An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
radiometer
  تابش‌سنج   
tâbeš-sanj (#)

Fr.: radiomètre   

An instrument that measures the intensity of radiant energy.

radio; → -meter.

radiometric dating
  سن‌یابی ِ تابش‌سنجیک، ~ تابش‌سنجی   
senn yâbi-ye tâbeš-sanjik, ~ tâbeš-sanji

Fr.: datation radiométrique   

A dating method that uses measurements of certain radioactive isotopes to calculate the ages in years (absolute age) of rocks and minerals.

radiometer; → dating.

radiometry
  تابش‌سنجی   
tâbeš- sanji (#)

Fr.: radiométrie   

The detection and measurement of radiant energy, either as separate wavelengths or integrated over a broad wavelength band, and the interaction of radiation with matter in such ways as absorption, reflection, and emission.

radio + → -metry.

Tâbeš-sanji, from tâbeš, →radiation, + -sanj-metry.

radionuclide
  پرتو-هسته‌وار   
partow-hastevâr

Fr.: radionucléide   

A radioactive → nuclide.

radio + → nuclide.

radiosonde
  رادیو-گمانه   
râdio gomâné

Fr.: sonde radio   

A meteorological instrument that is carried aloft by a balloon to measure and send back information on atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity via radio to a ground receiving system.

radio + sonde, from Fr. sonde "sounding line."

radio; gomâné "a probe, a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi- "apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + mā- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum).

radium
  رادیوم   
râdiom (#)

Fr.: radium   

A radioactive metallic chemical element; symbol Ra. Atomic number 88; atomic weight 226.0254; melting point 700°C; boiling point 1,140°C. Discovered in 1898 by Marie Sklodowska Curie in an ore of pitchblende. In 1911 Curie and André Debierne successfully isolated radium by electrolysis.

N.L., from L. rad(ius)" ray, beam" → radius + -ium a noun suffix.

radius
  شعاع   
šo'â' (#)

Fr.: rayon   

Of a circle, any straight line segment extending from the center to a point on the circumference.
Of a sphere, any straight line segment extending from the center to a point on the surface.
Of a regular polygon, the radius of the circle circumscribed about the polygon.

From L. radius "staff, spoke of a wheel, beam of light," of unknown origin.

Šo'â', loan from Ar.

radius of gyration
  شعاع ِ لرش   
šo'â'-e lereš

Fr.: gyrorayon   

Same as → Larmor radius.

radius; → gyration.

radius vector
  بردار ِ شعاعی   
bordâr-e šo'â'i (#)

Fr.: rayon vecteur   

Math.: In a system of polar or spherical coordinates, a line joining a point to the origin.
Astro.: A line drawn from a central body to a satellite object in any position in its orbit.

radius; → vector.

radix
  پایه   
pâyé (#)

Fr.: base   

The base of a number system; thus 2 is the radix of the binary system, 10 the radix of the decimal system, 12 the radix of the duodecimal system.

From L. radix "root;" akin to Gk. rhiza "root;" cf. O.N. rot "root," O.E. wyrt "plant, herb;" E. radish.

Pâyé "basis, foundation; step," from "foot, step" (from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-).

radon
  رادون   
râdon (#)

Fr.: radon   

A gaseous radioactive chemical element; symbol Rn. Atomic number 86; mass number of most stable isotope 222; melting point about -71°C; boiling point -61.8°C. Radon was discovered in 1900 by the German chemist Friedrich Ernst Dorn and it was first isolated in 1910 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English chemist Robert Whytlaw-Gray. The longest half-life associated with this unstable element is 3.8 day.

The name indicates its origin from → radium. It had first been called radium emanation or just emanation (with chemical symbol Em) because it was a decay product of radium. Ramsay subsequently suggested the name "niton" (with chemical symbol Nt), which means "shining" in Latin. It was finally changed to radon in 1923.

raft
  سل   
sal (#)

Fr.: radeau   

A flat structure made up of a collection of logs or planks fastened together for floating or transportation on water.

M.E. rafte, rafter, from O.N. raptr "log."

Sal "raft," probably related to PIE base *sel-, *swel- "beam, board," cf. Gk. selma "beam;" O.E. syll "beam, large timber," O.N. svill "framework of a building," M.L.G. sull, O.H.G. swelli, Ger. Schwelle "sill," and also akin to Mid.Pers. sard "ladder," Pers. dialectal variants (Lârestâni) se, si "ladder," (Gilaki, Tâleqâni) sardi, (Qazvini) sorda, (Hamedâni) serda, (Kâšâni) sart, sârda, serde, and others all meaning "ladder."

rain
  باران   
bârân (#)

Fr.: pluie   

Water that is condensed from the aqueous vapor in the atmosphere and falls to earth in drops greater than 0.5 mm in diameter.

M.E. rein; O.E. regn; cf. O.S. regan; O.N. regn; M.Du. reghen; Ger. Regen; maybe cognate with Pers. (Tabari) rag "thunder;" (Šahmirzâdi, Semnâni, Sorxe-yi) rak "thunder;" (Gilaki) râk "cloudburst;" L. rigare "to wet, moist;" PIE *reg- "rain, damp."

Bârân, from bâridan "to rain;" Mid.Pers. vârân "rain," vâritan "to rain;" Av. vār- "rain; to rain;" cf. Skt. vār- "rain, water; to rain;" L. urinari "to plunge under water, to dive;" Gk. ourein "to urinate;" PIE base *uer- "water, rain, river."

rain and snow mixed
  شلیو   
šaliv

Fr.: mélange de pluie et de neige   

A precipitation consisting of rain and partially melted snow. It usually occurs when the temperature of the air layer near the ground is slightly above freezing. Called sleet in British English speaking countries, but not in the United States where the term has a different meaning in meteorology.

rain; → snow; → mix.

Šaliv, of dialectal origin, Kurd. šalêwa "rain and snow mixed," Aftari šelâp, Qasrâni šelâb with the same meaning, Tabari šalâb "strong cloudburst." The first element šal, šel, šor, šâr, âbšâr, šâridan "to flow." The second element iv, êw, âp, âb, → water.

rain cloud
  زفاک   
zafâk

Fr.: nuage de pluie   

Any cloud from which rain falls.

rain; → cloud.

Zafâk "rain cloud" (Dehxodâ); Mid.Pers. zafâ.

rainbow
  رنگین‌کمان   
rangin kamân (#)

Fr.: arc-en-ciel   

A color effect produced by the → refraction and → internal reflection of sunlight passing through a mist of tiny spherical water → droplets in the air. The effect is visible only when the observer has his back to the Sun. It appears as a colored band at about 138° from the Sun, hence 42° from the → antisolar pint. In other words, 42° is the angle between the direction of the → incident sunlight and the → line of sight. The → primary rainbow is caused from one reflection inside water droplets; the red color appears on the top and violet on the bottom. At solar elevations higher than 42° the bow is entirely below the → horizon and therefore invisible in the sky. A full rainbow is actually a complete circle, but from the ground we see only part of it. From an airplane, in the right conditions, one can see an entire circular rainbow. A → secondary rainbow appears if the sunlight is reflected twice inside the water droplets. Secondary rainbows are fainter, and the order of the color is reversed, with red on the bottom and violet on the top. See also: → Alexander's dark band, → supernumerary rainbow.

From → rain; → bow.

rainbow angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ رنگین‌کمان   
zâviye-ye rangin-kamân

Fr.: angle d'arc-en-ciel   

The → obtuse angle between sunlight and the → line of sight. Rainbow angle = 180° minus → scattering angle. For the → primary rainbow it is 138°, and for the → secondary rainbow 130°.

rainbow; → angle.

rainbow ray
  پرتو ِ رنگین‌کمان   
partow-e rangin-kamân

Fr.: rayon d'arc-en-ciel   

The sunlight incident on a tiny spherical droplet of water.

rainbow; → ray.

rainfall
  بارش   
bâreš (#)

Fr.: précipitation   

The total liquid product of precipitation or condensation from the atmosphere, as received and measured in a rain gauge.

rain + → fall.

Bâreš verbal noun of bâridan "to rain," bâridan "to rain;" Mid.Pers. vârân "rain," vâritan "to rain;" Av. vār- "rain; to rain;" cf. Skt. vār- "rain, water; to rain;" L. urinari "to plunge under water, to dive;" Gk. ourein "to urinate;" PIE base *uer- "water, rain, river."

rake
  ورکش   
varkeš (#)

Fr.: inclinaison   

General: Slope or inclination away from the perpendicular or the horizontal; departure from a reference base.
Aeronautics: The angle measured between the tip edge of an aircraft or missile wing or other lifting surface and the plane of symmetry.
Geology: The inclination of an ore shoot, or other linear geologic structure, from the horizontal, as measured in the plane of the associated veins, faults, or foliation.

Rake, etymology unknown.

Varkeš "slope" in Gilaki dialect. It can also be literally interpreted as "departure from a surface, a side, depart away" from var, variant bar, "side, surface" + keš present stem of kešidan "to pull, drag."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>