An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Schwarzschild metric
  متریک ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
metrik-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: métrique de Schwarzschild   

In → general relativity, the → metric that describes the → space-time outside a static mass with spherically symmetric distribution.

Schwarzschild black hole; → metric.

Schwarzschild radius
  شعاع ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
šo'â'-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: rayon de Schwarzschild   

The critical radius at which a massive body becomes a → black hole, i.e., at which light is unable to escape to infinity: Rs = 2GM / c2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass, and c the → speed of light. The fomula can be approximated to Rs≅ 3 x (M/Msun), in km. Therefore, the Schwarzschild radius for Sun is about 3 km and for Earth about 1 cm.

Schwarzschild black hole; → radius.

Schwarzschild singularity
  تکینی ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
takini-ye Schwarzschild

Fr.: singularité de Schwarzschild   

A region of infinite → space-time curvature postulated to lie within a → black hole.

Schwarzschild black hole; → singularity.

Schwarzschild solution
  لویش ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
luyeš-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: solution de Schwarzschild   

The first exact solution of → Einstein's field equations that describes the → space-time geometry outside a spherical distribution of mass.

Briefly following Einstein's publication of → General Relativity, Karl Schwarzschild discovered this solution in 1916 (Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Phys.-Math. Klasse, 189); → Schwarzschild black hole.

Schwarzschild's criterion
  سنجیدار ِ شو‌آرتسشیلد   
sanjdiâr-e Schwarzschild

Fr.: critère de Schwarzschild   

The condition in stellar interior under which → convection occurs. It is expressed as: |dT/dr|ad < |dT/dr|rad, where the indices ad and rad stand for adiabatic and radiative respectively. This condition can also be expressed as: ∇ad<∇rad, where ∇ = d lnT / d lnP = P dT / T dP with T and P denoting temperature and pressure respectively. More explicitly, in order for convection to occur the adiabatic temperature gradient should be smaller than the actual temperature gradient of the surrounding gas, which is given by the radiative temperature gradient if convection does not occur. Suppose a hotter → convective cell or gas bubble rises accidentally by a small distance in height. It gets into a layer with a lower gas pressure and therefore expands. Without any heat exchange with the surrounding medium it expands and cools adiabatically. If during this rise and → adiabatic expansion the change in temperature is smaller than in the medium the gas bubble remains hotter than the medium. The expansion of the gas bubble, adjusting to the pressure of the medium, happens very fast, with the speed of sound. It is therefore assumed that the pressure in the gas bubble and in the surroundings is the same and therefore the higher temperature gas bubble will have a lower density than the surrounding gas. The → buoyancy force will therefore accelerate it upward. This always occurs if the adiabatic change of temperature during expansion is smaller than the change of temperature with gas pressure in the surroundings. It is assumed that the mean molecular weight is the same in the rising bubble and the medium. See also → Ledoux's criterion; → mixing length.

Named after Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), German mathematical physicist (1906 Göttinger Nachrichten No 1, 41); → criterion.

science
  دانش   
dâneš (#)

Fr.: science   

1) The study of the physical and natural phenomena, especially by using systematic observation and experiment.
2) A systematically organized body of knowledge about a particular subject. See also: → knowledge, → cognition.

M.E., from O.Fr. science, from L. scientia "knowledge," from sciens (genitive scientis), pr.p. of scire "to know," probably originally "to separate one thing from another, to distinguish," related to scindere "to cut, divide;" PIE base *skei- "to cut, split;" cf. Pers. gosastan "to tear, cut, break," from Mid.Pers. wisistan "to break, split," Av. saed-, sid- "to split, break," asista- "unsplit, unharmed;" Skt. chid- "to split, break, cut off;" Gk. skhizein "to split;" Goth. skaidan; O.E. sceadan "to divide, separate."

Dâneš, verbal noun of dân-, dânestan "to know" (Mid.Pers. dânistan "to know"), variant šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know" (Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize"); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

science fiction
  دانش-دیزن   
dâneš-dizan

Fr.: science fiction   

A form of fiction that draws imaginatively on scientific knowledge and speculation in its plot, setting, theme, etc. (Dictionary.com).

science; → fiction.

scientific
  دانشی، دانشیک   
dâneši, dânešik

Fr.: scientifique   

Of or pertaining to science or the sciences.
Systematic or accurate in the manner of an exact science.

From M.Fr. scientifique, from M.L. scientificus "pertaining to science," from L. scientia "knowledge," → science, + -ficus "making," from facere "to make." → -ic

Dâneši, dânešik, from dâneš, → science + -i, -ik, → ic.

scientific fact
  باشای ِ دانشی، ~ دانشیک   
bâšâ-ye dâneši, ~ dânešik

Fr.: fait scientifique   

An agreement by competent observers of a series of observations of the same phenomena. From time to time scientific facts are revised by additional data (G. Smooth, Lawrence Berkeley Lab website).

scientific; → fact.

scientific method
  روش ِ دانشی   
raveš-e dâneši

Fr.: méthode scientifique   

The process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate (that is, reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary) representation of the world. The scientific method has four steps:
1) Observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena.
2) Formulation of an hypothesis to explain the phenomena. In physics, the hypothesis often takes the form of a causal mechanism or a mathematical relation.
3) Use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or to predict quantitatively the results of new observations.
4) Performance of experimental tests of the predictions by several independent experimenters and properly performed experiments.
If the experiments bear out the hypothesis it may come to be regarded as a theory or law of nature. If the experiments do not bear out the hypothesis, it must be rejected or modified. What is key in the description of the scientific method just given is the predictive power (the ability to get more out of the theory than you put in) of the hypothesis or theory, as tested by experiment. It is often said in science that theories can never be proved, only disproved. There is always the possibility that a new observation or a new experiment will conflict with a long-standing theory (Frank L. H. Wolfs, University of Rochester).

scientific; → method.

scientific notation
  نمادگان ِ دانشی، ~ دانشیک   
namâdgân-e dâneši, ~ dânešik

Fr.: notation scientifique   

A compact format for writing very large or very small numbers. Numbers are made up of three parts: the coefficient, the base and the exponent. For example 3.58 x 104 is the scientific notation for 35,800.

scientific; → notation.

scientificity
  دانشیگی   
dânešigi

Fr.: scientificité   

The quality of the practices and theories that aim at establishing reproducible regularities in phenomena by using experimental method and providing a clearly formulated description.

scientific + → -ity.

scientist
  دانشمند   
dânešmand (#)

Fr.: scientifique   

An expert in science, especially one of the physical or natural sciences. → scholar.

From → science + -ist an agent noun suffix.

Dânešmand, from dâneš, → science, + -mand suffix of possession.

scintillation
  سوسو   
susu (#)

Fr.: scintillation   

1) Rapid variation in the brightness, wavelength, and mean position of stars caused by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere.
2) In radio astronomy, rapid fluctuations in the detected intensity of radiation from compact cosmic radio sources due to disturbances in ionized gas through which the radiation has passed. → interstellar scintillation.

From L. scintillationem (nominative scintillatio), from scintillatus p.p. of scintillare "to send out sparks, to flash," from scintilla "particle of fire, spark."

Susu, from su "light," related to suz "burning," present stem of suxtan; Mid.Pers. sôxtan, sôzidan "to burn," Av. base saoc- "to burn, inflame" sūcā- "brilliance," upa.suxta- "inflamed;" cf. Skt. śoc- "to light, glow, burn," śocati "burns," śoka- "light, flame;" PIE base *(s)keuk- "to shine."

scintillation counter
  سوسو شمار   
susu šomâr

Fr.: compteur à scintillation   

A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by means of flashes produced when the radiation particles strike a sensitive layer of phosphor.

scintillation; → counter.

scleronomous
  سختداتیک   
saxtdâtik

Fr.: scléronome   

Relating to a constraint or system that does not contain time explicitly. For example, a pendulum with an inextensible string of length l0 is described by the equation: x2 + y2 = l02 is both → holonomic and scleronomous.

From Gk. sclero-, from skleros "hard" + -nomous, → -nomy.

Saxtdâtik, from saxt, → hard, + dâtik, → -nomy.

Scorpius
  کژدُم   
Každom (#)

Fr.: Scorpion   

The Scorpion. A large and impressive constellation in the → Zodiac, which lies between → Libra to the west and → Sagittarius to the east. Scorpius is located in the southern hemisphere near the center of the Milky Way at approximately 17h right ascension, -40° declination. The bright, red star → Antares marks the heart of the scorpion. The constellation contains deep sky objects such as the open clusters M6 and M7, and the globular clusters M4 and M80. Also in the southern end of the constellation there is the open star cluster NGC 6231. Abbreviation: Sco; genitive: Scorpii.

M.E., from O.Fr. scorpion, from L. scorpionem (nominative scorpio), from Gk. skorpios "a scorpion," from PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut," → shear. According to Gk. mythology, the constellation represents a giant scorpion sent forth by the earth-goddess Gaia to kill the giant Orion when he threatened to slay all the beasts of the earth. Orion and the Scorpion were afterward placed amongst the stars as a pair of constellations. The two opponents are never seen in the sky at the same time, for one constellation sets as the other rises. The scorpion's claws were originally formed by Libra.

Každom "scorpion," variants kajdom, gaždom literally "crooked tail," from Mid.Pers. gazdum literally "stinging tail," from gaz present stem of gazidan (also Mod.Pers.) "to sting, to bite" + dum, dumb (Mod.Pers. dom, domb) "tail;" Av. duma- "tail."

Scorpius X-1
  کژدم X-1   
Každom X-1

Fr.: Scorpius X-1   

The first and the brightest X-ray source in the sky, after the Sun, discovered in 1962. Scorpius X-1 is a low-mass → X-ray binary consisting of a compact object like a → neutron star or a → black hole, and a low-mass stellar companion. The compact object has a mass of 1.4 → solar masses and the companion 0.42 solar masses. The orbital period is 18.9 hours, and the system lies at a distance of about 9,000 → light-years. The X-rays come from → accretion, where material from the companion overflows its → Roche lobe and spirals down onto the compact object. The luminosity results from the transformation of the falling material's → gravitational potential energy to heat by → viscosity in the → accretion disk.

Named such by the discoverers (Giacconi et al. 1962), because it was the first extrasolar → X-ray source of the sky detected in the constellation → Scorpius.

Scorpius-Centaurus association
  آهزش ِ کژدم-کنتاؤروس   
âhazeš-e Každom-Kentawros

Fr.: association Scorpius-Centaurus   

The nearest → OB association to the Sun. It contains several hundred stars, mostly → B stars which concentrate in the three subgroups: Upper Scorpius, Upper Centaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux. Upper Scorpius is the youngest subgroup, Upper Centaurus Lupus the oldest subgroup of the association. Isochrone fitting to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that the star formation occurred some 5-20 Myr ago. Based on data from the → Hipparcos catalog, it turns out that the Sco-Cen association lies at a distance of 118-145 → parsecs, with the exact value depending on the subgroup of the association. The Sco-Cen association is probably a member of the → Gould Belt (Preibisch & Mamajek, 2008, astro-ph/0809.0407).

Scorpius; → Centaurus; → association.

scotopic vision
  دید ِ تاریکی   
did-e târiki

Fr.: vision scotopique   

Vision that occurs when the eye is dark-adapted. In scotopic vision, the level of luminance is so low that the retinal cones are not stimulated, and there is no color vision. Same as scotopia; → dark adaptation.

Scotopic, from L. Gk. skoto- combining form of skotos "darkness" + -opia akin to ope "view, look," ops "eye, face;" → vision.

Did, → vision; târiki noun from târik "dark," Mid.Pers. târig "dark," târ "darkness," Av. taθra- "darkness," taθrya- "dark," cf. Skt. támisrâ- "darkness, dark night," L. tenebrae "darkness," Hittite taš(u)uant- "blind," O.H.G. demar "twilight."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>