An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
tension
  تنش   
taneš (#)

Fr.: tension   

General: The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained.
Mechanics: The longitudinal deformation of an elastic body that results in its elongation.
Electricity: Voltage or potential; electromotive force.

M.E., from M.Fr. tension, from L. tensionem (nominative tensio) "a stretching," from tensus, p.p. of tendere "to stretch," cognate with Pers. taneš, as below.

Taneš, verbal noun from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave;" Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tân "thread," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string."

tensor
  تانسور، تانگر   
tânsor, tângar

Fr.: tenseur   

A system of numbers or functions where components obey a certain law of transformation when the variables undergo a linear transformation. A tensor may consist of a single number, in which case it is referred to as a tensor of order zero, or simply a → scalar. The tensor of order one represents a → vector. Similarly there will be tensors of order two, three, and so on.
See also:
absolute tensor, → calculus of tensors, → contravariant tensor, → covariant tensor, → Einstein tensor, → energy-momentum tensor, → metric tensor, → order of a tensor, → relative tensor, → Ricci tensor, → Riemann curvature tensor, → scalar-tensor theory, → skew-symmetric tensor, → symmetric tensor, → tensor analysis, → tensor contraction, → tensor density, → tensor field, → tensor perturbation, → tensor rank, → tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory, → weight of a tensor.

Agent noun of tense (v.) → tension.

tensor analysis
  آ نالس ِ تانسوری، ~ ِ تانگری   
ânâlas-e tânsori

Fr.: analyse tensorielle   

A method of calculation in higher mathematics based on the properties of tensors.

tensor; → analysis.

tensor contraction
  ترنگش ِ تانسور   
terengeš-e tânsor

Fr.: contraction de tenseur   

An operation of tensor algebra that is obtained by setting unlike indices equal and summing according to a summation convention.

contraction; → tensor.

tensor density
  چگالی ِ تانسور   
cagâli-ye tânsor

Fr.: densité de tenseur   

A generalization of the tensor concept that like a tensor transforms, except for the appearance of an extra factor, which is the → Jacobian matrix of the transformation of the coordinates, raised to some power, in transformation law. The exponent, which is a positive or negative integer, is called the weight of the tensor density. → weight of a tensor density. Ordinary tensors are tensor densities of weight 0. Tensor density is also called → relative tensor.

tensor; → density.

tensor field
  میدان ِ تانسوری   
meydân-e tânsori

Fr.: champ tensoriel   

A field of space and time each point of which has multiple directionality, and is describable by a tensor function.

tensor; → field.

tensor perturbation
  پرتورش ِ تانسوری   
partureš-e tânsori

Fr.: perturbation tensorielle   

The perturbation in the → primordial Universe plasma caused by → gravitational waves. These waves stretch and squeeze space in orthogonal directions and bring about → quadrupole anisotropy in incoming radiation temperature.

tensor; → perturbation.

tensor rank
  رتبه‌ی ِ تانسور   
rotbe-ye tânsor

Fr.: rang de tenseur   

The total number of → contravariant and → covariant indices (→ index) of a → tensor.

tensor; → rank.

tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory
     

Fr.:   

A theory put forward to provide a basis for a relativistic generalization of the → MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm. TeVeS is based on three dynamical fields: a tensor field, a vector field, and a scalar field. In contrast to general relativity, it has two metrics, an Einstein metric and a physical metric. TeVeS has attracted considerable attention, since it can explain many galactic and cosmological observations without the need for → dark matter. Proposed by J. D. Bekenstein, 2004, "Relativistic gravitation theory for the modified Newtonian dynamics paradigm", Phys. Rev. D, 70, 083509, arXiv:astro-ph/0403694.

tensor; → vector; → scalar; → theory.

tephra
  تفرا   
tefrâ

Fr.: éjecta   

A general term for materials of all types and sizes that are ejected by volcanic eruptions. It includes particles as tiny as volcanic ash and as large as bombs and blocks.

From Gk. tephra "ashes."

tera- (T)
  ترا-   
terâ- (#)

Fr.: tera-   

Prefix denoting one million million (1012).

From Gk. teras "monster."

terbium
  تربیوم   
terbiom (#)

Fr.: terbium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Tb. Atomic number 65; atomic weight 158.9254; melting point 1,356°C; boiling point 3,123°C; specific gravity about 8.25. Terbium was discovered by the Swedish surgeon and chemist Carl-Gustav Mosander in 1843 in an yttrium salt, which he resolved into three elements. He called one yttrium, a rose colored salt he called terbium and a deep yellow peroxide he called erbium.

From the "village of Ytterby" in Sweden, where the mineral ytterbite (the source of terbium) was first found.

term
  ترم   
tarm

Fr.: terme   

1) A word or group of words that has a precise meaning and expresses a definite idea, used in a particular science, art, or profession. See also → terminology; → determine.
2) Math.: In an expression, a number or a letter standing alone; or a combination of such representing a unit, e.g.: a, b, 5, 4ab, 3a/b.
3) Physics: A set of atomic states having a definite → configuration and → spin and → orbital angular momentum  → quantum numbers. In the → LS coupling scheme, the entity 2S+1LJ, in which 2S+1 is called the → multiplicity of the term.
4) Logic: The → subject or → predicate of a → categorical proposition. See also → syllogism.
5) In → first-order logic, an → individual constant, → individual variable, or → function.

M.E. terme, from O.Fr., from L. terminus "boundary, limit, end; boundary stone or marker," variant termen "boundary, end;" cognate with Gk. termon "limit, boundary;" Skt. tarman "the top of the sacrificial (usually tripod) post; passage;" Irish tearmann "a refuge, sanctuary, asylum;" this Irish word would point to the sacredness of the sacrificial post in primitive IE customs; Hittite tarma- "peg, plug, nail;" PIE base *ter- "to cross;" cf. Pers. tarm, târem, tarâ-, Av. tar- "to cross over," as below.

Tarm, variant târem "boundary, limit," more specifically "a wooden palisade to exclude people from a garden," also "a wooden building of a circular form with an arched roof" (cf. Irish tearmann, as above), Tabari talm "pole, stick" (that marks a boundary), Tâleši/Tâti talmi "pole, stick," Garkâni taram "lever," Lori, Laki tarm "poles fastened together in order to carry a corpse to the village cemetery;" O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over," O.Pers. vi-tar- "to go across," Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Mod.Pers. gozar, gozaštan "to pass, cross;" cf. Skt. tarman "the top of the sacrificial post; passage," tar- "to pass (through), overcome," tárati "crosses, passes," tirás "through, across, beyond;" see also → trans-.

terminal
  ۱) پایانی؛ ۲) پایانه   
1) pâyâni; 2) pâyâné

Fr.: terminal   

1) Forming or found at the extreme point or limit of something, or relating to the very end of something.
2) Computers: An input/output device having a keyboard for communicating with a computer and usually a display.

M.E., from L. terminalis "pertaining to a boundary or end, final," from terminus "end, boundary line," → term.

Pâyâni, pâyâné, noun and adj. from pâyân "end, extremity; limit, boundary," from pâ(y) "foot; step" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-).

terminal age main sequence (TAMS)
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست با سن ِ پایانی   
rešte-ye farist bâ senn-e pâyâni

Fr.: séquence principale d'âge terminal   

The locus of stars on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that are at the point of exhausting hydrogen in their cores. TAMS forms the upper luminosity boundary of the → main sequence strip. See also → zero age main sequence (ZAMS).

terminal; → age; → main; → sequence.

terminal velocity
  تندای ِ پایانی   
tondâ-ye pâyâni

Fr.: vitesse terminale   

1) The constant maximum velocity reached by a body falling under gravity through a liquid or gas, especially the atmosphere. The body ceases to accelerate downward because the force of gravity is equal to the opposing force of resistance by the medium.
2) The velocity acquired at the end of a body's motion.
3) The velocity attained by → stellar wind at very large distance from the star. The material that escapes from the outer layers of the stars is accelerated outward from a small radial velocity at the → photosphere of the star, to some high velocity at large distance from the star. The theory of → radiation-driven winds predicts that the terminal velocity scales with the → escape velocity as: v  ≅ 2-3 vesc. The winds of hot → O stars experience fast acceleration and reach 80% of their terminal velocity near the star (some 3 R*). The terminal velocity ranges from about 10 km s-1 for a cool → supergiant star to 3000 km s-1 for a luminous hot star. Terminal velocities are quite accurately measured from the violet trough of saturated → P Cygni line profiles in the ultraviolet (mainly N V λ1239, C IV λ1548, Si IV λ1394).

terminal; → velocity.

termination shock
  تش ِ پایانی، شوک ِ ~   
toš-e pâyâni, šok-e ~

Fr.: choc terminal   

A → shock wave inside the → heliopause where the → supersonic → solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 500 km s-1 to → subsonic and becomes denser and hotter.

Termination, verbal noun from terminate, from → term; → shock.

Toš, šok, → shock; pâyâni, → terminal.

terminator
  شید-مرز   
šid-marz

Fr.: terminateur   

The dividing line between the illuminated and the un-illuminated part of the Moon's or a planet's disk.

From L. terminator, from terminare, from terminusterm.

Šid-marz, literally "light boundary," from šid "light, sunlight" (Mid.Pers. šêt "shining, radiant, bright;" Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent") + marz "boundary, limit" (Mid.Pers. marz "boundary;" Av. marəza- "border, district," marəz- "to rub, wipe;" Mod.Pers. parmâs "contact, touching" (→ contact), mâl-, mâlidan "to rub;" PIE base *merg- "boundary, border;" cf. L. margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); P.Gmc. *marko; Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin).

terminology
  ترم‌شناسی   
tarmšenâsi

Fr.: terminologie   

1) The system of terms belonging to a particular science, art, specialized subject, or social group. Terminology is the way of naming concepts, which generally precede the corresponding terms. See also → lexicology.
2) The theory or science dealing with the relations between → terms and → concepts.

A hybrid word coined first in Fr., before 1764, by Yves Marie André (1675-1764), a Jesuit mathematician and philosopher, from termin, from L. terminus, → term, + epenthetic vowel -o- + Gk. -logia, → -logy. Recoined or borrowed in Ger. Terminologie in 1786, by C.G. Schütz of Jena; first appeared in E. in 1801.

From tarm, → term, + -šenâsi, → -logy.

terraform
  زمین‌دیسیدن   
ziman-disidan

Fr.: terraformer   

To alter the environment of a planet or moon in a → terraforming process in order to make it habitable for life forms.

Probably taken from noun terraform, from L. terra "earth," → terrestrial; → form.

From zamin, → earth, + disidan "to → form."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>