An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13003 Search : far
quantum state
  استات ِ کو‌آنتومی   
estât-e kuântomi

Fr.: état quantique   

In → quantum mechanics, the state of a system as described by a set of → quantum numbers and represented by an → eigenfunction.

quantum; → state.

quantum theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
negare-ye kuântomi (#)

Fr.: théorie quantique   

The theoretical basis of modern physics which describes the behavior and interactions of elementary particles or energy states based on the assumptions that energy is subdivided into discrete amounts and that matter possesses wave properties. → quantum mechanics; → quantum field theory.

quantum; → theory.

quantum unitarity
  یکاییگی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
yekâyigi-ye kuântomi

Fr.: unitarité quantique   

A property in → quantum mechanics whereby in a quantum system the sum of all probabilities of all possible outcomes must be 1. Quantum unitarity makes the modulous of a → quantum state invariant with time.

quantum. → unitary.

quantum walk
  پویش ِ کو‌آنتومی   
puyeš-e kuântomi

Fr.: marche quantique   

A generalization of the classical concept of → random walk using quantum mechanical laws such as the → superposition principle and → interference of quantum amplitudes. In the classical version the particle moves in the position space with a certain probability. In contrast, in the quantum counterpart the particle moves by exploring multiple possible paths simultaneously with the amplitudes corresponding to the influence of different paths. The concept of quantum walk is studied in two standard forms: → continuous-time quantum walk and → discrete-time quantum walk. Quantum walk was first introduced by Aharonov et al. (1993, Phys. Rev. A, 48, 1687).

continuous; → walk.

quantum yield
  بازده ِ کو‌آنتومی   
bâzdeh-e kuântomi

Fr.: rendement quantique   

In photochemistry, the number of defined events which occur per photon absorbed by the system.

quantum; → theory.

quantum-mechanical operator
  آپارگر ِ مکانیک ِ کو‌آنتومی   
âpârgar-e mekânik-e kuântomi

Fr.: opérateur en mécanique quantique   

A linear → Hermitian operator associated with a physical quantity.

quantum; → mechanics; → operator.

Quaoar
  کو‌آیءور   
Quaoar

Fr.: Quaoar   

A faint object (magnitude 18.5), probably a dwarf planet, orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune in the Kuiper belt. Discovered in 2002, Quaoar is estimated to have a diameter of 1260 km and an orbital period of 287 years.

Quaoar the name of a creation deity of the Native American Tongva, located in the Los Angeles area, where the discovery was made.

quark
  کو‌آرک   
kuârk (#)

Fr.: quark   

Any of the hypothetical particles with spin 1/2, baryon number 1/3, and electric charge 1/3 or -2/3 that, together with their antiparticles, are believed to constitute all the elementary particles classed as baryons and mesons. Quarks are distinguished by their flavors, designated as up (u), down (d), strange (s), charm (c), bottom or beauty (b), and top or truth (t), and their colors, red, green, and blue.

Quark, coined in 1963 by the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann (1929-), who took it from a nonsense word in James Joyce's novel Finnegans Wake (1939): Three quarks for Muster Mark! // Sure he has not got much of a bark // And sure any he has it's all beside the mark.

quark confinement
  پربست ِ کو‌آرک‌ها   
parbast-e kuârkhâ

Fr.: confinement des quarks   

The phenomenon wherein the → quarks are permanently bound together and can never be removed from the → hadrons they compose.

quark; → confinement.

quark star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کو‌آرکی   
setâre-ye kuârki

Fr.: étoile de quarks   

A hypothetical star so dense that it is composed of degenerate quarks, a matter denser than that of a neutron star.

quark; → star.

quark-hadron phase transition
  گذرش ِ فاز ِ کو‌آرک-هادرون   
gozareš-e fâz-e kuârk-hâdron

Fr.: transition de phase quark-hadron   

A phase transition, predicted by cosmological models, to have occurred at approximately 10-5 seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadron.

quark; → hadron; → phase; → transition.

quarter
  چارَک   
cârak (#)

Fr.: quartier   

A fourth of the Moon's period or monthly revolution around Earth. → first quarter; → last quarter.

from O.Fr. quartier, from L. quartarius "fourth part," from quartus "fourth," related to quattuor "four," cognate with Pers. câr, cahâr, as below.

Cârak "quarter," literally "fourth, a fourth part of one," from câr, contraction of cahâr, → four, + -ak, contraction of yak, yek "one." Yek "one, alone," from Mid.Pers. êwak (Proto-Iranian *aiua-ka-); O.Pers. aiva- "one, alone;" Av. aēuua- "one, alone;" cf. Skt. éka- "one, alone, single;" Gk. oios "alone, lonely;" L. unus "one;" E. one.

quarter-wave plate
  تیغه‌ی ِ چارک-موج   
tiqe-ye cârak-mowj

Fr.: lame quart d'onde   

A plate of doubly refracting material cut parallel to the optic axis of the crystal and of such a thickness that a phase difference of 90° is introduced between the ordinary and extraordinary rays for light of a particular wavelength. → half-wave plate.

quarter; → wave; → plate.

quartic equation
  هموگش ِ چارُمیک   
hamugeš-e câromik

Fr.: équation quartique   

An equation containing unknowns of the fourth power; the general form: ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0.

From L. quart(us) "fourth" (→ quarter) + → -ic; → equation.

hamugeš, → equation; câromân, from cârom "fourth," from câr, cahâr "four" + -om "-th" + -ik, → -ic.

quartile
  چارکوار   
cârakvâr

Fr.: quartile   

In statistics, any of the four groups of a frequency distribution each containing 25% of the total number of individual observations.

From M.L. quartilis, from quart(us) "fouth" + -ilis "-ile" a suffix of adjectives expressing capability, susceptibility, liability, aptitude.

Cârakvâr, from cârak, → quarter, + -vâr suffix of similarity, size, aptitude.

quartz
  کو‌آرتز   
kuârtz (#)

Fr.: quartz   

One of the most abundant → minerals in the Earth's → crust. Quartz is made up of silicon dioxide (SiO2), or → silica. It has marked → piezoelectric properties and → dielectric strength.

From Ger. Quarz "rock crystal," from M.H.G. twarc.

quasar
  کو‌آسار، ستاره‌وَش   
kuâsâr (#), setârevaš (#)

Fr.: quasar   

An compact, extragalactic object which is highly luminous and looks like a star. Their redshifts can be large and their brightness varies. Quasars have an intrinsic luminosity which can reach some 100 times that of bright galaxies. They are thought to be active galactic nuclei with a size a little larger than the solar system. The first quasar to be identified as such, in 1963, was the radio source 3C 273 at a redshift of 0.158. With its 13th magnitude, it is the optically brightest quasar as observed from Earth. Some quasars are strong radio sources.

From quas(i) + (stell)ar (object).

Setârevaš, from setâré, → star, + -vaš, → quasi-.

quasi-
  چونان-، -وش   
cunân-, -vaš

Fr.: quasi-   

A prefix meaning "resembling, almost, having some, but not all of the features of."

From L. quasi "as if, as though," from qua(m)" as" + si "if."

Cunân "so, like that; just as if," from cun "how?," (Mid.Pers. cigôn "how?," cigônêh "nature, character," O.Pers/Av. ci- "what, any," collateral stem to ka- "who?, what?;" cf. Skt. ka-; Gk. po-; L. quo-; E. what, who; PIE *qwos/*qwes) + suffix ân. -vaš a suffix of similitude.

quasi-atom
  چونان-اتم، اتم‌وَش   
cunân-atom, atom-vaš

Fr.: quasi-atome   

A system in which the nuclei of two colliding atoms approach each other closely for a brief lapse of time so that their electrons are arranged in atomic orbitals characteristic of a single atom with combined atomic number.

quasi-; → atom.

quasi-closed subsystem
  زیر-راژمان ِ چونان‌بسته   
zir-râžmân-e cunân-basté

Fr.: sous-système quasi-fermé   

A subsystem if its intrinsic energy is large, on the average, with respect to the energy of its interaction with other portions of the → closed system.

quasi-; → closed; → subsystem.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>