years across, is about 5 light-years long, and lies about 800 light-years from Earth. It is moving through the → interstellar medium at about 650 000 kilometres per hour.

pencil; → nebula.

pencil of light
  باریکه‌ی ِ نور   
bârike-ye nur (#)

Fr.: pinceau lumineux   

A small bundle of → rays of light. See also → beam of light.

M.E. pencel, from M.Fr. pincel, from L. penicillus "painter's brush or pencil," diminutive of peniculus "little tail," diminutive of penis "tail;" → light.

Bâriké, from bârik, → narrow, + nuance suffix ; nur, → light.

pendulum
  آونگ   
âvang (#)

Fr.: pendule   

In its simple form, a device consisting of a body suspended from a fixed point on the end of a string to move to and fro by the action of gravity and acquired momentum. The period of oscillation for small amplitudes of swing is determined by the formula T = 2π √(l/g).

From Mod.L. pendulum, noun use of neuter of L. pendulus "hanging down," from pendere "to hang."

&ACIRC;vang, related to âvixtan, âviz- "to hang" (akin to bixtan, biz- "to shake, to sort out, to sift"); Mid.Pers. âwixtan "to hang" (Sogdian wyc "to move, shake;" Chorasmian wc- "to tremble, shake;" Ossetic wigyn "to shake," awynzyn "to hang"), from prefixed (â-) Proto-Iranian base *uij-, *uic- "to shake, swing;" cf. Av. vij- "to shake, swing," vaējant- "swinging;" cf. Skt. vej- "to tremble, wince."

pendulum day
  روز ِ آونگی   
ruz-e âvangi

Fr.: jour pendulaire   

The time required for the plane of a freely suspended → Foucault pendulum to complete an apparent rotation about the local vertical. It is given by T = 23.9344 / sin φ in hours, where φ represents the latitude of the place. For Paris it is 31h 47m 38s; for the poles it 23.9344 h and for the equator it is ∞ since the plane of pendulum does not turn.

pendulum; → day.

Penrose process
  فراروند ِ پنروز   
farâravand-e Penrose

Fr.: processus de Penrose   

A hypothetical means of extracting energy from a rotating black hole. If a particle spirals into the ergosphere of a black hole in a direction counter to the rotation of the black hole, and if the particle then breaks up into two fragments inside the ergosphere, one of the fragments can escape with energy greater than the energy of the original particle.

Named after Roger Penrose, English physicist (1931-), who devised the process; → process.

Penrose theorem
  فربین ِ پنروز   
farbin-e Penrose

Fr.: théorème de Penrose   

A collapsing object whose radius is less than its Schwarzschild radius must collapse into a singularity.

Penrose process; → theorem.

Penrose-Carter diagram
  نمودار ِ پنروز-کارتر   
nemudâr-e Penrose-Carter (#)

Fr.: diagramme de Penrose-Carter   

A diagram involving → formal compactification of → space-time used in → general relativity to describe the causal properties of the space-time. Only two of the space dimensions are shown and horizontal lines represent space, while vertical lines belong to time. The → null geodesicss are at 45°, which facilitates the visualization of → light cones. The major feature of Penrose-Carter diagram is representing the whole space-time on a finite surface, while putting → spacelike and → timelike infinities at finite distance.

Named for Roger Penrose (1931-) and Brandon Carter (1942-) who introduced it independently; → diagram.

penta-
  پنج-   
panj- (#)

Fr.: penta-   

Prefix denoting five, fivefold (e.g. pentacyclic, pentahedron, pentahydrate).

From Gk. pent-, penta-, combining forms from pente "five;" cognate with Pers. panj, E. five, as below.

Panj, from Mid.Pers. panj, Av. panca; cf. Skt. pánca; Gk. pente; L. quinque; O.E. fif, from P.Gmc. *fimfe (O.S. fif, O.H.G. funf); from PIE base *penkwe "five."

penumbra
  نیمسایه   
nimsâyé (#)

Fr.: pénombre   

1) The portion of a shadow in which light from an extended source is partially but not completely cut off by an intervening body; the area of partial shadow surrounding the umbra.
2) The lighter part of a shadow during an eclipse. An observer standing in the penumbra of a Solar eclipse will see a partial eclipse.
3) The lighter zone surrounding the dark area (→ umbra) of a → sunspot. It consists of fine, light filaments which are approximately radial for sunspots with circular outline, but irregular for complex spots.

N.L., from L. pæne "almost" + → umbra "shadow."

Nimsâyé, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Skt. néma- "half") + sâyé, → shadow; →umbra.

penumbral
  نیمسایه‌ای   
nimsâye-yi (#)

Fr.: pénombral   

Of or relating to a → penumbra.

penumbra; → -al.

penumbral lunar eclipse
  ماه‌گرفت ِ نیمسایه‌ای   
mâhgereft-e nimsâye-yi

Fr.: éclipse de lune pénombrale   

A lunar eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes through the Earth's → penumbra, but misses the darker umbral shadow. Because the Moon is only partially dimmed, a penumbral eclipse is not impressive. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, that portion of the Moon which is closest to the umbra can appear somewhat darker than the rest of the Moon.

penumbral; → eclipse.

peony
  پیونیا   
payoniyâ

Fr.: pivoine   

Any plant of the genus Paeonia, having showy, pink, red, or white, globular flowers. Originally cultivated in the temperate regions of Asia, China, Europe, and the northwest parts of North America.

M.E., from M. Fr. peonie, pioiné, from L.L. peonia, from L. pæonia, from Gk. paionia, perhaps from Paion, physician of the gods. The plant was recognized to possess many remedial properties, and was thus given an association with the gods.

Payoniyâ, loan from Gk, as above.

Peony star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیونیا   
Setâre-ye Payoniyâ

Fr.: Etiole Pivoine   

A peony-shaped nebula around the → Wolf-Rayet star WR 102ka as shown by the → Spitzer Space Telescope image at 24 μm. The formation of this infrared bright nebula is attributed to the recent evolutionary history of WR 102ka during → LBV-type eruptions and/or its strong → stellar wind (see, e.g., A. Barniske et al. 2008, A&A 486, 971).

peony; → star.

people
  مردم   
mardom (#)

Fr.: gens, personnes, peuple, public   

1) Persons indefinitely or collectively; persons in general.
2) Human beings, as distinguished from animals or other beings (Dictionary.com).

M.E. peple, from O.Fr. peupel "people, population, crowd; mankind," from L. populus "a people, nation; a multitude, crowd," of unknown origin.

Mardom "man, human being, mankind, people;" from Mid.Pers. mardôm "human being, man, mankind, people" (from *mard-tohm "seed of man"), from mard "man, humanity" (cognate with mordan "to die"); O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death."

per-
  پر-   
1) par-; 2) per-

Fr.: per-   

1) A prefix meaning "through, thoroughly, utterly, very."
2) Chemistry: A prefix used in the names of inorganic chemical compounds containing an element in its highest oxidation state or containing a large or the largest possible proportion of an element.

From L. per "through, during, by means of, on account of," cognate with Pers. par-, pirâ-, as below; cf. Gk. → peri- "around, about, beyond;" O.C.S. pre-; Russ. pere- "through;" Lith. per "through;" Goth. fair-; Ger. ver-; O.E. fer-.

Par-, per-, variants of pirâ- "around, about," from Mid.Pers. pêrâ; O.Pers. pariy "around, about;" Av. pairi "around, over," per- "to pass over, beyond;" cf. Skt. pari; Indo-Iranian *pari- "around;" cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" L. per "through," as above; PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond."

perceive
  آگرتیدن   
âgertidan

Fr.: concevoir   

1) To become aware of, know, or identify by means of the senses.
2) To recognize, discern, envision, or understand (Dictionary.com).

M.E. perceiven, from Anglo-Fr. *perceivre, from O.Fr. percoivre "perceive, notice, see; understand," from L. percipere "obtain, seize entirely, take possession of," from L. → per- "thoroughly" + capere "to take," → concept.

&ACIRC;gertidan, from â- intensive prefix + gertidan "to take, seize," → concept.

percept
  آگرته   
âgerté

Fr.:   

The mental product of the act of perceiving, as distinguished from the thing perceived.

perception.

perception
  آگرتش   
âgerteš

Fr.: perception   

The process of recognizing or identifying something. Usually employed of sense perception, when the thing which we recognize or identify is the object affecting a sense organ.

Verbal noun of → perceive.

perchlorate
  پرکلرات   
perklorât (#)

Fr.: perchlorate   

Any salt of perchloric acid.

per-; → chlorate.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>