An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
range
  ۱) بُرد؛ ۲)، ۳) گستره   
1) bord; (#) 2), 3) gostaré (#)

Fr.: 1) portée; 2), 3) étendue   

1) Physics: The maximum distance a projectile travels.
2) Math.: The → set of values that actually comes out of a → function. The range is a → subset of the → codomain.
3) Statistics: The interval between the largest and smallest values in a statistical distribution.

M.E., from O.Fr. range "range, rank," from rangier "to place in a row, arrange," from reng "row, line."

1) Bord past stem of bordan "to carry, transport" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").
2) Gostaré, from gostar, gostardan "to expand; to spread; to diffuse" (Mid.Pers. wistardan "to extend; to spread;" Proto-Iranian *ui.star-; Av. vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" cf. Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" L. sternere "to spread;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow," stripe; PIE base *ster- "to spread").

rank
  رتبه   
rotbé (#)

Fr.: rang   

Position, in a series arranged in order, on the basis of some principle of arrangement, with reference to the other items or values in the series.

M.E., from O.E. ranc "proud, overbearing, showy," from O.Fr. renc, ranc, rang "row, line;" cf. Dan. rank "right, upright," Ger. rank "slender," O.N. rakkr "straight, erect," perhaps from PIE *reg- "to stretch, straighten," cognate with Pers. râst, → right.

Rotbé, loan from Ar. ratbat "rank."

Rankine scale
  مرپل ِ رنکین   
marpel-e Rankine

Fr.: échelle Rankine   

A temperature scale in which the degree intervals are the same size as in the → Fahrenheit scale, but 0 is set at absolute zero, -459.69 °F. Therefore, 1 degree Rankine is equal to exactly 5/9 → kelvin. It was formerly used by engineers in English-speaking countries, but is now obsolete. See also → Celsius scale, → Kelvin scale, → Reaumur scale.

Named for the British physicist and engineer William John Rankine (1820-1872); → scale.

Rankine-Hugoniot conditions
  بوتارهای ِ رانکین-هوگونیو   
butârhâ-ye Rankine-Hugoniot

Fr.: conditions de Rankine-Hugoniot   

Hydrodynamics → conservation laws (which can be extended to → magnetohydrodynamics, MHD) which describe the physical conditions of material across a → shock front. A fluid is completely described by its velocity, density, pressure, specific heat ratio, and magnetic field (in the MHD case). Mass, momentum, and energy fluxes are conserved in the shock, leading to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Also called Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. See also → jump condition.

Named after William John Rankine, → Rankine scale, and Pierre Henri Hugoniot, → Hugoniot curve; → condition.

Raoult's law
  قانون ِ رایءول   
qânun-e Raoult (#)

Fr.: loi de Raoult   

The → vapor pressure of an ideal → solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical component and the → mole fraction of the component present in the solution. This means that the addition of → solute to a liquid lessens the tendency for the liquid to become a → solid or a → gas. For example, the addition of → salt to water causes the water to freeze below its normal → freezing point (0°C) and to boil above its normal → boiling point (100°C).

After François-Marie Raoult (1830-1901), the French chemist who studied the physical properties of chemical solutions; → law.

rapid
  تند   
tond (#)

Fr.: rapide   

Occurring within a short time; happening speedily; moving or acting with great speed; swift (Dictionary.com).

From L. rapidus "tearing away, seizing, swift," from rapere "to hurry away, seize, plunder;"

Tond "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe" (Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through;" PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat").

Rapid Burster
  بلکور ِ تند   
belkvar-e tond

Fr.: source à sursaut rapide   

An object with technical designation MXB 17302335 which is characterized by erratic and extremely intense → X-ray emissions. The Rapid Burster is a → binary system comprising a → low-mass star as its → primary and a → secondary  → neutron star. The → gravitational attraction of the neutron star strips its → companion of some of its gas, which then forms an → accretion disk and spirals toward the neutron star. The Rapid Burster is located at a distance of 110 kpc in the highly reddened → globular cluster Liller 1. It is a → low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and a recurrent → X-ray transient. So far less than 200 LMXBs have been detected in the → Galaxy and the → Magellanic Clouds. All produce a persistent flux of X-rays, the result of a release of → gravitational potential energy. Approximately 40 of them also exhibit → Type I bursts which are due to → thermonuclear flashes on the surface of a neutron star. The Rapid Burster is unique among the LMXBs in that it produces X-ray bursts in quick succession. These are called → Type II bursts, and they result from a spasmodic release of gravitational potential energy, which is due to some unknown → accretion disk instability (Lewin et al., 1996, ApJ 462, L39).

rapid; → burster.

rapidly oscillating Ap star
  ستاره‌ی Apی ِ تند نونده   

Fr.: étoile Ap à oscillation rapide   

A chemically peculiar star characterized by the presence of high-frequency non-radial oscillations, with periods that range between about 4 and 16 min. These variations have periods from about 5 to 20 minutes and low amplitudes (B < 10 mmag). They are consistent with acoustic (→ p mode) pulsations of low degree and high radial overtone.

rapid; → -ly; → oscillate; → -ing; → Ap star.

rapids
  تنداب   
tondâb (#)

Fr.: rapides   

A part of a river where the current runs very swiftly. See also → torrent.

rapid.

Tondâb, from tond, → rapid, + âb, → water.

rare
  پرز، کمیاب   
perz, kamyâb (#)

Fr.: rare   

Not occurring very often; not found in large numbers.

M.E., from O.Fr. rere "sparse" from L. rarus "thinly sown; not thick; having intervals between."

Perz, in several Iranian languages and dialects "little, few, small, minute part of any thing" (Khonsâri: perz, Qatrâni: perzema, Birjandi: porzu, Farâmarzâni: pesk, Kurd petik, Tabari: perik "minute quantity, particle"); maybe ultimately from Proto-Ir. *paraka- "small part," → part.
Kamyâb "rare, difficult to find," from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few"); + yâb present stem of yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire" (Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach").

rare earth element
  بن‌پار ِ خاکی ِ کمیاب، خاک ِ کمیاب   
bonpâr-e xâki-ye kamyâb, xâk-e kamyâb

Fr.: terre rare   

Any of the group of metallic → chemical elements with → atomic numbers between 57 and 71 inclusive. The name is an inappropriate terminology, since they are neither rare nor earth; preferred name → lanthanide.

rare; → earth; → element.

rare gas
  گاز ِ کمیاب   
gâz-e kamyâb (#)

Fr.: gaz rare   

Another name for → inert gas.

M.E., from O.Fr. rere "sparse," from L. rarus "loose, wide apart, thin, infrequent;" &rar; gas.

Kamyâb "rare, difficult to find," from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few"); + yâb present stem of yâftanyâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire" (Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach").

rarefaction
  آلرش   
âlareš

Fr.: raréfaction   

The state of being rarefied, less dense.
An instantaneous reduction in density of a gas resulting from passage a sound wave; opposite of → compression.

M.E. rarefien, from M.Fr. rarefier, from L. rarefacere "make rare," from rarus "loose, wide apart, thin, infrequent."

Verbal noun from âlar present stem of âlaridanrarefy + , a suffix.

rarefaction wave
  موج ِ آلرش   
mowj-e âlareš

Fr.: onde de raréfaction   

A pressure wave in a fluid generated by rarefaction. It travels in the opposite direction to that of a shock wave in the medium.

rarefaction; → wave.

rarefied gas
  گاز ِ آلریده   
gâz-e âlaridé

Fr.: gaz raréfié   

A gas whose pressure is much less than a reference pressure.

Past participle of → rarefy; → gas.

rarefy
  آلریدن   
âlaridan

Fr.: raréfier   

1) To make less dense.
2) To become less dense; become thinned.
Related concepts: → attenuate, → dilute, → decompress.

M.E. rarefien, from M.Fr. rarefier, from rare, combining form of rarus "loose, wide apart, thin, infrequent."

Alaridan, infinitive of âlar, from intensive/nuance prefix â- + lar "thin, meagre" (Dehxodâ), Lori, Laki larr, larrek "thin cow or sheep," Kurd. lerr "thin, lean," variants of laqar (Torbat-Heydariyé), lâqar "lean, meagre, slender; weak."

Rasalgethi (α Herculis)
  رأس‌الجاثی   
Ra's-el-jâsi (#)

Fr.: Rasalgethi   

The brightest star in the constellation → Hercules. It is a → red supergiant of type M5 (surface temperature about 3300 K) lying at a distance of 380 light-years. Rasalgethi is a variable star with a mean magnitude of V = 3.48. It has a fifth magnitude companion 5'' away. This secondary is itself a double that consists of a 4 solar-mass class G5 giant star with a temperature about that of the Sun and a 2.5 solar-mass F2 dwarf star (somewhat hotter than the Sun) in orbit around each other separated by 0.4 AU with a 52 day period.

Rasalgethi, from Ar. Ra's al-Jathi (رأس‌الجاثی) "the Kneeler's Head," in reference to an early name for the constellation, the figure of the man seen upside down, his head toward the south, from ra's "head" + jathi "kneeling."

Rasalhague (α Ophiuchi)
  رأس‌الحیه   
ra's-el-hayyé (#)

Fr.: Rasalhague   

The brightest star (V = 2.08) in the constellation → Ophiuchus. Rasalhague is a → giant star of type A5 lying 47 light-years from Earth. It has a faint, very close companion only 0''.5 away, 7 A.U., that orbits with a period of 8.7 years.

Rasalhague, from Ar. Ra's al-Hayyah (رأس‌الحیه), literally the "head of the snake," from ra's "head" + Hayyah "snake," referring to the creature in Gk. mythology.

rat
  گرز   
gerz (#)

Fr.: rat   

Any of various long-tailed rodents resembling mice but larger, especially one of the genus Rattus (TheFreeDictionary.com).

From M.E. rat, rotte, from O.E. ræt, of unknown origin.

Gerz, from (Lori, Laki) gerza "rat, big mouse," Gilaki (Lâhijân, Gâleš, Bandar-Anzali, etc.) gerze "rat; mouse," variant (Mâzandarân) gal "mouse," of unknown origin.

rate
  نرخ   
nerx(#)

Fr.: taux   

The amount of change of some quantity during a time interval divided by the length of the time interval.

M.E. rate "monetary value," M.Fr. rate "price, value," from M.L. rata (pars) "fixed (amount)," from L. rata "fixed, settled," p.p. of reri "to reckon, think," → reason.

Nerx "rate, price, tariff."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>