An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
spectroscopic variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ بیناب‌نمایی   
vartande-ye binâbnemâyi

Fr.: variable spectroscopique   

A → variable star that displays changes in its → spectrum. In such stars line intensities may vary and new lines may appear. Examples include → AG Carinae, HD 108, HD 191612, and HD 148937.

spectroscopic; → variable.

spectroscopy
  بیناب‌نمایی   
binânnemâyi

Fr.: spectroscopie   

The study of spectral lines from different atoms and molecules. Spectroscopy is an important part of studying the physical and chemical properties of astronomical objects.

Spectro- combining form of → spectrum + → -scopy.

spectrum
  بیناب   
binâb (#)

Fr.: spectre   

The → electromagnetic radiation divided into its constituting wavelengths or frequencies.

From L. spectrum "appearance, image, apparition," from specere "to look at, view;" Gk. skopein "to behold, look, consider," skeptesthai "to look at;" PIE base *spek- "to see;" cf. Av. spas-, spaš- "to attend to; to serve; spy," spasiieiti "looks at, perceives" (Mod.Pers. sepâs "kindness, favor, thanksgiving," sepâsidan "to praise for benefits received);" Skt. paś- "to see, watch," spasati "sees;" L. specere "to look at;" O.H.G. spehônn "to spy," Ger. spähen "to spy."

Binâb "a vision;" Mid.Pers. wênâb "vision," from wên-, present stem of didan "to see;" O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" cf. Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."

specular reflection
  بازتاب ِ آینه‌وار   
bâztâb-e âyenevâr (#)

Fr.: réflexion spéculaire   

The reflection of light waves in which the reflected waves travel in a definite direction, and the directions of the incident and reflected waves make equal angles with a line perpendicular to the reflecting surface. Same as → regular reflection; opposite of → diffuse reflection.

From L. specularis, from speculum "mirror;" → reflection.

Bâztâb, → reflection; âyenevâr "mirror-like," from âyené, → mirror + -vâr similarity suffix.

speculate
  گاسیدن   
gâsidan

Fr.: spéculer   

To guess possible answers to a question when there are not enough information to be certain.

Back formation from O.Fr. speculation, from L. speculatus, p.p. of speculari "to watch over, observe," from specula "watch tower," from specere "to look at, regard," cognate with Av. spas- "to attend; to serve," spasiieiti "looks at, perceives;" Pers. sepâs "kindness, thanksgiving;" Skt. spasati "sees;" Gk. skopein "to behold, look, consider," skeptesthai "to look at;" O.H.G. spehhon "to spy;" Ger. spähen "to spy;" PIE *spek- "to look around, observe."

Gâsidan infinitive from gâs, from Av. kas- "to look at, see," with extension of the vowel and change of the last phoneme from k to g, as in and cognate with negâh (Mid.Pers. nikâh), → look, âgâh (Mid.Pers. âkâh) "aware" (→ Space Situational Awareness), pargast "God forbid!," and maybe (Lori, Laki, Torbat-Heydarie-yi) gâs "perhaps," (Shirâzi, Fasâyi) gâsam "maybe;" cf. Skt. kāś- "to become visible, appear;" Gk. tekmor, tekmar "sign, mark;" PIE base *kwek- "to appear, show."

speculation
  گاسش   
gâseš

Fr.: spéculation   

The act or an instance of speculating.

Verbal noun of → speculate.

speech
  ۱) سخن؛ ۲) سخنرانی   
1) soxan (#); 2) soxanrâni (#)

Fr.: 1) parole; 2) discours, allocution   

1) The faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one's thoughts and emotions by speech sounds and gesture (Dictionary.com).
2) A form of communication in spoken language, made by a speaker before an audience for a given purpose (Dictionary.com).

M.E. speche; O.E. spæc; cf. Dan. sprog, O.S. spraca, O.Fris. spreke, Du. spraak, O.H.G. sprahha, Ger. Sprache "speech."

Soxan "speech, utterance, word;" Mid.Pers. saxwan "word, speech;" O.Pers. θanh- "to declare, say," aθaham "I said;" Av. səngh- "to declare," sənghāmi "I say;" cf. Skt. śams- "to praise, declare;" L. censere "to estimate, think; decide."

speed
  تندی   
tondi (#)

Fr.: vitesse   

The ratio of the distance covered to the time taken by a moving body. Speed in a specified direction is → velocity.

M.E. spede "good luck, prosperity, rapidity;" O.E. sped "success, prosperity, advancement;" cf. O.S. spod "success," Du. spoed "haste, speed," O.H.G. spuot "success," O.H.G. spuoten "to haste;" from PIE base *spe- "to thrive, prosper" (cf. Skt. sphā- "to increase, become fat;" L. sperare "to hope;" O.C.S. spechu "endeavor;" Lith. speju "to have leisure").

Tondi "speed," from tond "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe" (Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through;" PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat") + noun suffix -i.

speed of light
  تندی ِ نور   
tondi-ye nur

Fr.: vitesse de la lumière   

Same as → velocity of light.

speed; → light.

spend
  زیامیدن   
ziyâmidan

Fr.: dépenser   

1) To pay out, disburse, or expend; dispose of (money, wealth, resources, etc.).
2) To employ (labor, thought, words, time, etc.), as on some object or in some proceeding (Dictionary.com).

M.E. spenden, from O.En. -spendan (in forspendan "use up"), from M.L. spendere, from expendere "to pay out, weigh out money," from → ex- "out" + pendere "to pay, weigh."

Ziyâmidan, from Sogd. zyâm "to consume, spend," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *uz-iam-, from *uz- "out, away," → ex-, + *iam- "to hold, take; stretch, reach out;" cf. Av. yam- "to hold, keep," (+ *apa-) "to take away;" Skt. yam- "to hold, restrain."

sphere
  کُره، سپهر   
koré (#), sepehr (#)

Fr.: sphère   

A solid geometric figure generated by the revolution of a semicircle about its diameter; equation: x2 + y2 + z2 = r2.

M.E. spere, from O.Fr. espere, from L. sphæra "globe, ball, celestial sphere," from Gk. sphaira "globe, ball," of unknown origin.

Koré, loan from Ar. kurat.
Sepehr "sphere, celestial globe, heavens, sky;" Mid.Pers. spihr "sphere, sky, firmament, fate;" Av. spiti- in compounds: spiti-dôiθra- "with clear eyes;" Proto-Iranian *spiθra- (in proper name); cf. Skt. śvitrá- "white, whitish."

sphere of influence
  سپهر ِ هنایش   
sepehr-e hanâyeš

Fr.: sphère d'influence   

The region of space around one of the bodies in a system of two celestial bodies where a third body of much smaller mass is influenced by the gravitational field of that body. The sphere of influence of a planet with respect to the Sun has a radius given by: R = RP(MP/MS)2/3, where RP is the radius of the planet's orbit around the Sun, MP is the mass of the planet, and MS is the solar mass. The sphere of influence of the Earth has a radius of about 927,000 km or slightly under 150 Earth radii. Beyond this limit, a space probe will come under the influence of the Sun.

sphere; → influence.

spheres of Eudoxus
  سپهرهای ِ اءودوکسوس   
sepehrhâ-ye Eudoxus

Fr.: sphères d'Eudoxe   

A series of spheres with varying radii centred on the Earth, each rotating uniformly about an axis fixed with respect to the surface of the next larger sphere, all comprising a model in Greek astronomy to describe the motions of the heavenly bodies. The spheres turned with different speeds about axes with different orientations. The fixed stars revolved around the Earth by the motion of the most distant sphere to which the stars were thought to be attached. Each of the five planets' (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) motion could be described using four spheres. The Sun and the Moon required three spheres each to explain their motions. Therefore, a total of 27 spheres described the behavior of the heavenly bodies in terms of circular motion. Eudoxus was the first person to devise a model that could explain the → retrograde motion of the planets in the sky along a looped curve known as the → hippopede.

sphere; Eudoxus (Ευδοξοσ) of Cnidus (c 408 BC - c 355 BC), Greek astronomer and mathematician.

spherical
  کُره‌ای   
kore-yi

Fr.: sphérique   

Having the form of a sphere; of or pertaining to a sphere or spheres.

From → sphere + → -ic + → -al.

spherical aberration
  بیراهش ِ کُره‌ای   
birâheš-e koreyi

Fr.: aberration sphérique, ~ de sphéricité   

An aberration of a spherical lens or spherical mirror in which light rays converge not to a single point but to a series of points with different distances from the lens or mirror. Spherical aberration is corrected by using parabolic reflecting and refracting surface.

spherical; → aberration.

spherical angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ کُره‌ای   
zâviye-ye koreyi

Fr.: angle sphérique   

An angle formed on the surface of a sphere by the intersection of two great circles of the sphere.

spherical; → angle.

spherical astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ سپهری، ~ کره‌ای   
ostorlâb-e sepehri, ~ kore-yi

Fr.: astrolabe sphérique   

A type of → astrolabe in which the observer's horizon is drawn on the surface of a globe, mounted with a freely rotating spherical lattice work or 'spider' representing the celestial sphere. The earliest description of the spherical astrolabe dates back to  the Iranian astronomer Nayrizi (865-922).

spherical; → astrolabe.

spherical astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ کُره‌ای   
axtaršenâsi-ye kore-yi

Fr.: astronomie sphérique   

The branch of astronomy that is concerned with determining the apparent positions and motions of celestial bodies on the celestial sphere. Same as → positional astronomy.

spherical; → astronomy.

spherical coordinates
  هماراها‌ی ِ کره‌ای   
hamârâhâ-ye kore-yi

Fr.: coordonnées sphériques   

A coordinate system using an origin (O) and three perpendicular axes (Ox, Oy, Oz), in which the position of a point (P) is given by three numbers (r, θ, φ). The coordinate r is the distance from the origin, θ the angle between the z-axis and the r direction, and φ the angle between the projection of r on the xy-plane and the Ox-axis. The coordinate φ is also called the → azimuthal angle.

spherical; → coordinate.

spherical excess
  فزونی ِ سپهری، ~ کره‌ای   
fozuni-ye sepehri, ~ kore-yi

Fr.: excès sphérique   

The difference between the sum of the three angles of a → spherical triangle and 180° (π radians).

spherical; → excess.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>