An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
sand
  ماسه   
mâsé (#)

Fr.: sable   

Hard granular powder, consisting of fine grains of rock or minerals, usually quartz fragments, found on beaches, in deserts, and in soil.

O.E. sand; cf. O.N. sandr, O.Fris. sond, M.Du. sant, Ger. Sand; PIE base *samatha- (cf. Gk. psammos "sand," L. sabulum).

Mâsé "sand," of unknown origin.

sandstone
  ماسه‌سنگ   
mâse-sang (#)

Fr.: grès   

Variously colored → sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-like quartz grains cemented by calcite, clay, or iron oxide. The sand accumulated originally underwater in shallow seas or lakes, or on the ground along shorelines or in desert regions.

sand; → stone.

sandstorm
  ماسه‌باد   
mâse-bâd (#)

Fr.: tempête de sable   

A strong wind carrying sand through the air.

sand; → storm.

Sanduleak catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ سندیولیک   
kâtâlog-e Sanduleak

Fr.: catalogue de Sanduleak   

A deep → objective prism survey of the → Large Magellanic Cloud carried out with the Curtis Schmidt telescope on Cerro Tololo in Chile. A total of 1272 stars, generally brighter than → photographic magnitude ~ 14, are listed in the catalog as proven or probable LMC members. The stars are identified on the charts in the LMC Atlas of Hodge & Wright (1967).

By Nicholas Sanduleak (1933-1990), American astronomer, published in 1970 as Contribution No. 89 of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory; → catalog.

sansculottide
  سان‌کولوتید   
sanculottide (#)

Fr.: sans-culottide   

One of the 5 or 6 → epagomenal days added to the 12 months of 30 days each in the → French Republican Calendar. Sansculottides began on September 17 or 18 and approximately ended on the → autumnal equinox, on September 22 or 23 of the → Gregorian calendar. These days were kept as festivals of Virtue, Genius, Labor, Opinion, and Rewards. There was a sixth Sanculottide, called Revolution, in → leap years.

From Fr. sans-culotte, literally "without knee breeches," a revolutionary of the lower class in the French revolution. The appellation was originally a term of contempt applied by the aristocrats but later was adopted as a popular name by the French revolutionaries. It refers to the fashionable culottes (silk knee breeches) of the aristocrats as distinguished from the working class sans-culottes, who traditionally wore pantalons (long trousers).

SAO Star Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ ستاره‌ای ِ SAO   
kâtâlog-e setâre-yi-ye SAO

Fr.: catalogue SAO   

A general whole-sky catalog compiled by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory which results from the combination of several earlier catalogs. The compilation gives positions and proper motions for 258,997 stars, of which 8,712 are double and 499 variable, with an average distribution of 6 stars per square degree. The star positions have an average standard deviation of 0''.2 at their original epochs (0''.5 at epoch 1963.5). The equinox is 1950.0 and the system that of the FK4.

SAO acrynome of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; → star; → catalog.

Saros
  ساروس   
Sâros (#)

Fr.: saros   

The period of 223 → synodic month, equaling 6585.32 days or 18 years, 11.33 days, after which the Sun, Earth, and Moon return to approximately the same relative geometry. When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and at the same time of year. Thus, the Saros is a useful tool for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 or 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses (F. Espenak, NASA).

Gk. saros, from Akkadian shār, Sumerian shar "multitude, large number." The ancient astronomers knew the Saros cycle, but they did not use the term Saros. In the Almagest, Ptolemy refers to the Saros as the "periodic time" (periodikos chronos) and gives it the following properties: 223 → synodic months = 239 → anomalistic months = 242 → draconistic months = 6,585 1/3 days = 241 revolutions in longitude plus 10 2/3 degrees. Edmund Halley seems to have been the first to apply this term to an eclipse cycle, in 1691.

satellite
  ۱) ماهواره؛ ۲) بنده‌وار   
1) mâhvâré; 2) bandevâr

Fr.: satellite   

1) A body that revolves around a planet; a moon. → Galilean satellite; → regular satellite; → irregular satellite.
2) Something that depends on, accompanies, or serves something else. → satellite galaxy; → satellite line.

From M.Fr. satellite, from L. satellitem "attendant."

1) Mâhvâré, from mâh, → moon, + -vâré, -vâr similarity suffix.
2) Bandevâr, from bandé "bound, fastened; (devoted) servant, domestic;" Mid.Pers. bandag, from bastan, band-, vastan "to bind, shut" (O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

satellite galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بنده‌وار   
kahkešân-e bandevâr

Fr.: galaxie satellite   

A galaxy that orbits a larger one due to gravitational attraction. The Milky Way has at least ten satellite galaxies: the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Carina Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, Ursa Major I, and → Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.

satellite; → galaxy.

satellite line
  خط ِ بنده‌وار   
xatt-e bandevâr

Fr.: raie satellite   

Radio astro.: Of an OH source, which emits at 1665 and 1667 MHz as the main frequencies, one of the lines arising from transitions at 1612 and 1730 MHz.

satellite; → line.

saturate
  انجالیدن   
anjâlidan

Fr.: saturer   

1) Chem.: To add as much of a liquid, solid, or gas to a solution as it can absorb at a given temperature.
2) To fill something with so many things that no more can be added.

From L. saturatus, p.p. of saturare "to fill full, sate, drench," from satur "sated, full," from PIE base *sā- "to satisfy."

Anjâlidan "to saturate, to fill" (Dehxodâ, Steingass), ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ham-gar-, from *ham- "together," denoting "much, many," → syn-, + *gar- "to soak, moisten;" cf. Sogdian wγyr- "to soak, steep," from *aua-gar-, from which derives Pers. âqâridan, âqeštan "to steep, soak; mix."

saturated
  انجالیده   
anjâlidé

Fr.: saturé   

1) Chem.: The qualifier of a solution that has as much solute as possible.
2) (Of colors) Of maximum chroma or purity.

Past participle of → saturate (v..

saturated air
  هوای ِ انجالیده   
havâ-ye anjâlidé

Fr.: air saturé   

Air that contains the maximum amount of → water vapor that is possible at the given → temperature and → pressure, i.e. air in which the → relative humidity is 100%.

saturated; → air.

saturated liquid
  آوه‌ی ِ انجالیده   
âve-ye anjâlidé

Fr.: liquide saturé   

A liquid whose temperature and pressure are such that any decrease in pressure without change in temperature causes it to boil.

saturate; → liquid.

saturated solution
  لویش ِ انجالیده   
luyeš-e anjâlidé

Fr.: solution saturée   

A solution which can exist in equilibrium with excess of solute. The saturation concentration is a function of the temperature.

saturate; → solution.

saturated vapor
  بخار ِ انجالیده   
boxâr-e anjâlidé

Fr.: vapeur saturante   

A vapor at the pressure and temperature at which it can exist in dynamical equilibrium with its liquid. Any compression of its volume at constant temperature causes it to condense to liquid at a rate sufficient to maintain a constant pressure. The term "saturated" is a misnomer, since it does not have the same meaning as a → saturated solution in chemistry. There is no question of one substance being dissolved in another.

saturate; → vapor.

saturation
  انجال، انجالش   
anjâl, anjâleš

Fr.: saturation   

Physics: Degree of magnetization of a substance which cannot be exceeded however strong the applied magnetizing field.
Detectors: The condition of a detector or a pixel when it is submitted to a signal so strong that it cannot handle it properly; the result is a non-linear, useless response.

Verbal noun of → saturate.

saturation current
  جریان ِ انجال، ~ انجالش   
jarayân-e anjâl, ~ anjâleš

Fr.: courant de saturation   

The maximum current that can be obtained in a specific circuit under specified conditions.

saturation; → current.

saturation induction
  درهازش ِ انجال، ~ انجالش   
darhâzeš-e anjâl, ~ anjâleš

Fr.: induction à saturation   

The maximum intrinsic magnetic induction possible in a material.

saturation; → induction.

saturation signal
  نشال ِ انجال، ~ ِ انجالش   
nešâl-e anjâl, ~ anjaalesh

Fr.: signal de saturation, ~ saturé   

In radar, a signal whose amplitude is greater than the dynamic range of the receiving system.

saturation; → signal.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>