An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
rule of three
  رزن ِ سه   
razan-e sé

Fr.: règle de trois   

Te method of finding the fourth term in a proportion when three terms are given.

rule; → three.

ruled grating
  توری ِ شیاردار   
turi-ye šiyârdâr

Fr.: réseau à traits   

A → diffraction grating with a series of grooves that have been ruled on a reflective surface with a diamond tool mounted on a ruling machine. Ruled gratings may have triangular or trapezoidal groove profiles, whereas → holographic gratings usually have sinusoidal groove profiles.

Ruled, → rule; → grating.

Turi, → grating; šiyârdâr "having grooves," from šiyâr, → groove, + -dâr "having, possessor," → property.

ruled surface
  رویه‌ی ِ خط‌ساخته   
ruye-ye xatt sâxté

Fr.: surface réglée   

A surface, such as a cylinder or cone, that can be generated by moving a straight line.

Ruled, p.p. of rule; → surface.

Ruyé, → surface; xatt sâxté "built, formed by a line," from xattline; sâxté, p.p. of sâxtan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").

rump
  کپل، سرین   
kapal (#), sorin (#)

Fr.: croupe   

The hind part of the body of an animal, as the hindquarters of a quadruped or sacral region of a bird (Dictionary.com).

M.E. rumpe, from Scandinavian; compare Dan., Norw. Swed. rumpe rumpa "tail;" cognate with Ger. Rumpf "body, trunk."

Kapal, maybe from Ar. kafal.
Sorin, → buttock.

run
  داو   
dâv

Fr.: période   

An interval or period during which something, as a machine, operates or continues operating. → observing run.

Run, noun from verb, from M.E. ronnen, alteration of rinnen, (from O.E. rinnan and O.N. rinna) and of rennen, from O.N. renna; akin to O.H.G. rinnan; Ger. rinnen "to flow, run;" Skt. rinati "he causes to flow," and probably to L. rivus "stream;" PIE base *rei- "to flow."

Dâv "a move, a turn (at play)," dâv zadan (kardan) "to make a move (at game)," variant dow (e.g. dow bé dast-e kasi oftâdan), maybe related to dow "run," from davidan, dav- "to run;" Mid.Pers. dawidan, daw- "to run;" cf. Skt. dhāv- "to walk, hurry, flow," dhāvati "flows, runs;" Gk. thoos "fast, quick;" O.E. deaw; E. dew; PIE base *dheu- "to flow."

runaway star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گریزان   
setâre-ye gorizân

Fr.: étoile en fuite   

A massive, young, and hot star that is moving quickly through space. Runaways are probably propelled through space from a binary star when its companion has exploded as a supernova, or ejected from a stellar cluster by the dynamical interactions in the system.

run; away, from O.E. aweg, earlier on weg "on from this (that) place;" → star.

Setâré, → star; gorizân present participle of goriz-, gorixtan "to escape; to flee, run away;" Mid.Pers. virextan; Proto-Iranian *vi-raik, from vi- "apart, asunder" + *raik; Av. raek- "to leave, set free, let off;" Mid./Mod.Pers. reg/rig (in mordé-rig "inheritance"); Skt. ric- "to leave," rinakti "gives up, evacuates;" Gk. leipein "to leave;" L. linquere "to leave;" from PIE *linkw-, from *leikw- "to leave behind" (cf. Goth. leihvan; O.E. lænan "to lend;" O.H.G. lihan "to borrow;" O.N. lan "loan").

runoff
  رواناب   
ravânâb (#)

Fr.: ruissellement   

The water or other liquids that drains or flows from the land into streams and rivers, eventually into seas.

From → run + → off.

Ravânâb, literally "flowing water," from ravân "flowing, running," pr.p. of raftan "to go, walk; to flow" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack" + âb, → water.

rupture
  پارگی، گسست   
pâregi (#) , gosast (#)

Fr.: rupture   

Breaking apart or bursting. → plastic, → plasticity.

From L. ruptura "the breaking (of an arm or leg), fracture," from p.p. of rumpere "to break."

Pâregi "rupture," from pâré, → partial; gosast, → Big Rip.

rural
  روستایی   
rustâyi (#)

Fr.: rural   

In, relating to, or characteristic of the → countryside.

M.E., from O.Fr. rural, from L ruralis "of the countryside," from rur-,rus "open land, country;" cf. O.E. rum "space" (extent or time); O.H.G., Gothic rum, Ger. Raum "space," ultimately from PIE root *reue- "to open; space," source also of Av. ravah- "space," O.Irish roi, roe "plain field," O.C.S. ravinu "level," Russ. ravnina "a plain."

Rustâyi, adj. of rustâ, → countryside.

Russell-Saunders coupling
  جفتش ِ راسل-ساندرز، جفسری ِ ~   
jofteš-e Russell-Saunders, jafsari-ye ~

Fr.: couplage Russell-Saunders   

A coupling scheme of → electron configuration, used mainly for the lighter atoms with → atomic number less than 30. In an atom when changes in energy states are produced by the action of two or more electrons, the value of the total angular momentum of these electrons results from the coupling between the total → orbital angular momenta of the electrons and the total → spin angular momenta of the electrons. In this scheme the orbital angular momenta and spin angular momenta of electrons are added separately to give the total angular momentum L = Σi li and the total electron spin angular momentum S = Σi si. These are then added to give J = L + S. Also called → LS coupling. See also → jj coupling.

After Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957) and Frederick Albert Saunders (1875-1963), American astronomers (1925, ApJ 61, 38); → coupling.

Russell-Vogt theorem
  فربین ِ راسل-فوکت   
farbin-e Russell-Vogt

Fr.: théorème de Russell-Vogt   

A uniqueness theorem involving the equations of state of stellar structure. → Vogt-Russell theorem.

Named after the German astronomer Heinrich Vogt (1890-1968) and the American astronomer Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957); → theorem.

rust
  زنگ   
zang (#)

Fr.: rouille   

Hydrated oxide of iron, mainly Fe2O3H2O, formed on the surface of iron when it is exposed to moisture and air.

O.E. rust, related to rudu "redness," from P.Gmc. *rusta- (cf. O.H.G., Ger. rost, M.Du. ro(e)st), from PIE base *reudh- "red" (cf. Lith. rustas "brownish," rudeti "to rust;" L. robigo, O.C.S. ruzda "rust").

Zang "rust," variants žang, zangâr, of unknown origin.

ruthenium
  روتنیوم   
ruteniom (#)

Fr.: ruthénium   

A hard, silver gray metal belonging to the → platinum group of metals; symbol: Ru. It is found directly above osmium in Group 8 of the periodic table. → Atomic number 44, → atomic weight 101.07, → melting point about 2,310°C, → boiling point about 3,900°C, → specific gravity 12.41 at 20°C.

From L. ruthenia "Russia," because it was first found by the Russian chemist Gottfried Wilhelm Osann in 1828, despite not being recognized as an element. In 1844 the Russian chemist Karl Karlovich Klaus was able to isolate the ruthenium metal.

Rutherford atom
  اتم ِ راذرفرد   
atom-e Rutherford (#)

Fr.: atome de Rutherford   

A simple model assuming that the positive charge of the atom is not distributed uniformly throughout the atom (unlike the → Thomson atom), but is concentrated in a minute center or nucleus, and the negative charge is distributed over a sphere of radius comparable with the atomic radius.

After the British physicist and chesmist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), who put forward this model in 1911; Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908; → atom.

rutherfordium
  راذرفردیوم   
râzerfordiom (#)

Fr.: rutherfordium   

An artificially produced radioactive chemical element; symbol Rf. Atomic number 104; mass number of most stable isotope 261; melting point, boiling point, and specific gravity unknown. Rutherfordium was discovered in 1964 by a team of scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna in Russia who named the element kurchatovium. The Russian scientists were unable to duplicate their results and therefore lost credit to a team of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, who identified the element. The scientists in California were successful in isolating the element after irradiating 249Cf with 12C.

Named after the British physicist and chemist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), → Rutherford atom.

rydberg
  رودبَری   
rydberg (#)

Fr.: rydberg   

A unit of energy used in atomic physics, equal to about 13.6 electron-volts, the ionization potential of hydrogen.

In honor of the Swedish physicist Johannes Robert Rydberg (1854-1919), who did important contributions on spectroscopy, and in particular found a relatively simple expression relating the various lines in the spectra of chemical elements (1890).

Rydberg constant
  پایای ِ رودبَری   
pâyâ-ye Rydberg (#)

Fr.: constante de Rydberg   

A fundamental constant of atomic physics appearing in the → Rydberg formula. The Rydberg constant for hydrogen is 109,739 cm-1.

rydberg; → constant.

Rydberg correction
  ارشایش ِ رودبَری   
aršâyeš-e Rydberg

Fr.: correction de Rydberg   

A term inserted into a formula for the energy of a single electron in the outermost shell of an atom to take into account the failure of the inner electron shells to screen the nuclear charge completely.

rydberg; → correction.

Rydberg formula
  هموگش ِ رودبَری   
hamugeš-e Rydberg

Fr.: formule de Rydberg   

A formula, used in atomic physics, which describes the wavelengths or frequencies of light in various series of related spectral lines, such as those emitted by hydrogen atoms.

rydberg; → formula.

S Andromedae
   S آندرومدا   
S Andromedâ

Fr.: S Andromedae   

The only supernova seen to date in the Andromeda galaxy and the first supernova observed beyond our own Galaxy. It was recorded on Aug. 20, 1885, by Ernst Hartwig (1851-1923) at Dorpat Observatory (Tartu) in Estonia and independently by other astronomers. S Andromedae reached magnitude 6 between Aug. 17 and 20, and had faded to magnitude 16 by February 1890. It is now believed that S Andromedae was a Type Ia supernova. Also known as SN 1885A.

S, from the second variable star to be discovered in constellation → Andromeda

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>