An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
recycled pulsar
  پولسار ِ بازچرخ‌شده   
pulsâr-e bâzcarx šodé

Fr.: pulsar recyclé   

A → pulsar of abnormally low magnetic field and short period. The short period suggests that the pulasr is young, while the low field suggests a very old pulsar. According to theoretical models, a pulsar at some point in its evolution stops functioning as a pulsar. If it resides in a binary system (→ binary pulsar), its magnetic field decays in the interval when the companion evolves and fills its → Roche lobe. The dead pulsar is eventually spun up to life when → mass transfer from the companion begins. The pulsar gains → angular momentum from the infalling gas and increases its spin rate as more gas falls onto it. → Millisecond pulsars that spin hundreds of times per second are thought to be the result of such a transfer (see, e.g., G. Srinivasan, 2010, New Astronomy Reviews 54, 93, and references therein).

recycle; → pulsar.

red
  سرخ   
sorx (#)

Fr.: rouge   

That part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with a wavelength between 610 and 780 nm, that produces the impression of a variety of colors resembling that of blood.

M.E. red, from O.E. read (cf. Dan. rød, M.Du. root, Ger. rot), from PIE base *reudh- (cf. Av. raoidita- "red, reddish;" Skt. rudhirá- "red, bloody;" L. ruber "red;" Gk. erythros "red").

Sorx "red" (variants Tâleši sər, Kurd. sûr), from Mid.Pers. suxr "red;" O.Pers. θuxra-; Av. suxra- "red, of fire-color;" Ossetic syrx, surx "red;" cf. Skt. śukrá- "clear, pure, bright."

red clump
  گوده‌ی ِ سرخ   
gude-ye sorx

Fr.: grumeau rouge   

A concentration, on the → horizontal branch, of → red giant stars that roughly have the same intrinsic brightness. These core → helium burning stars are the metal rich equivalents of the better known → horizontal branch stars. Theoretical models predict that their absolute luminosity only weakly depends on their age and chemical composition.

red; → clump.

red clump star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گوده‌ی ِ سرخ   
setâre-ye gude-ye sorx

Fr.: étoile du grumeau rouge   

A star on the → horizontal branch which results from the evolution of a → red giant with an initial mass of ~ 1 Msun.

red; → clump; → star.

red dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ سرخ   
kutule-ye sorx (#)

Fr.: naine rouge   

A small, cool, very faint, main sequence star whose surface temperature is under about 3500 K. Red dwarfs generally have masses of less than one-third that of the Sun. In the neighbourhood of the Sun the majority of stars are red dwarfs.

red; → dwarf.

red giant
  غول ِ سرخ، غولپیکر ِ ~   
qul-e sorx (#), qulpeykar-e ~ (#)

Fr.: géante rouge   

A certain star of spectral type K or later that occupies the upper right portion of the → H-R diagram. Red giants are evolved stars that have exhausted their hydrogen fuel in the core. They may have a → luminosity up to 1000 times greater than → main sequence stars of the same → spectral type. Red giants belong to the → luminosity class III or II (bright giants). They are luminous because of their great size, but have a relatively low surface temperature. All normal stars are expected to pass eventually through a red-giant phase as a consequence of stellar evolution. When a main sequence star has converted approximately 10% of its hydrogen to helium, nuclear reactions in the core stop (→ Schönberg-Chandrasekhar limit). The → hydrostatic equilibrium is no longer maintained, and the core contracts while the outer layers expand and cool. This process produces the low surface temperature and large size (from 10 to 100 times that of the Sun) that characterize the red giant. In the core the temperature continues to rise. When it approaches 100,000,000 K helium will begin to fuse into carbon. → helium flash. Prominent bright red giants in the night sky include → Aldebaran and → Arcturus.

red; → giant.

red giant branch (RGB)
  شاخه‌ی ِ غولان ِ سرخ   
šâxe-ye qulân-e sorx

Fr.: branche des géantes rouges   

The evolutionary path of a star that has exhausted its available hydrogen content in the core, between the → main-sequence turnoff and the → helium flash.

red giant; → branch.

red HB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ BHR   
setâre-ye RHB

Fr.: étoile RHB   

Same as → red horizontal branch star.

red; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

red horizontal branch star
  ستاره‌ی ِ سرخ ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی   
setâre-ye sorx-e šâxe-ye ofoqi

Fr.: étoile rouge de la branche horizontale   

A star found on the red part of the → horizontal branch. According to theoretical models, these stars result from the evolution of stars with a mass around 0.8 Msun, higher than that giving rise to → BHB stars. Upon helium burning in their cores, the remnant envelope of the red giant collapses.

red; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

red leak
  نشت ِ سرخ   
našt-e sorx

Fr.: fuite rouge   

Unwanted secondary window in a filter band pass, on the red side of the main window.

red; leak, from M.E leken, from O.N. leka "to drip, leak;" akin to Du. lek, Ger. lech "leaky," O.E. leccan "to moisten."

Našt "leak, leakage," of unknown origin; sorx, → red.

Red Spot
  لکه‌ی ِ سرخ   
lakke-ye sorx (#)

Fr.: Tache rouge   

See → Great Red Spot, on Jupiter.

red; → spot.

red supergiant
  ابَرغول ِ سرخ   
abarqul-e sorx (#)

Fr.: supergéante rouge   

A supergiant star with spectral type K or M. Red supergiants are the largest stars in the Universe, but not necessarily the most massive. Betelgeuse and Antares are the best known examples of a red supergiant.

red; → supergiant.

red transient
  گذرای ِ سرخ   
gozarâ-ye sorx

Fr.: transitoire rouge   

A member of a class of exploding stars that are more luminous than → novae but not as luminous as → supernovae. Moreover, their outburst → light curves have multiple peaks. One of the most characteristic features of red transients is that after exploding they cool down to → late-type → M star and develop circumstellar material rich in molecules and dust. Some of the members of the red transients in our Galaxy are V838V, OGLE-2002-BLG-360, V4332 Sgr, and V1309 Sco.

red; → transient.

red wing
  بال ِ سرخ   
bâl-e sorx

Fr.: aile rouge   

Of a spectral line profile, the → line wing with wavelengths longer than that of the emission or absorption peak.

red; → wing.

red-edge
  لبه‌ی ِ سرخ   
labe-ye soex

Fr.: bord rouge   

A rise in a planet's surface → reflectivity between red → absorbance and → near-infrared reflection due to → vegetation. The red-edge is one of the possible signs of life on distant → habitable  → exoplanets. Its presence is attributed to the chlorophyll molecule and leaf structure. The leaves of land plants reflect sunlight much more efficiently long-ward of this edge than they do in the visible. Although the red-edge position for Earth's vegetation is fixed at around 700-760 nm, that for exoplanets may not necessarily be the same (Takizawa et al., 2017, Nature Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 7561).

red; → edge.

redden
  ۱) سُرخیدن؛ ۲) سرخاندن   
1) sorxidan; 2) sorxândan

Fr.: 1) rougir; 2) faire rougir   

1) (v.intr.) Of a spectral line, to reduce in intensity due to absorption by interstellar dust grains.
2) (v.tr.) Of interstellar dust, to absorb the light that passes through it.

Infinitives from → red.

reddened star
  ستاره‌ی ِ سرخیده   
setâre-ye sorxidé

Fr.: étoile rougie   

A star whose light has undergone → reddening.

Reddened, p.p. of → redden; → star.

reddening
  سُرخش   
sorxeš

Fr.: rougissement   

The process by which light from an astronomical object grows red as it travels through interstellar dust. Dust scatters blue light more than red, thus leaving predominantly red light transmitted.

Verbal noun of → redden.

reddening coefficient
  همگر ِ سرخش   
hamgar-e sorxeš

Fr.: coefficient de rougissement   

A dimensionless quantity determined from the comparison of the observed → Balmer decrements with respect to the theoretical values for given physical conditions of electron temperature and density. The reddening coefficient at Hβ is defined as c(Hβ) = log (I(Hβ)/F(Hβ)), where I(Hβ) and F(Hβ) are → de-reddened and reddened fluxes respectively. Also called logarithmic extinction.

reddening; → coefficient.

reddening function
  کریای ِ سرخش   
karyâ-ye sorxeš

Fr.: fonction de rougissement   

The normalized interstellar extinction at a given wavelength. It is defined by f(λ) = A(λ)/A(Hβ) - 1, where A(λ) is the extinction at the given wavelength and A(Hβ) the extinction at Hβ, with f(Hβ) = 0. It is used to → de-redden observed fluxes: I(λ)/I(Hβ) = F(λ)/F(Hβ).10c(Hβ).f(λ), where I represents the flux in the absence of extinction and F the observed flux affected by extinction, c(Hβ) being the → reddening coefficient.

reddening; → function.

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