An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
S asteroid
  سیارک ِ S   
sayyârak-e S

Fr.: astéroïde S   

A moderately bright type of asteroids (albedo 0.10 to 0.22) consisting mainly of iron- and magnesium-silicates such as olivine and pyroxene. They are dominant in the inner main belt within 2.2 AU, common in the central belt within about 3 AU, but become rare further out. The largest is 15 Eunomia (about 330 km in its largest dimension).

S stands for silicaceous, → silicate; → asteroid.

S cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ S   
xuše-ye S

Fr.: amas S   

A → star cluster situated within an arcsecond, or 0.04 pc, from the → Galactic Center, in the vicinity of the → supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The cluster members are about 40 → main sequence → B-type stars with relatively high orbital → eccentricities (0.3 ≤ e&le 0.95). The most famous member of the S cluster is S2 because of its brightness and its fast orbital motion near Sgr A*. Same as Same as the Sgr A* cluster and S stars. See also other → Galactic center clusters (Figer et al. 2002, ApJ 581, 258; and 1999, ApJ 525, 750).

S, because of proximity to → Sgr A*; → cluster.

S Doradus star
  ستاره‌ی S ِ زرین ماهی   
setâre-ye S Zarrin-mâhi

Fr.: étoiles S Doradus   

A type of massive, → blue supergiant, → variable star, also known as a → Hubble-Sandage variable or a → Luminous Blue Variable (LBV). S Doradus stars are the most luminous stars in the Galaxy and are easily identified in other nearby galaxies. They are named after the prototype, S Doradus, in the → Large Magellanic Cloud.

Dorado; → star.

S star
  ستاره‌ی ِ S   
setâre-ye S

Fr.: étoile de type S   

A → red giant of → spectral type S whose spectrum is dominated by → molecular bands arising from → zirconium → oxide (ZrO). S stars also have strong → cyanogen bands and contain spectral lines of → lithium and → technetium. Almost all S stars are → long-period variables.

S, letter of alphabet; → star.

s-process
  فراروند ِ s   
farâravand-e s

Fr.: processus s   

A → nucleosynthesis process by which → chemical elements heavier than → copper are formed through a slow flux of → neutrons absorbed by atomic nuclei (→ neutron-capture element). The → capture of neutrons occurs on time scales that are long enough to enable unstable nuclei to decay via the emission of a → beta particle before absorbing another neutron. Prominent s-process elements include → barium, → zirconium, and → yttrium. See also: → r-process.

s stands for → slow; → process.

S-type asteroid
  سیارک ِ گونه‌ی ِ S   
sayârak-e gune-ye S

Fr.: astéroïde de type S   

A type of → asteroid containing → pyroxene and → olivine silicates, probably mixed with metallic iron, similar to → stony meteorites. S-type asteroids show high albedo of 0.10-0.22. They include about 17% of known asteroids and occupy the inner → asteroid belt.

S for → stone; → type; → asteroid.

S-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ S   
setâre-ye gune-ye S

Fr.: étoile de type S   

Same as → S star.

S, letter of alphabet; → type; → star.

S-wave
  موج ِ S   
mowj-e S

Fr.: onde S   

shear wave.

S, referring to → shear; → wave.

Sachs-Wolfe effect
  اُسکر ِ زاخس-وُلف   
oskar-e Sachs-Wolfe

Fr.: effet de Sachs-Wolfe   

The effect of → gravitational potentials on the → anisotropy of the → cosmic microwave background radiation, in which photons from the → CMB are gravitationally → redshifted, causing the CMB spectrum to appear uneven. This effect is the predominant source of fluctuations in the CMB for angular scales above about 10 degrees. It involves two parts: the effect of the potential at the → surface of last scattering, which is the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe effect. And the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effec, which is caused by the time variation of gravitational potentials as the photons travel through them. A photon traveling through a decaying → potential well (wall) gains (loses) energy. Without → dark energy the photon is → blueshifted and then → redshifted, so that both effects compensate each other. On the other hand, in an → accelerating Universe driven by dark energy the photon gets more blueshifted. See also → Rees-Sciama effect.

Rainer Kurt Sachs (1932- ) & Arthur Michael Wolfe (1939- ), 1967, ApJ 147, 73; → effect.

Sachs-Wolfe plateau
  تختال ِ زاخس-وُلف   
taxtâl-e Sachs-Wolfe

Fr.: plateau de Sachs-Wolfe   

An almost horizontal region in the → CMB angular power spectrum belonging to a → multipole index 10 ≤ l ≤ 100. This feature is due to the → Sachs-Wolfe effect.

Sachs-Wolfe effect; → plateau.

Sadalmelik (α Aquarii)
  سعد الملک   
sa'delmalek (#)

Fr.: Sadalmelik   

A supergiant star of type G2 Ib situated in the constellation → Aquarius. At a distance of 750 light-years, it has a luminosity 3000 times that of the Sun, and a diameter about 60 times the solar diameter. Variant designations: Sadalmelek; Sadlamulk; El Melik; Saad el Melik.

From Ar. Sa'd al-Malik (سعد الملک) "the lucky star of the ruler," for unknown reasons.

Sadr (γ Cygni)
  صدر   
Sadr (#)

Fr.: Sadr   

The star that lies at the center of → Cygnus's → Northern Cross. This F8 → supergiant is situated some 1,500 → light-years away and has an → apparent visual magnitude of 2.20.

From Ar. as-sadr (الصدر) "breast" (of the Cygnus).

Sagitta
  پیکان   
Peykân (#)

Fr.: Flèche   

The Arrow. A very small → constellation, in fact the third smallest constellation in the sky, lying south of → Vulpecula, and north of → Aquila. The constellation contains the prototype → WZ Sagittae star and M71 (NGC 6838), formerly thought to be an → open cluster but now considered to be a → globular cluster of low condensation. Its brightest star α Sge is a yellow bright → giant of → apparent magnitude +4.37 and → spectral type G1 II about 475 → light-years from Earth. Abbreviation: Sge; Genitive: Sagittae.

From L. sagitta "arrow."

Peykân, → arrow.

Sagittarius
  نیم‌اسب   
Nimasb (#)

Fr.: Sagittaire   

The Archer. A large constellation belonging to the → Zodiac, situated between → Scorpius and → Capricorn. It is located in the southern hemisphere at approximately 19h right ascension, 25° south declination. The constellation, part of which lies in the → Milky Way, contains the → Trifid Nebula, → Lagoon nebula, star clusters, and globular clusters. The center of the Galaxy lies in the direction of Sagittarius. Abbreviation: Sgr; Genitive: Sagittarii.

From L. sagittarius "archer," literally "pertaining to arrows," from → sagitta "arrow" + -arius "-ary." In Gk. mythology, Sagittarius is identified as a centaur, half human, half horse. In some legends, the Centaur Chiron was the son of Philyra and Saturn, who was said to have changed himself into a horse to escape his jealous wife, Rhea. Chiron was eventually immortalized in the constellation of → Centaurus, or in some version, Sagittarius.

Nimasb, from Mid.Pers. nêmasp "centaur, Sagittarius," from nêm, nêmag "mid-, half" (Mod.Pers. nim); Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Skt. néma- "half" + asp "horse" (Mod.Pers. asb); O.Pers. asa- "horse;" Av. aspa- "horse," aspā- "mare," aspaiia- "pertaining to the horse;" cf. Skt. áśva- "horse, steed;" Gk. hippos; L. equus; O.Ir. ech; Goth. aihwa-; O.E. eoh "horse;" PIE base *ekwo- "horse."

Sagittarius A (Sgr A)
  نیم‌اسب A   
Nimasb A

Fr.: Sagittarius A   

A strong radio source at the center of our Galaxy. It is a complex object with three components: Sgr A West is a thermal radio source made of several dust and gas clouds, which orbit → Sgr A* and fall onto it at velocities as high as 1000 km per second. Sgr A East is a → non-thermal source, about 25 → light-years across, that appears to be a → supernova remnant. Sgr A* is the most plausible candidate for the location of a Galactic → supermassive black hole with a mass of about 4 million → solar masses.

Sagittarius.

Sagittarius arm
  بازوی ِ نیم‌اسب   
bâzu-ye Nimasb

Fr.: bras du Sagittaire   

One of the → spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy. It lies between the Sun and the the → Scutum-Crux arm. Also known as the Sagittarius-Carina Arm.

Sagittarius; → arm.

Sagittarius B2
  نیم‌اسب B2   
Nimasb B2

Fr.: Sagittarius B2   

A massive (3 × 106 → solar masses), dense (up to 108 particles per cm3) → H II region and → molecular cloud complex located near the → Galactic center (about 390 → light-years from it) and about 26,000 light-years from Earth. This complex is one of the largest in the → Milky Way, spanning a region about 150 light-years across. The mean → hydrogen  → density within the cloud is 3,000 atoms per cm3, which is about 20-40 times denser than a typical molecular cloud. It is the richest molecular source in the Galaxy in which many different types of → interstellar molecule have been identified, including glycine, the simplest amino acid, and the sugar molecule glycoaldehyde.

Sagittarius.

Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کوتوله‌ی ِ بیضی‌گون ِ نیم‌اسب   
kahkešân-e kutule-ye beyzigun-e nimasb

Fr.: galaxie naine elliptique du Sagittaire   

A satellite galaxy of the Milky Way discovered only in 1994 since most of it is obscured by the Galactic disc. At only 50,000 light years distant from our Galaxy's core, it is travelling in a polar orbit around the Galaxy. Our Galaxy is slowly devouring it, as evidenced by a filament which stretches around the Milky Way's core like a gossamer loop. It is only about 10,000 light-years in diameter, in comparison to the Milky Way's diameter of 100,000 light years. It is populated by old yellowish stars has four known globular clusters: M54, Arp 2, Terzan 7, and Terzan 8. It should not be confused with the → Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy.

Sagittarius; → dwarf; → elliptical; → galaxy.

Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کوتوله‌ی ِ بی‌سامان ِ نیم‌اسب   
kahkešân-e kutule-ye bisâmân-e Nimasb

Fr.: galaxie naine irrégulière du Sagittaire   

A dwarf irregular galaxy, discovered in 1977, that is a member of the Local Group of galaxies. It has a diameter of 1,500 light-years and lies about 3.5 million light-years away. SagDIG contains as much as about 108 solar masses of H I gas and is one of the most metal-poor galaxies. It should not be confused with the → Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.

Sagittarius; → dwarf; → irregular; → galaxy.

Sagnac effect
  اسکر ِ سنیاک   
oskar-e Sagnac

Fr.: effet Sagnac   

The → phase difference between two light waves moving in opposite directions along a closed circular loop when the loop is rotating. More specifically, consider a beam of light split into two beams which are then allowed to propagate in two opposite directions along the rim of a rotating disk. When they are recombined, a phase difference occurs between them. The position of the → interference fringes is dependent on the → angular velocity of the setup. This → relativistic effect illustrates the impossibility of synchronizing clocks situated in a rotating → reference frame, as described by Einstein in 1905. The Sagnac effect is used, for example, in optical gyroscopes installed in airplanes or in devices used for measuring the Earth rotation. The Sagnac effect is very important for the correct working of the → Global Positioning System.

Named after Georges Sagnac (1869-1928), French physicist, who discovered the phenomenon in 1913; → effect.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>