An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
sunspot number
  شمار ِ هورلک   
šomâr-e hurlak

Fr.: nombre de taches, ~ ~ Wolf   

A quantity which gives the number of sunspots at a given time. It is defined by the relationship R = k(10g + f), where R is the sunspot number, k is a constant depending on the observation conditions and the instrument used, g is the number of the groups and f is the number of individual spots that can be counted. Also called the → Wolf number and → relative sunspot number.

sunspot; → number.

Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect
  اُسکر ِ سونیایف-زلدوویچ   
oskar-e Sunyaev-Zeldovich

Fr.: effet Sunyaev-Zel'dovich   

The loss of energy by high-energy electrons in a → galaxy cluster, which distorts the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation through → inverse Compton effect. When photons from the CMB radiation travel through a hot plasma (with a temperature of around 108 K), in which bathe a galaxy cluster, they collide with energetic electrons and some of the energy of the electrons is transferred to the low energy CMB photons. If we look at the CMB radiation through such a plasma cloud, we therefore see fewer microwave photons than we would if the cloud were not there.

Named after Rashid Sunyaev (1943-) and Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (1914-1987), Russian astrophysicists; → effect.

super Moon
  ابر ماه   
abar mâh

Fr.: pleine lune de périgée   

Same as → perigee full Moon.

super-; → Moon.

super star cluster (SSC)
  اَبَر خوشه‌ی ِ ستاره‌ای   
abar-xuše-ye setâre-yi

Fr.: super amas stellaire   

A group of hundreds to thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume of a few parsecs in size. These objects represent the youngest stage of → massive star cluster evolution yet observed. The most massive and dense SSCs, with ages less than 106 years, may be proto globular clusters. SSCs are thought to dissolve within 10 million years and merge into the field star population.

super; → star; → cluster.

super-
  اَبَر-   
abar- (#)

Fr.: super-   

A prefix occurring originally in loanwords from Latin, with the basic meaning "above, beyond."

L. adverb and preposition super "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from PIE base *uper "over," cognate with Pers. abar-, as below.

Mid.Pers. abar (Mod.Pers. bar- "on, upon, up"); O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-, as above; O.H.G. ubir "over."

super-canonical star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ابر-هنجاروار   
setâre-ye abar-hanjârvâr

Fr.: étoile super-canonique   

A star whose mass exceeds the → canonical upper limit of the stellar → initial mass function (Kroupa et al. 2012, arXiv:1112.3340).

super-; → canonical; → star.

super-Chandrasekhar SN Ia
  ابر-نو-اختر ِ گونه‌ی ِ Ia ی ِ ابر-چاندراسکهار   
abar-now-axtar-e gune-ye Ia-ye abar-Chandrasekhar

Fr.: supernova de type Ia super-Chandrasekhar   

A superluminous → Type Ia supernova which is characterized by a bright → light curve peak, a slow light curve evolution during the photospheric phase, and moderately low ejecta velocities. Modeling suggests ejecta masses far in excess of the → Chandrasekhar limit of mass for non-rotating → white dwarfs and the production of about 1.5 Msun of 56Ni. This precludes the interpretation of these events as thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs.

super-; → Chandrasekhar limit.

super-Earth
  ابر-زمین   
abar-zamin

Fr.: super-Terre   

An → extrasolar planet more massive than the Earth but less massive than 10 → Earth masses. The first discovered super-Earth orbits an M4 V star named GJ 876. Its estimated mass is 7.5±0.7 Earth masses and it has an orbital period of 1.94 days. It is close to the host star, and the surface temperature is calculated to lie between 430 and 650 K (Rivera et al. 2005, ApJ 634, 625).

super-; → Earth.

super-Eddington wind
  باد ِ ابر-ادینگتونی   
bâd-e abar-Eddingtoni

Fr.: vent super-Eddington   

A → stellar wind accelerated by radiation pressure in the continuum from a star with a luminosity above the → Eddington limit.

super-; → Eddington limit; → wind.

super-metal-rich star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ابر-پرفلز   
setâre-ye abar-porfelez

Fr.: étoile très riche en métaux   

A very → metal-rich star whose iron → metallicity, [Fe/H], exceeds 0.20 → dex. Examples include HD 32147, HD 121370, and HD 145675 (Feltzing & Gonzalez, 2001, A&A 367, 253).

super-; → metal; → rich; → star.

superadiabatic temperature gradient
  زینه‌ی ِ دمای ِ اَبَر-بی‌دررو   
zine-ye damâ-ye abar-bidarrow

Fr.: gradient de température super-adiabatique   

A condition in which there is an excess of the actual temperature gradient over the → adiabatic temperature gradient corresponding to the same pressure gradient. A region with superadiabatic temperature gradient is convectively unstable. → Hayashi forbidden zone.

super-; → adiabatic; → temperature; → gradient.

superbubble
  اَبَر-تنگل   
abar-tangol

Fr.: superbulle   

A cavity hundreds of light-years across filled with a hot gas blown into the interstellar medium by multiple supernovae and stellar winds. Examples are the Local Bubble in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way and the N44 Superbubble in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

super-; → bubble

supercluster
  اَبَر-خوشه   
abar-xušé

Fr.: superamas   

1) An aggregation of clusters of galaxies (→ galaxy cluster). Superclusters are typically about one hundred million (108) → light-years in diameter and contain tens of thousands of galaxies. Some examples are the → Local Supercluster, → Centaurus supercluster, → Laniakea supercluster, → Perseus-Pisces superclusterShapley superclusterVirgo supercluster.
2) For stellar aggregations, → dynamical stream.

super-; → cluster

superclustering
  اَبَر-خوشه بندی   
abar-xuše bandi

Fr.:   

Grouping of galaxies in supercluster structure.

super-; → clustering

superconductivity
  اَبَر-هازندگی   
abar-hâzandegi

Fr.: superconductivité   

The phenomenon in which certain materials, when cooled to a sufficiently low temperature, lose all resistance to the flow of electricity.

super-; → conductivity

superconductor
  اَبَر-هازنده   
abar-hâzandé

Fr.: superconducteur   

A material which shows almost perfect conductivity at temperatures approaching absolute zero.

super-; → conductor.

supercooling
  اَبَر-سردش   
abar-sardeš

Fr.: surfusion   

The process by which a liquid or a gas is cooled below the temperature at which a → phase transition should occur. For example, water can be cooled well below the → freezing point without freezing (as often happens in the upper atmosphere). The introduction of an → impurity or surface can trigger freezing.

super-; → cooling.

supercritical
  ابر-پرژنی   
abar-paržani

Fr.: supercritique   

1) Thermodynamics: Describing a condition in which a substance has a temperature or pressure above its critical value of temperature or pressure.
2) Nuclear physics: Of or relating to an arrangement of → fissile material where more neutrons are being produced than are wasted and escape.

super-; → critical.

supercritical fluid
  شاره‌ی ِ ابر-پرژنی   
šârre-ye abar-paržani

Fr.: fluide supercritique   

A fluid that is at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. In these conditions the substance acquires unique characteristics of density and mobility. Supercritical fluids exist deep inside some planets; for example, there is supercritical water deep inside the Earth.

supercritical; → fluid.

superfluid
  اَبَر-شاره   
abar-šâré

Fr.: superfluide   

A → fluid that exhibits frictionless flow, very high heat → conductivity, and other unusual physical properties. For example, → liquid helium at the temperature about 2.17 K (→ lambda point) becomes a zero → viscosity fluid which will move rapidly through any pore in the apparatus. See also → helium II.

super-; → fluid

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>