An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
slug
  لیسک   
lisak (#)

Fr.: limace   

A worm-like gastropod that is related to the → snail family but has no shell.

M.E. slugge "sluggish," probably from Scandinavian; cf. dialectal Norwegian sluggje "heavy, slow person."

Lisak dialectal Tabari (also see Dehxodâ)

small
  کوچک، کم   
kucak (#), kam (#)

Fr.: petit   

Of limited size; of comparatively restricted dimensions; not large. → method of small perturbations; → Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC).

M.E. smale; O.E. smæl "slender, narrow, small;" cf. Dan., Swed., M.Du., Du., O.H.G. smal, O.Fris. smel, Ger. schmal "narrow," Goth. smalista "smallest."

Kucak "small;" Mid.Pers. kucak "small," related to kutâh "short, small, little," kudak "child, infant," kutulé, → dwarf; Mid.Pers. kôtâh "low," kôtak "small, young; baby;" Av. kutaka- "little, small."
Kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few."

Small Dipper
  هفت خواهران، چمچه‌ی ِ کوچک   
haft xâharân, camce-ye kucak

Fr.: Petite Ourse   

Same as → Little Dipper.

small; → Little Dipper.

Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)
  ابر ِ کوچک ِ ماژلان   
Abr-e Kucak-e Magellan (#)

Fr.: Petit Nuage de Magellan   

An irregular galaxy, the smaller of the two → Magellanic Clouds that are satellites of our own Galaxy, lying in the southern constellation → Tucana about 20 degrees from the → south celestial pole. The SMC covers an area roughly 3 by 5 degrees in dimension and has an overall → visual magnitude about +2.7. The SMC is about 10,000 → light-years in diameter and some 210,000 light-years (61 → kpc) away. It has a visible mass of about 1/50-th that of our Galaxy and 1/10-th of that of the → Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Its → heavy element content is about a factor 5 smaller than that of the Galaxy. The SMC is the third-nearest external galaxy after the → Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy and the LMC.

small; → Magellanic; → cloud.

small solar system body
  جسم ِ کوچک ِ راژمان ِ خورشیدی   
jesm-e kucak-e râžmân-e xoršidi

Fr.: petit corps du système solaire   

A term introduced by the → International Astronomical Union (August 2006) to name the → solar system bodies other than → planets and → dwarf planets. Small solar system bodies include → asteroids, → comets, and → meteoroids.

small; → solar; → system; → body.

SMASS classification
  رده‌بندی ِ SMASS   
radebandi-ye SMASS

Fr.: classification SMASS   

An asteroid taxonomy built on the → Tholen classification but based on the presence or absence of → absorption features in the visible part of the spectrum. In many cases the two classifications are the same, but the Tholen C and S classes are subdivided in the SMASS classification.

SMASS stands for the Small Main-belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey, → small; → main belt; → asteroid; → spectroscopic; → survey; → classification.

Smith's cloud
  ابر ِ اسمیت   
abr-e Smith

Fr.: nuage de Smith   

A huge, → high-velocity cloud of hydrogen gas that measures some 9,800 × 3,300 → light-years. It is located between 36,000 and 45,000 light-years away from Earth in the northern constellation of → Aquila. It has a mass of at least 106 → solar masses. It is now moving toward the disk of the → Milky Way at 73 ± 26 km/s and is expected to hit the disk of our Galaxy in about 27 million years, at an angle of approximately 45° at a point in the → Perseus Arm, one of two major → spiral arms of the Galaxy.

Named after Gail Bieger, née Smith, who discovered the cloud in 1963, when she was an astronomy student at Leiden University in the Netherlands; → cloud.

smog
  دودمه   
dudmeh (#)

Fr.: smog   

A fog combined with smoke or other forms of atmospheric pollutants in an unhealthy or irritating mixture.

From sm(oke) + (f)og; → smoke; → fog.

Dudmeh, from dud, → smoke, + meh, → fog.

smoke
  دود   
dud (#)

Fr.: fumée   

A mass of tiny particles in the air that rises up from something burning.

M.E., O.E. smoca, related to smeocan "give off smoke;" cf. M.Du. smooc, Du. smook, M.H.G. smouch, Ger. Schmauch; PIE base *smeug(h)- "smoke" (cf. Arm. mux "smoke," Gk. smukho "to burn in a smoldering fire," O.Ir. much, Welsh mwg "smoke").

Dud, from Mid.Pers. dût, dûd "smoke;" Av. dunman- "cloud," duuan- "to fly;" cf. Skt. dhvan- "to smoke;" Hittite tuhhae- "to prouce smoke;" PIE base *dheu- "to blow, reel; smoke, dark."

smooth
  ۱) هموار؛ ۲) هموار کردن   
1) hamvâr (#); 2) hamvâr kardan (#)

Fr.: 1) lisse; 2) lisser   

1) Of a curve, free from bumps or abrupt irregularities.
2) To modify a sequential set of numerical data by reducing the differences in magnitude between adjacent values.

O.E. smoð "free from roughness, not harsh," of unknown origin.

Hamvâr "level, equal, an even place or thing," from ham- "same, equally, even; together, with" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-) + -vâr similarity suffix.

smooth curve
  خم ِ هموار   
xam-e hamvâr

Fr.: courbe lisse   

1) A curve which is free from abrupt fluctuations.
2) A curve if it has tangents at all points and the angle of inclination of the tangent is a continuous function of the arc length.

smooth; → curve.

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)
  هیدروتوانیک ِ ذره‌های ِ همواریده   
hidrotavânik-e zarrehâ-ye hamvâridé

Fr.: hydrodynamique des particules lissées   

A numerical method for modeling → compressible hydrodynamic flows, which uses particles to simulate a continuous fluid flow. Because the system of hydrodynamical basic equations can be analytically solved only for few exceptional cases, the SPH method provides a numerical algorithm to solve systems of coupled → partial differential equations for continuous field quantities. The main advantage of the method is that it does not require a computational grid to calculate spatial → derivatives and that it is a Lagrangian method, which automatically focuses attention on fluid elements. The equations of motion and continuity are expressed in terms of ordinary differential equations where the body forces become classical forces between particles. This method was first independently developed by Lucy (1977, AJ 82, 1013) and Gingold & Monaghan (1977, MNRAS 181, 375).

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, first used by Gingold & Monaghan (1977); → smooth; → particle; → hydrodynamics.

smoothing
  هموارش   
hamvâreš

Fr.: lissage   

The mathematical process that makes a curve smooth.

Verbal noun of → smooth.

smoothing circuit
  برقراه ِ هموارگر   
narqrâh-e hamvârgar

Fr.: circuit atténuateur   

A low-pass filter designed to reduce the amplitude of a ripple while freely passing the direct current obtained from a rectifier or direct-current generator. Also known as smoothing filter.

smoothing; → circuit.

snail
  راب، حلزون   
râb (#), halazun (#)

Fr.: escargot   

A general name for a member of the large group of terrestrial and fresh-water gastropod molluscs which have a coiled shell. → slug.

M.E. snail, snayl(e), O.E. snegel; cognate with M.H.G. snagel, dialectal Ger. Schnegel.

Râb, dialectal Gilaki and Tabari (also see Dehxodâ). Halazun, from Ar.

Snell's law
  قانون ِ اسنل   
qânun-e Snell (#)

Fr.: loi de Snell, loi de Descartes   

The relationship between angles of incidence and refraction for a wave incident on an interface between two media with different indices of refraction. The law states that the ratio of the sine of the → angle of incidence to the sine of the → angle of refraction is a constant: n1/n2 = sinθ2/sinθ1. See also → refractive index. Also known as Descartes' law or the law of refraction.

Named after Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius (1580-1626), one of the discoverers of the law; → law.

snow
  برف   
barf (#)

Fr.: neige   

A precipitation in the form of → ice crystals that falls from clouds when the air temperature is below 0 °C. Snow occurs when → water vapor in the → atmosphere forms directly into ice and completely bypasses the liquid stage of → precipitation. Once an ice crystal has formed, it absorbs up even more water vapor and freezes due to the surrounding atmosphere. The ice crystal then falls down to earth's surface in the form of a → snow crystal, snow → pellet, or more commonly known as the → snowflake. In short, snow formation requires the following conditions: 1) → relative humidity ≥ 100%, 2) → temperature < 0 °C, 3) presence of → condensation nuclei, and 4) → supercooled droplets.

O.E. snaw "snow;" cf. O.S., O.H.G. sneo, O.Fris., M.L.G. sne, M.Du. snee, Du. sneeuw, Ger. Schnee, O.N. snjor, Goth. snaiws "snow;" PIE base *sneigwh- "to snow, snow;" cf. Mid.Pers. snêx, snêxr "snow;" Av. snaēg- "to snow," snaēžaiti "snows;" Skt. snih- "wet;" Gk. nipha "snowflake," neiphei "snows;" L. nix (genitive nivis); O.Ir. snigid "snows;" Lith. sniegas; Rus. snieg'.

Barf "snow," dialectal vafr "snow," var, from Mid.Pers. vafr "snow;" Av. vafra- in jaiwi.vafra- "with deep snow."

snow crystal
  بلور برف   
bolur-e barf

Fr.: cristal de neige   

An → ice crystal forming snow in a → cloud.

snow; → crystal.

snow line
  مرز ِ یخ، یخ-مرز   
marz-e yax, yax-marz

Fr.: limite de glace   

In a → protoplanetary disk, the limit between the regions where water is gaseous and the region where it is cold enough for water to become ice. The core accretion theory predicts that → giant planets form just outside the snow line where they can accrete enough rock and ice to generate a core. Subsequently the core grows into a gas giant like → Jupiter or → Saturn via the → accretion of hydrogen and helium. The snow line location depends on the → luminosity of the central star. For solar system it is about 5 AU, the position of Jupiter. Also known as ice line.

snow; → line.

Marz, → frontier; yax, → ice.

snowdrift
  برف-راند   
barf-rând

Fr.: congère   

A mound or bank of snow deposited as sloping surfaces and peaks, often behind obstacles and irregularities, due to eddies in the wind field.

snow; → drift.

Barf-rând "snowdrift, drfited snow" from barf, → snow, + rând "driving, drfit; drifted," from rândan "to push, drive, cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack"); barf-e bâd âvard "snow brought by wind," from barf + bâdwind + âvard, short for âvardé "brought," p.p. of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>