An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>

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summary
  فزاکوار   
fozâkvâr

Fr.: résumé   

1) A brief account giving the main points of something.
2) Covering the main points; comprehensive.

From L. summarium "an epitome, abstract, summary," from summa "totality, gist," → sum, + → -ary.

Fozâkvâr, from fozâk, → sum, + -vâr a suffix denoting suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of, possession.

summer
  تابستان   
tâbestân (#)

Fr.: été   

The season that starts when the Sun, during its apparent yearly motion, attains the celestial longitude 90 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and 270 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. The current length of the summer season, around the epoch 2000, is 93.65 days.

M.E. sumer, from O.E. sumor (cf. O.S., O.N., O.H.G. sumar, O.Fris. sumur, M.Du. somer, Du. zomer, Ger. Sommer), from PIE base *sem- "summer;" cf. Av. ham- "summer;" Mid.Pers. hāin "summer;" Skt. sámā- "half-year, season;" Arm. am "year," amarn "summer;" O.Ir. sam "summer;" O.Welsh ham "summer."

From Mid.Pers. tâpistân, ultimately from Proto-Iranain *tap-stā- "hot, heat season, time, place." The first component *tap- "to shine, radiate;" cf. Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftban "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."
The second component *stā- "to stand; to set; to place;" a suffix of "place, land, country" and in rare cases "time;" examples: لرستان "Lorestân;" کردستان "Kurdestân;" افغانستان "Afghanistan;" ترکستان "Turkistan;" پاکستان "Pakistan;" انگلستان "England;" لهستان "Poland;" کوهستان "kuhestân = mountaneous region, highland;" تابستان "summer;" زمستان "winter." From Mid.Pers. -stân, -istân. Examples: gôstân (گاوستان) "cowshed;" šapistân (شبستان) "dormitory;" tâpistân "summer;" zamistân "winter." From O.Pers. stāna- "place;" Av. stāna-, as in gaostāna- (Mid.Pers. gôstân, as above) "cowshed;" from Proto-Iranian *stāna-. This suffix is related to O.Pers./Av. base sta- "to stand;" Mod.Pers. istâdan (ایستادن) "to stand;" cf. Skt. sthā- "to stand," sthāna- "standing;" Gk. histemi "to put, place," stasis "standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Goth. standan; O.H.G. stantan; O.E. standan; E. stand; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

summer solstice
  خوریستان ِ تابستانی   
xoristân-e tâbestâni

Fr.: solstice d'été   

The moment in the northern hemisphere when the → Sun attains its highest → declination of 23°26' (or 23°.44) with respect the → equator plane. It happens when the Earth's axis is orientated directly toward the Sun, on 21 or 22 June. During the northern solstice the Sun appears to be directly overhead at noon for places situated at → latitude 23.44 degrees north, known as the → tropic of Cancer. The summer solstice can occur at any moment during the day. Two successive summer solstices are shifted in time by about 6 h. The summer solstice in the northern hemisphere is the → winter solstice in the southern hemisphere.

summer; → solstice.

summer triangle
  سه‌بر ِ تابستانی   
sebar-e tâbestâni

Fr.: triangle d'été   

The triangular shape formed by the three bright stars → Altair, → Deneb, and → Vega on the northern hemisphere's → celestial sphere, particularly visible during the summer months.

summer; → triangle.

Sun
  خورشید   
xoršid (#)

Fr.: Soleil   

The star that governs the solar system. It is a yellow main-sequence star of spectral type G2, shines with apparent magnitude -26.74, and has an absolute magnitude of +4.83. The Sun is 4.6 billion years old and lies 27,000 light-years from the Galactic center.

O.E. sunne; cf. O.N., O.S., O.H.G. sunna, M.Du. sonne, Du. zon, Ger. Sonne, Goth. sunno; cognate with Pers. xor, hur, as below.

Xoršid "sun," originally "sunlight," from xor "sun," variant hur; Mid.Pers. xwar "sun;" Av. hū-, hvar- "sun;" cf. Skt. surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, cognate with E. sun, as above; PIE base *sawel- "sun" + šid "light, sunlight;" from Mid.Pers. šêt "shining, radiant, bright;" Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent."

sun pillar
  ستون ِ خورشید   
sotun-e xoršid

Fr.: pilier solaire   

light pillar.

sun; → pillar.

sun-grazer
  خورشید-برمژ   
xoršid-barmaž

Fr.:   

A comet that passes extremely close to the Sun's → surface, in some cases within a few thousand kilometres of the Sun's surface. The Great Comet of 1965, Ikeya-Seki, was a member of the sun-grazer family, coming within about 650,000 km of the Sun's surface. Passing so close to the Sun, sun-grazers are subjected to destructive → tidal forces along with intense solar heat which can completely evaporate them during such a → close approach.

Sun; → grazer.

sundial
  ساعت ِ آفتابی   
sâ'at-e âftâbi (#)

Fr.: cadran solaire   

An instrument for showing apparent solar time by the position of the shadow cast by an indicator. → gnomon.

From → Sun + -dial M.E. instrument for telling time by the Sun's shadow, presumably from M.L. dialis "daily," from L. dies "day;" → diurnal.

Sâ'at-e âftâbi, from sâ'at, → clock, + âftâb, → Sun.

sunlight
  آفتاب   
âftâb (#)

Fr.: lumière solaire   

The light of the Sun.

sun; → light.

Âftâb, "sun(shine);" Mid.Pers. âftâp; Proto-Iranian *abi-tap-, from *abi- "to, upon, against" (O.Pers./Av. abiy-/aiwi- "to, upon, against;" Skt. abhi-, Gk. amphi-) + *tap- "to shine" (Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftban "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm").

sunrise
  بر‌آمد ِ خورشید   
barâmad-e xoršid

Fr.: lever du soleil   

The time at which the apparent upper limb of the rising Sun is on the astronomical horizon, that is when the true zenith distance, referred to the center of the Earth, of the central point of the disk is 90°50', based on adopted values of 34' for horizontal refraction and 16' for the Sun semidiameter.

Sun; → rise.

sunset
  فروشد ِ خورشید   
forušod-e xoršid

Fr.: coucher du soleil   

The time at which the apparent upper limb of the setting Sun is on the astronomical horizon, that is when the true zenith distance, referred to the center of the Earth, of the central point of the disk is 90°50', based on adopted values of 34' for horizontal refraction and 16' for the Sun semidiameter.

Sun; → set.

sunspot
  هورلک   
hurlak (#)

Fr.: tache solaire   

An area seen as a dark patch on the Sun's surface. Sunspots appear dark because they are cooler (of about 4000 °C) than the surrounding → photosphere (about 6000 °C). They range in size from a few hundred kilometers to several times the Earth's diameter and last from a few hours to a few months. Very small sunspots are called → pores. The number of sunspots varies from maximum to minimum in about 11 years, the → sunspot cycle. Their appearance during a cycle follows the → Sporer law. A typical spot has a central → umbra surrounded by a → penumbra, although either features can exist without the other. Sunspots are associated with strong magnetic fields of 0.2 to 0.4 → tesla. A given sunspot has a single magnetic → polarity. The opposite polarity may be found in other sunspots or in the bright and diffuse → facular region adjacent to the sunspot. The first recorded naked-eye sightings of sunspots were by Chinese astronomers in the first century B.C. Johannes Fabricius (1587-1617) was the first to argue that sunspots are areas on the solar surface.

Sun; → spot.

sunspot cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ هورلک   
carxe-ye hurlak

Fr.: cycle des taches solaires   

solar cycle.

sunspot; → cycle.

sunspot minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ هورلک   
kamine-ye hurlak

Fr.: minimum des taches   

Periods of time when the → relative sunspot number is low. These periods of time occur approximately every 11 years and represent the minimum in the → sunspot cycle.

sunspot; → minimum.

sunspot number
  شمار ِ هورلک   
šomâr-e hurlak

Fr.: nombre de taches, ~ ~ Wolf   

A quantity which gives the number of sunspots at a given time. It is defined by the relationship R = k(10g + f), where R is the sunspot number, k is a constant depending on the observation conditions and the instrument used, g is the number of the groups and f is the number of individual spots that can be counted. Also called the → Wolf number and → relative sunspot number.

sunspot; → number.

Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect
  اُسکر ِ سونیایف-زلدوویچ   
oskar-e Sunyaev-Zeldovich

Fr.: effet Sunyaev-Zel'dovich   

The loss of energy by high-energy electrons in a → galaxy cluster, which distorts the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation through → inverse Compton effect. When photons from the CMB radiation travel through a hot plasma (with a temperature of around 108 K), in which bathe a galaxy cluster, they collide with energetic electrons and some of the energy of the electrons is transferred to the low energy CMB photons. If we look at the CMB radiation through such a plasma cloud, we therefore see fewer microwave photons than we would if the cloud were not there.

Named after Rashid Sunyaev (1943-) and Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (1914-1987), Russian astrophysicists; → effect.

super Moon
  ابر ماه   
abar mâh

Fr.: pleine lune de périgée   

Same as → perigee full Moon.

super-; → Moon.

super star cluster (SSC)
  اَبَر خوشه‌ی ِ ستاره‌ای   
abar-xuše-ye setâre-yi

Fr.: super amas stellaire   

A group of hundreds to thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume of a few parsecs in size. These objects represent the youngest stage of → massive star cluster evolution yet observed. The most massive and dense SSCs, with ages less than 106 years, may be proto globular clusters. SSCs are thought to dissolve within 10 million years and merge into the field star population.

super; → star; → cluster.

super-
  اَبَر-   
abar- (#)

Fr.: super-   

A prefix occurring originally in loanwords from Latin, with the basic meaning "above, beyond."

L. adverb and preposition super "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from PIE base *uper "over," cognate with Pers. abar-, as below.

Mid.Pers. abar (Mod.Pers. bar- "on, upon, up"); O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-, as above; O.H.G. ubir "over."

super-canonical star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ابر-هنجاروار   
setâre-ye abar-hanjârvâr

Fr.: étoile super-canonique   

A star whose mass exceeds the → canonical upper limit of the stellar → initial mass function (Kroupa et al. 2012, arXiv:1112.3340).

super-; → canonical; → star.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>