An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
quantum theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
negare-ye kuântomi (#)

Fr.: théorie quantique   

The theoretical basis of modern physics which describes the behavior and interactions of elementary particles or energy states based on the assumptions that energy is subdivided into discrete amounts and that matter possesses wave properties. → quantum mechanics; → quantum field theory.

quantum; → theory.

quantum unitarity
  یکاییگی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
yekâyigi-ye kuântomi

Fr.: unitarité quantique   

A property in → quantum mechanics whereby in a quantum system the sum of all probabilities of all possible outcomes must be 1. Quantum unitarity makes the modulous of a → quantum state invariant with time.

quantum. → unitary.

quantum walk
  پویش ِ کو‌آنتومی   
puyeš-e kuântomi

Fr.: marche quantique   

A generalization of the classical concept of → random walk using quantum mechanical laws such as the → superposition principle and → interference of quantum amplitudes. In the classical version the particle moves in the position space with a certain probability. In contrast, in the quantum counterpart the particle moves by exploring multiple possible paths simultaneously with the amplitudes corresponding to the influence of different paths. The concept of quantum walk is studied in two standard forms: → continuous-time quantum walk and → discrete-time quantum walk. Quantum walk was first introduced by Aharonov et al. (1993, Phys. Rev. A, 48, 1687).

continuous; → walk.

quantum yield
  بازده ِ کو‌آنتومی   
bâzdeh-e kuântomi

Fr.: rendement quantique   

In photochemistry, the number of defined events which occur per photon absorbed by the system.

quantum; → theory.

quantum-mechanical operator
  آپارگر ِ مکانیک ِ کو‌آنتومی   
âpârgar-e mekânik-e kuântomi

Fr.: opérateur en mécanique quantique   

A linear → Hermitian operator associated with a physical quantity.

quantum; → mechanics; → operator.

Quaoar
  کو‌آیءور   
Quaoar

Fr.: Quaoar   

A faint object (magnitude 18.5), probably a dwarf planet, orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune in the Kuiper belt. Discovered in 2002, Quaoar is estimated to have a diameter of 1260 km and an orbital period of 287 years.

Quaoar the name of a creation deity of the Native American Tongva, located in the Los Angeles area, where the discovery was made.

quark
  کو‌آرک   
kuârk (#)

Fr.: quark   

Any of the hypothetical particles with spin 1/2, baryon number 1/3, and electric charge 1/3 or -2/3 that, together with their antiparticles, are believed to constitute all the elementary particles classed as baryons and mesons. Quarks are distinguished by their flavors, designated as up (u), down (d), strange (s), charm (c), bottom or beauty (b), and top or truth (t), and their colors, red, green, and blue.

Quark, coined in 1963 by the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann (1929-), who took it from a nonsense word in James Joyce's novel Finnegans Wake (1939): Three quarks for Muster Mark! // Sure he has not got much of a bark // And sure any he has it's all beside the mark.

quark confinement
  پربست ِ کو‌آرک‌ها   
parbast-e kuârkhâ

Fr.: confinement des quarks   

The phenomenon wherein the → quarks are permanently bound together and can never be removed from the → hadrons they compose.

quark; → confinement.

quark star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کو‌آرکی   
setâre-ye kuârki

Fr.: étoile de quarks   

A hypothetical star so dense that it is composed of degenerate quarks, a matter denser than that of a neutron star.

quark; → star.

quark-hadron phase transition
  گذرش ِ فاز ِ کو‌آرک-هادرون   
gozareš-e fâz-e kuârk-hâdron

Fr.: transition de phase quark-hadron   

A phase transition, predicted by cosmological models, to have occurred at approximately 10-5 seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadron.

quark; → hadron; → phase; → transition.

quarter
  چارَک   
cârak (#)

Fr.: quartier   

A fourth of the Moon's period or monthly revolution around Earth. → first quarter; → last quarter.

from O.Fr. quartier, from L. quartarius "fourth part," from quartus "fourth," related to quattuor "four," cognate with Pers. câr, cahâr, as below.

Cârak "quarter," literally "fourth, a fourth part of one," from câr, contraction of cahâr, → four, + -ak, contraction of yak, yek "one." Yek "one, alone," from Mid.Pers. êwak (Proto-Iranian *aiua-ka-); O.Pers. aiva- "one, alone;" Av. aēuua- "one, alone;" cf. Skt. éka- "one, alone, single;" Gk. oios "alone, lonely;" L. unus "one;" E. one.

quarter-wave plate
  تیغه‌ی ِ چارک-موج   
tiqe-ye cârak-mowj

Fr.: lame quart d'onde   

A plate of doubly refracting material cut parallel to the optic axis of the crystal and of such a thickness that a phase difference of 90° is introduced between the ordinary and extraordinary rays for light of a particular wavelength. → half-wave plate.

quarter; → wave; → plate.

quartic equation
  هموگش ِ چارُمیک   
hamugeš-e câromik

Fr.: équation quartique   

An equation containing unknowns of the fourth power; the general form: ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0.

From L. quart(us) "fourth" (→ quarter) + → -ic; → equation.

hamugeš, → equation; câromân, from cârom "fourth," from câr, cahâr "four" + -om "-th" + -ik, → -ic.

quartile
  چارکوار   
cârakvâr

Fr.: quartile   

In statistics, any of the four groups of a frequency distribution each containing 25% of the total number of individual observations.

From M.L. quartilis, from quart(us) "fouth" + -ilis "-ile" a suffix of adjectives expressing capability, susceptibility, liability, aptitude.

Cârakvâr, from cârak, → quarter, + -vâr suffix of similarity, size, aptitude.

quartz
  کو‌آرتز   
kuârtz (#)

Fr.: quartz   

One of the most abundant → minerals in the Earth's → crust. Quartz is made up of silicon dioxide (SiO2), or → silica. It has marked → piezoelectric properties and → dielectric strength.

From Ger. Quarz "rock crystal," from M.H.G. twarc.

quasar
  کو‌آسار، ستاره‌وَش   
kuâsâr (#), setârevaš (#)

Fr.: quasar   

An compact, extragalactic object which is highly luminous and looks like a star. Their redshifts can be large and their brightness varies. Quasars have an intrinsic luminosity which can reach some 100 times that of bright galaxies. They are thought to be active galactic nuclei with a size a little larger than the solar system. The first quasar to be identified as such, in 1963, was the radio source 3C 273 at a redshift of 0.158. With its 13th magnitude, it is the optically brightest quasar as observed from Earth. Some quasars are strong radio sources.

From quas(i) + (stell)ar (object).

Setârevaš, from setâré, → star, + -vaš, → quasi-.

quasi-
  چونان-، -وش   
cunân-, -vaš

Fr.: quasi-   

A prefix meaning "resembling, almost, having some, but not all of the features of."

From L. quasi "as if, as though," from qua(m)" as" + si "if."

Cunân "so, like that; just as if," from cun "how?," (Mid.Pers. cigôn "how?," cigônêh "nature, character," O.Pers/Av. ci- "what, any," collateral stem to ka- "who?, what?;" cf. Skt. ka-; Gk. po-; L. quo-; E. what, who; PIE *qwos/*qwes) + suffix ân. -vaš a suffix of similitude.

quasi-atom
  چونان-اتم، اتم‌وَش   
cunân-atom, atom-vaš

Fr.: quasi-atome   

A system in which the nuclei of two colliding atoms approach each other closely for a brief lapse of time so that their electrons are arranged in atomic orbitals characteristic of a single atom with combined atomic number.

quasi-; → atom.

quasi-closed subsystem
  زیر-راژمان ِ چونان‌بسته   
zir-râžmân-e cunân-basté

Fr.: sous-système quasi-fermé   

A subsystem if its intrinsic energy is large, on the average, with respect to the energy of its interaction with other portions of the → closed system.

quasi-; → closed; → subsystem.

quasi-linear theory
  نگره‌ی ِ چونان-خطی   
negare-ye cunân-xatti

Fr.: théorie quasi-linéaire   

In plasma physics, the theory that considers the interactions between waves and particles are of first order only. It ignores all terms of second order in the fluctuating quantities.

quasi-; → linear; → theory.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>