An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
astrophotography
  اختر‌شیدنگاری، شیدنگاری ِ اختری   
axtar-šidnegâri, šidnegâri-ye axtari

Fr.: astrophotographie   

The photography of stars, other celestial bodies, and stellar fields.

astro-, → photography.

astrophotometry
  اخترشیدسنجی، شیدسنجی ِ اختری   
axtar-šidsanji, šidsanji-ye axtari

Fr.: astrophotométrie   

The measurement of the intensity of light of celestial bodies.

Astrophotometry, from → astro- + → photometry.

Axtar-šidsanji, from axtar-, → astro-, + -šidsanji, → photometry.

astrophysical
  اخترفیزیکی   
axtarfiziki (#)

Fr.: astrophysiqie   

Of or pertaining to → astrophysics.

astrophysics + → -al

astrophysical jet
  شان ِ اخترفیزیکی   
šân-e axtarfiziki

Fr.: jet astrophysique   

A very fast moving, → collimated beam of → ionized gas at high temperatures associated with most classes of compact objects that spin and/or accrete matter from their surroundings, such as → protostars, → X-ray binary systems, and, at a larger scale, with → active galactic nuclei, → gamma-ray bursts, and → quasars. In general, jet sources host → accretion disks and are associated with → magnetic fields. Astrophysical jets, despite their different physical scales and power, are morphologically very similar, suggesting a common physical origin. For example, in one extreme, → active galactic nuclei jets have typical sizes ≥ 106 pc, velocities near that of light c, and parent sources (→ massive black holes) with masses 106-9  Msun and luminosities ~ 1043-48Lsun; while in the other extreme, → young stellar objects jets have typical sizes ≤ 1 pc, velocities ≤ 10-3 c, and emerge from low mass protostars with masses ~ 1 Msun and luminosities (0.1-2 × 104Lsun. Jets play an important → feedback role in the evolution of their host systems. See also: → jet launching.

astrophysical; → jet.

astrophysical object
  بر‌آخت ِ اخترفیزیکی   
barâxt-e axtarfiziki

Fr.: objet astrophysique   

An extraterrestrial → object whose physical properties and formation are studied in → astrophysics.

astrophysical; → object.

astrophysicist
  اخترفیزیکدان   
axtarfizikdân (#)

Fr.: astrophysicien   

A scientist who studies → astrophysics.

astro-; → physicist. The term astrophysicist was introduced by Greenwich astronomer Edwin Dunkin in 1869.

astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک   
axtarfizik (#)

Fr.: astrophysique   

The branch of → astronomy that deals with the → physics of → celestial objects and the → Universe in general. It relies on the assumption that the → laws of physics apply everywhere in the Universe and throughout all time. See also → observational astrophysics, → theoretical astrophysics.

Astrophysics, from → astro- "star" + → physics. The first use of the term astrophysics has been attributed to Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882) in 1865. He defined it as a coalescence of physics and chemistry with astronomy (History of Astronomy: An Encyclopedia, ed. John Lankford, Routledge, 1997).

asymmetric, asymmetrical
  ناهمامون   
nâhamâmun

Fr.: asymétrique   

Not having → symmetry.

asymmetry.

asymmetry
  ناهمامونی   
nâhamâmuni

Fr.: asymétrie   

Lack of symmetry; not symmetrical.

Gk. asymmetria "lack of proportion," from asymmetros "ill-proportioned," from → a- "not" + symmetros "commensurable, symmetrical."

Nâhamâmuni, from nâ- "not" + hamâmuni "symmetry," from ham- "together = syn" + -â-, euphonic affix, + mun "measure" + -i, noun affix.

asymptote
  ناهمساو   
nâhamsâv

Fr.: asymptote   

A straight line which is approached, but never reached, by an infinite branch of a curve, and which can be regarded as a line tangent to the curve at infinity.

Gk. asymptotos "not falling together," from → a- "not" + → syn "with" + ptotos "fallen," verbal adj. from piptein "to fall".

Nâhamsâv, literally "not touching each other," from nâ- "not" + ham "with" (akin to Gk. syn-) + sâv, agent noun of sâvidan "to touch."

asymptotic
  ناهمساوی   
nâhamsâvi

Fr.: asymptotique   

Of or pertaining to an → asymptote.

Adjective from → asymptote; → -ic.

asymptotic freedom
  آزادی ِ ناهمساوی   
âzâdi-ye nâhamsâvi

Fr.: liberté asymptotique   

The phenomenon wherein the → quarks within a → hadron get closer together, the force of containment gets weaker so that it asymptotically approaches zero for close confinement. According to → quantum chromodynamics, the quarks in close confinement are completely free to move about. On the contrary, the further we try to force the quarks apart, the greater the force of containment. The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David Gross, Frank Wilczek, and David Politzer for their discovery of asymptotic freedom. This discovery established quantum chromodynamics as the correct theory of the → strong interaction.

asymptotic; → freedom.

asymptotic giant branch (AGB)
  شاخه‌ی ِ ناهمساوی ِ غولان   
šâxe-ye nâhamsâvi-ye qulân

Fr.: branche asymptotique des géantes   

A region of the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram populated by evolving → low-mass to → intermediate-mass stars. These stars have an electron → degenerate core of carbon and oxygen surrounded by two burning shells of helium and hydrogen. The H and He-burning shells are activated alternately in the deep layers of the star. An extended and tenuous convection envelope, having a radius of 104-105 times the size of the core, lies above these shells. The loosely bound envelope is gradually eroded by the strong → stellar wind, which forms a dusty → circumstellar envelope out to several hundreds of stellar radii. The convective envelope, stellar atmosphere, and circumstellar envelope have a rich and changing chemical composition provided by → nucleosynthesis processes in the burning shells in the deep interior.

symptotic; → giant; → branch.

asymptotic velocity
  تندای ِ ناهمساوی   
tondâ-ye nâhamsâvi

Fr.: vitesse asymptotique   

For → stellar winds, same as → terminal velocity.

asymptotic; → velocity.

Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)
  آرست ِ بزرگ ِ میلیمتری ِ آتاکاما   
ârast-e bozorg-e milimetri-ye âtâkâmâ (ALMA)

Fr.: ALMA   

One of the largest ground-based astronomy projects and a major new facility for world astronomy located on the plain of the → Chajnantor Chilean Andes, San Pedro de Atacama, some 5000 m above sea level. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12 m antennas, acting together as an → interferometer to capture → millimeter and → submillimeter wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. It will have reconfigurable baselines ranging from 15 m to 18 km. A compact array of 7 m antenna and few 12 m diameter antennas (ACA) will be used to measure the diffuse emission. Resolutions as fine as 0''.005 will be achieved at the highest frequencies. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2012. The ALMA project is an international collaboration between Europe, Japan, and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the → European Southern Observatory (ESO). The first 12 m diameter antenna, built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, was handed over to ESO in 2008. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. ALMA will allow astronomers to study the cool Universe, i.e. the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies, and even life are formed.

Atacama the name of a desert, west of the Andes mountains in Chile, covering a 1,000 km strip of land on the Pacific coast of South America; → large; → millimeter; → submillimeter; → array.

Aten asteroid
  سیارک ِ آتن   
sayyârak-e Aten

Fr.: astéroïde Aten   

A member of a class of → near-Earth asteroids with → perihelion distances between 0.983 and 1.0 → astronomical units. It is estimated that 6% of the total number of NEAs are Atens.

Aten; → asteroid.

atheism
  یزدان-ناباوری، خدا-ناباوری، ا-یزدان-باوری   
yazdân-nâbâvari, xodâ-nâbâvari, a-yazdân-bâvari

Fr.: athée   

1) The doctrine or belief that there is no → God.
2) Disbelief in the existence of a supreme being or beings.

a-; → theism.

Atlantic
  اتلسی   
Atlasi (#)

Fr.: atlantique   

Of or pertaining to the Atlantic Ocean.

M.E., from L. Atlanticum (mare) "the Atlantic (ocean)," from Gk. Atlantikos "of Atlas," adj. of → Atlas, in reference to Mount Atlas in NW Africa. So called because it lay beyond that mountain.

Atlas
  اتلس   
1) Atlas (#); 2) atlas (#); 3) Atlas

Fr.: Atlas   

1) The second of → Saturn's known satellites. It has a diameter of about 30 km and orbits Saturn between the outer edge of the A ring and the F ring at a mean distance of about 137,600 km. It was discovered by Richard Terrile in 1980 from Voyager 1 photos. Also known as Saturn XV.
2) A bound collection of maps often including illustrations and informative texts.
3) A blue star of visual magnitude V = 3.63, B - V = -0.09, and spectral type B8 III in the → Pleiades. Other designations: 27 Tauri, HR 1178, HD 23850. It is in fact a → triple system.

In Gk. mythology, Atlas a son of the Titan → Iapetus and the nymph Clymene. After the Titans revolted and lost a war against Zeus, Atlas was condemned by Zeus to stand forever holding up the heavens. He was identified with the Atlas Mountains in NW Africa.

atmo-
  اتمو-، هوا-   
atmo-, havâ-

Fr.: atmo-   

A combining form meaning "air, vapor," used in the formation of compound terms. air or vapour

From Gk. atmos "vapor."

Atmo-, loan from Gk., as above.
Havâ-, → air.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>