An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
terraforming
  زمین‌دیسش   
zamin-diseš

Fr.: terraformation   

The hypothetical process of altering the environment (atmosphere, temperature, surface topography, or ecology) of another planet or moon to improve the chances of survival of an indigenous biology or to allow habitation by terrestrial life forms. See also → ecopoiesis.

Verbal noun of → terraform. The term first appeared in a science fiction novel, Seetee Shock (1949) by Jack Williamson, an American science fiction writer; but the actual concept pre-dates this work.

terrestrial
  زمینی   
zamini (#)

Fr.: terrestre   

Pertaining to, consisting of, or representing the Earth as distinct from other planets.

From L. terrestris "earthly," from terra "earth," literally "dry land" (as opposed to "sea"); from PIE base *ters- "to dry" (cf. Pers. tešné "thirsty;" Mid.Pers. tašnak "thirsty;" Av. taršu- "dry," taršna- "thirst;" Skt. trsta- "dry," tars- "to be thirsty;" Gk. teresesthai "to become or be dry," L. torrere "to dry up, roast," Goth. þaursus "dry, barren," O.H.G. derren "to make dry," durst "thirst;" Ger. dürr "arid;" O.E. þurstig "thirsty").

Zamini adj. of zamin, variant zami "earth, floor, land;" Mid.Pers. zamig; Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam- "the ground, earth;" Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" (as in homo sapiens, homicide, humble, humus, exhume), humus "the earth;" O.Russ. zemi "land, earth;" PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth".

Terrestrial Dynamical Time
  زمان ِ توانیک ِ زمینی   
zamân-e tavânik-e zamini

Fr.: temps dynamique terrestre   

A uniform atomic time scale for apparent geocentric ephemerides defined by a 1979 IAU resolution, which replaced Ephemeris Time. TDT is independent of the variable rotation of the Earth, and the length of the tropical year is defined in days of 86,400 seconds of international atomic time. In 1991 it was replaced by Terrestrial Time.

terrestrial; → dynamical; → time.

terrestrial gravitational constant
  پایای ِ گرانشی زمینی   
pâyâ-ye gerâneši-ye zamini

Fr.: constante gravitationnelle terrestre   

A parameter representing the product of the → gravitational constant by the Earth's mass. It is 3.987 x 1014 m3s-2 or 3.987 x 105 km3s-2.

terrestrial; → gravitational; → constant.

terrestrial planets
  سیاره‌های ِ زمینی   
sayyârehâ-ye zamini

Fr.: planètes terrestres   

The four innermost planets in the solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. They are called terrestrial because they have a compact, rocky surface like the Earth's. The planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars have significant atmospheres while Mercury has almost none. These planets are approximately the same size, with the Earth the largest. They are considerably denser than the Jovian planets, ranging from a specific gravity of 4 for Mars to 5.5 for the Earth.

terrestrial; → planet.

Terrestrial Time
  زمان ِ زمینی   
zamân-e zimini

Fr.: temps terrestre   

The modern astronomical standard for the passage of time on the surface of the Earth. It is the → coordinate time scale consistent with the theory of general relativity for an observer on the surface of the Earth. TT was renamed from Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT) in 1991. The fundamental unit of TT is the day of 86,400 SI seconds. It is related to the International Atomic Time by the relation: TDT = TAI + 32.184 sec.

terrestrial; → time.

tertiary
  ۱، ۲، ۳) سوُمان؛ ۳) دوران ِ سوم   
1, 2, 3) sevoman; 3) dowrân-e sevom (#)

Fr.: tertiarie   

1) Third in order, rank, level, stage, formation, etc.
2) Chem.: Being or containing a carbon atom having bonds to three other carbon atoms.
3) Geology: (usually with capital initial) A term formerly used to distinguish a major period of → geologic time, from the end of the → Cretaceous period about 65 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1.6 millions years ago. The International Commission on Stratigraphy no longer sustains this term as part of the formal stratigraphic nomenclature. Instead, the → Paleogene and → Neogene periods are recommended as the primary subdivisions of the Cenozoic era.

From L. tertius, → third; → period.

tesla (T)
  تسلا   
teslâ (#)

Fr.: tesla   

The unit of → magnetic induction flux density in the SI system. It is the induction of a field in which each meter of conductor with a current of one → ampere and arranged perpendicular to the direction of the vector of induction is acted upon by a force of one → newton. 1 tesla = 1 → weber/m2 = 104gauss.

Named after Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), American physicist, electrical engineer, and inventor, born in Smiljan, Lika, which was then part of the Austo-Hungarian Empire, region of Croatia.

test
  آزمون   
âzmun (#)

Fr.: test   

A procedure by which the presence, quality, or genuineness of anything is determined.

M.E. test, originally "a small vessel for refining or assaying metals," from O.Fr. test, from L. testum "earthen pot," related to testa "piece of burned clay, earthen pot, shell," related to texere "to weave;" → technique.

Âzmun, from âzmudan, âzmây- "to try, experiment, test;" Mid.Pers. uzmudan, ôzmutan "to test, try, prove;" from O.Pers./Av. *uz-mây-, from uz-, → ex-, + mť(y)- "to measure;" from PIE *me- "measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra "measure;" Gk. metra "lot, portion;" L. metri "to measure."

test mass
  جرم ِ آزمون   
jerm-e âzmun

Fr.: test masse   

Any of a pair of identical 1.96 kg gold-platinum cubes measuring 4.6 cm on a side that are planned to be used in the → eLISA experiment to detect → gravitational waves. The test masses will be released in → free fall in the the → LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. The aim is to test methods and techniques that will be used in the eLISA experiment to detect gravitational waves. Even in space there are forces capable of disturbing the cubes, including the radiation and wind from the Sun. Hence the test masses need be isolated from all of these non-gravitational influences. To do so, LISA Pathfinder continually measures their positions and manoeuvres around them with microthrusters to avoid ever touching them.

test; → mass

test of significance
  آزمون ِ نشاناری   
âzmun-e nešânâri

Fr.: test de significativité   

Same as → significance testing and → rule of decision.

test; → significance.

test particle
  ذره‌ی ِ آزمون   
zarre-ye âzmun

Fr.: particule-test   

In → plasma physics, → fluid dynamics, and → self-gravitating systems, a particle or ensemble of particles which are affected by the evolution of the rest of the system, but do not affect the rest of the system. The test particle concept is used, e.g., for revealing a flow, describing the path of fluid elements, and so on.

test; → particle.

test time
  زمان ِ آزمون   
zamân-e âzmun

Fr.: temps de test   

That part of the working time of a telescope devoted to tests of coupled instruments or the telescope itself.

test; → time.

testability
  آزمون‌پذیری   
âzmunpaziri (#)

Fr.: testabilité   

The state or fact of being → testable. See also → falsifiability.

testable; → -ity.

testable
  آزمون‌پذیر   
âzmunpazir (#)

Fr.: testable   

The quality of a claim, hypothesis, or theory that can be verified by tests or experiments. See also → falsifiable.

test; → -able.

Tethys
  تتوس   
Tetus (#)

Fr.: Téthys   

The ninth of Saturn's known satellites. It it 1060 km across and orbits at a mean distance of 294,660 km from Saturn. It has a rotational period of 1.89 days that equals its orbital period. Tethys is thought to be composed almost entirely of water-ice because of its low density (1.21 gm/cm3). The western hemisphere of Tethys is dominated by a huge impact crater called Odysseus, whose 400 km diameter is nearly 2/5 of that of Tethys itself. Tethys has two moons named Telesto and Calypso. It was discovered by J.-D. Cassini in 1684.

In Gk. mythology Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus.

tetra-
  چهار-   
cahâr- (#)

Fr.: tétra-   

Combining form meaning four.

From Gk. tetra-, combining form of tettares, tessares "four," cognate with Pers. cahâr, → four.

tetrad
  چهارگان   
cahârgân

Fr.: tétrade   

1) A group of four.
2) A sequence of four → total lunar eclipses occurring at approximately six month intervals. Tetrads are relatively rare events. The first → total eclipse of a tetrad occurred on 15 April 2014, the next eclipse of the series will happen on 8 October 2014 and the next two eclipses on 4 April and 28 September 2015, respectively. The previous tetrad happened in 2003-2004 and the next one will be in 2032-2033.

From Gk. tetrad-, stem of tetras "group of four."

Cahârgân, from cahâr, → four, + -gân suffix of plurality.

tetragon
  چهارگوش   
cahârguš (#)

Fr.: tétragone   

Same as → quadrangle.

From Gk. tetragonon, from → tetra- + -gon "angled, angular," from gonia "angle," related to gony "knee;" L. genu "knee;" Mod.Pers. zânu "knee;" Av. žnav-, žnu- "knee;" Skt. janu-; PIE base *g(e)neu-.

Cahârguš "four-cornered," from cahâr, câr "four," cognate with L. quattuor, → four, + gušé, guš "corner, angle;" Mid.Pers. gôšak "corner."

tetrahedron
  چهاردیمه   
cahârdimé

Fr.: tétraèdre   

A solid figure having four plane faces.

tetra-; → -hedron.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>