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1a) (n.) An adherent of any of those Christian bodies that separated from the Church of
Rome during the Reformation, or of any group descended from them.
From Ger. or Fr. protestant, from L. protestantem (nominative protestans), p.p. of protestari, → protest.
Pâxosân agent noun or adj. from pâxosidan, → protest.
The religion of → Protestants.
1) The act of protesting.
A person who publicly demonstrates opposition to something. Also protestor.
One of the largest of → Neptune's known moons discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 space probe. Proteus revolves around Neptune at a distance of about 92,800 km, completing one orbit in 26 hours, 54 minutes. Proteus is about 400 m in diameter, larger than → Nereid. Orbiting the planet in the same direction as Neptune rotates, Proteus remains close to Neptune's equatorial plane. Proteus is irregularly shaped and heavily cratered, but it shows no sign of geological modification. In fact Proteus is about as large as a satellite can be without being pulled into a spherical shape by its own gravity. Proteus is one of the darkest objects in the solar system. Like Saturn's moon Phoebe, Proteus reflects only six percent of the sunlight that it receives.
Originally designated S/1989 N 1, Proteus is named after the shape-changing sea god of Greek mythology.
From Gk. protos "first" + L. → -ium.
From Gk. proto-, combining form of protos "first," superlative of pro "before," cognate with O.S. pruvu "first;" Rus. pervyy "first;" Av. pauruua-, as below.
Purvâ-, from O.Pers. paruviya- "former, initial," Av. pourva-, pouruuiia-, pauruua-, paoiriia- "first, initial, former;" cf. Skt. purva- "first, former, being before;" Tokharian B parwe "first;" PIE base *prwos "first."
The hypothetical but strongly evidenced common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. PIE words are reconstructed from extant Indo-European languages. There is no clear agreement on exactly where or when the speakers of PIE lived. It is believed that most of the subgroups diverged and spread out over much of Europe, Iran, and northern Indian subcontinent during the fourth and third millennia BC. See also → proto-language.
The hypothetical and typically extinct language which is believed to be the ancestor of a group of languages of the same family. Historical linguistics uses comparative study of the languages of a family to reconstruct the ancestral language even though in most cases it was never recorded. Some examples are → Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Germanic, Proto-Romance, Proto-Sino-Tibetan, etc.
A very huge mass of gas which will give rise to a cluster of galaxies.
Computers: A set of rules and methods used for communication and transmission of data between different computer systems. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. Simple protocols define the behavior of a hardware connection and help with error detection of the bit stream. High level protocols deal with the data formatting, including the syntax of messages, the terminal to computer dialogue, character sets, sequencing of messages etc.
M.E. prothogall "draft of a document," from M.Fr. prothocole, from M.L. protocollum "draft," literally "the first sheet of a volume" (on which contents were written), from Gk. protokollon "first leaf glued to the rolls of papyrus describing its contents," from → proto- "first" + kolla "glue."
Purvâband from purvâ-, → proto-, + band "joint; joined," past stem of bastan "to bind; to shut; to form seed buds; to clot," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind.
A huge mass of gas that by contraction and condensation becomes a galaxy of stars. A galaxy during the early phase, before it has developed its present shape and stellar/gas content.
A particle of the hadron family which is one of the two particles that make up atomic nuclei. It has an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit, a diameter of about 1.65 x 10-13 cm, and a mass of about 1.67 x 10-24 g (about 938 MeV c-2).
From Gk. proton, neuter of protos "first." Coined by Eng. physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937).
Fr.: température protonique
The temperature in the → solar wind, as derived from the mean kinetic energy of protons: mv2/2 = (3/2)kTp, where k is → Boltzmann's constant. There are two types of proton temperature: parallel temperature, measured from protons moving parallel to the magnetic field, and perpendicular temperature relating to protons at right angles to the magnetic field. The proton temperature is usually derived using particle detectors on board space probes that determine the velocity → distribution function of the particles from their energies (N. Meyer-Vernet, 2007, Basics of the Solar Wind, Cambridge Univ. Press). See also → electron temperature.
zanjire-ye proton-proton (#)
Fr.: chaîne proton-proton
A series of → thermonuclear reactions, taking place mainly in → low-mass stars, such as the Sun, which transforms four hydrogen nuclei (protons) into one helium (4He) nucleus and thereby generates energy in the stellar core. First, two protons (1H) combine to form a → deuterium nucleus (2H) with the emission of a → positron (e+) and a → neutrino (ν): 1H + 1H → 2H + e+ + ν. The deuterium nucleus then rapidly captures another proton to form a helium-3 nucleus (3He), while emitting a → gamma ray (γ): 2H + 1H → 3He + γ. There are three alternatives for the next step. In the PP I chain, occurring in 86% of the cases, two 3He nuclei fuse to a final 4He nucleus while two protons are released: 3He + 3He → 4He + 1H + 1H. The mass of the resulting 4He nucleus is less than the total mass of the four original protons used to produce 4He (→ mass defect). The difference, ~ 0.7% of the total mass of the protons, is converted into energy and radiated by the Sun. In this process, the Sun loses some 4 million tons of its mass each second. See also → CNO cycle.
Fr.: réaction proton-proton
Fr.: proto-étoile à neutrons
A compact, hot, and → neutrino-rich object that results from a → supernova explosion and is a transition between an → iron core and a → neutron star or → black hole. The life span of a protoneutron star is less than one minute.
Fr.: disque protoplanétaire
A → circumstellar disk of gas and dust surrounding a → pre-main sequence star from which planetary systems form. Protoplanetary disks are remnants of → accretion disks which bring forth stars. Typically, their sizes are ~100-500 AU, masses ~10-2 solar masses, lifetimes ~106-107 years, and accretion rates ~10-7-10-8 solar masses per year. According to the standard theory of planet formation, called core accretion, planets come into being by the growth of → dust grains which stick together and produce ever larger bodies, known as → planetesimals. The agglomeration of these planetesimals of 100 to 1000 km in size into rocky Earth-mass planets is the main outcome of this theory. Beyond the → snow line in the disk, if the masses of these cores of rock and ice grow higher than 10 times that of Earth in less than a few million years, gas can rapidly accrete and give rise to giant gaseous planets similar to → Jupiter. If core building goes on too slowly, the disk gas dissipates before the formation of → giant planets can start. Finally the left-over planetesimals that could not agglomerate into rocky planets or core of giant planets remain as a → debris disk around the central object that has become a → main sequence star. An alternative to core accretion theory is formation of planets in a massive protoplanetary disk by → gravitational instabilities. The validity of these two theories is presently debated. See also → protoplanet.
Fr.: pré-nebuleuse planétaire