An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
Thomson
  تامسون   
Thomson

Fr.: Thomson   

The British physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940), discoverer of the electron (1897), Nobel Prize in Physics (1906). → Thomson atom, → Thomson cross section, → Thomson effect, → Thomson scattering, → Joule-Thomson effect.

Thomson atom
  اتم ِ تامسون   
atom-e Thomson (#)

Fr.: atome de Thomson   

The earliest theoretical description of the inner structure of atoms whereby an atom consists of a sphere of positive electricity of uniform density, throughout which is distributed an equal and opposite charge in the form of electrons. The diameter of the sphere was supposed to be of the order of 10-8 cm, the magnitude found for the size of the atom. → Rutherford atom.

Thomson; → atom.

Thomson cross section
  سکنج‌گاه ِ تامسون   
sekanjgâh-e Thomson

Fr.: section efficace de Thomson   

The → cross section involved the → Thomson scattering of electromagnetic waves by a free electron. It is defined by: σT = 8πre2/3, where re is the classical → electron radius. Its value is 0.665 245 x 10-28 m2.

Thomson; → cross; → section.

Thomson effect
  اسکر ِ تامسون   
oskar-e Thomson

Fr.: effet de Thomson   

The absorption or emission of heat when current is passed through a single conductor whose ends are kept at different temperatures. If current is passed from hotter end to colder end of a copper wire, then heat is evolved along the length of the wire. When current is passed from colder end to the hotter end, then heat is absorbed.

Thomson; → effect.

Thomson scattering
  پراکنش ِ تامسون   
parâkaneš-e Thomson (#)

Fr.: diffusion de Thomson   

The classical, → non-relativistic scattering of photons by free charged particles. When an electromagnetic wave is incident on a charged particle, the electric and magnetic components of the wave exert a force on the particle, setting it into motion. As it accelerates, it in turn radiates in all directions. Such scattering is independent of wavelength and equal numbers of photons are scattered forward and backward. Thomson scattering occurs in stellar atmospheres and in any non-relativistic → plasma. Thomson scattering is normally taken as the minimum → opacity.

Thomson; → scattering.

thorium
  توریوم   
toriom (#)

Fr.: thorium   

A soft, ductile, lustrous, silver-white, → radioactive metal; symbol Th. → Atomic number 90; → atomic weight 232.0381; → melting point about 1,750 °C; → boiling point about 4,790 °C; → specific gravity 11.7 at 20 °C. It was discovered in the mineral thorite (ThSiO4) by the Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius in 1828. It was first isolated by the chemists D. Lely Jr. and L. Hamburger in 1914.

Thorium-232 is a → fertile isotope, naturally occurring, from which the → fissile isotope uranium-233 can be bred.

From Thor, the "Scandinavian god of thunder."

Thorne-Zytkow object (TŻO)
  بر‌آخت ِ Thorne-Żytkow   
barâxt-e Thorne-Żytkow

Fr.: objet Thorne-Żytkow   

A theoretical class of → stellar objects in which a → neutron star core is surrounded by a large and diffuse envelope. TŻOs are expected to form as a result of the evolution of two → massive stars in a → close binary, with the neutron star forming when the more massive star explodes as a → supernova. During subsequent evolution of the system, the expanding envelope of the companion may lead to a common envelope state and the spiral-in of the neutron star into the core of its companion. Alternately, a TŻO may be produced when a newly-formed neutron star receives a supernova "kick" velocity in the direction of its companion and becomes embedded. Supergiant TŻOs are predicted to be almost identical in appearance to → red supergiants (RSGs). The best features that can be used at present to distinguish TŻOs from the general RSG population are the unusually strong → heavy element and → lithium lines present in their spectra, products of the star's fully → convective envelope linking the → photosphere with the extraordinarily hot burning region in the vicinity of the neutron star core. These objects are thought to be extremely rare, with as few as 20-200 of them predicted to exist in the Galaxy at present, though some authors have doubted whether such an object could survive the merger with the envelope intact. A candidate is HV 2112 (Levesque et al., 2014, MNRAS, arXiv:1406.0001; Beasor et al., 2018, MNRAS, arXiv:1806.07399).

Thorne K. S., Żytkow A., 1975, ApJ 199, L19.

thought
  اندیشه   
andišé (#)

Fr.: pensée, réflexion   

The product of mental activity; that which one thinks; the act or process of thinking.

M.E. thoght; O.E. (ge)thoht, from stem thencan "to think;" cf. O.Fris. thinka, O.S. thenkian, O.H.G. denchen, Ger. denken "to think."

Andišé, noun from andišidan, → think.

thought experiment
  اندیش-آزمایش، آزمایش ِ اندیشه‌ای   
andiš-âzmâyeš, âzmâyeš-e andišeyi

Fr.: expérience de pensée   

A demonstration which is carried out in the realm of the imagination, rather than in a laboratory. Thought experiments are designed to test ideas, theories, and hypotheses which cannot physically be tested, at least with current scientific equipment. Some examples: → Maxwell's demon; → Einstein's elevator; Heisenberg's gamma-ray microscope; → Schrodinger's cat. Also called Gedanken experiment.

thought; → experiment. Based on both the Ger./L. compound Gedankenexperiment and its Ger. equivalent Gedankenversuch.

threat
  هرش   
harš (#)

Fr.: menace   

1) A declaration of an intention or determination to inflict punishment, injury, etc., in retaliation for, or conditionally upon, some action or course; menace.
2) An indication or warning of probable trouble (Dictionary.com).

M.E. threte, O.E. threat "pressure, oppression;" cognate with O.N. thraut "hardship, bitter end," Du. verdreiten, Ger. verdrießen "to vex," L. trudere "to press, thrust."

Harš, from Kurd. haraša "threat," haraša kirdan "threaten," related to Mid/Mod.Pers. rašk "envy, jealousy;" Lori, Laki erešt "assault, attack;" Tabari ârâšt "curse, anathema;" Av. arš- "to be envious;" Skt. īrs- "to be envious, envy;" Arm. her "anger, quarrel;" O.E. eorsian "to be malicious;" Proto-Ir. Harš- "to be envious."

threaten
  هرشیدن   
haršidan

Fr.: menacer   

1) To utter a threat against; menace.
2) To be a menace or source of danger to (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. thretnen, from O.E. thrêatnian, → threat

Infinitive from harš, → threat.

three
  سه   
sé (#)

Fr.: trois   

A cardinal number, 2 plus 1.

M.E.; O.E. threo, thrib, feminin and neuter of thri(e); cf. O.Fris. thre, M.Du., Du. drie, O.H.G. dri, Ger. drei, Dan. tre), cognate with Pers. , as below.

, from Mid.Pers. ; Av. θrayô, θrayas, tisrô, θri; cf. Skt. tráya, tri, trini; Gk. treis, L. tres, Lith. trys, O.C.S. trye, Ir., Welsh tri, O.E. threo, as above; PIE base *trei-.

three-body problem
  پر‌آسه‌ی ِ سه‌جسم   
parâse-ye sé jesm

Fr.: problème à trois corps   

The mathematical problem of studying the positions and velocities of three mutually attracting bodies (such as the Sun, Earth and Moon) and the stability of their motion. This problem is surprisingly difficult to solve, even in the simple case, called → restricted three-body problem, where one of the masses is taken to be negligibly small so that the problem simplifies to finding the behavior of the mass-less body in the combined gravitational field of the other two. See also → two-body problem, → n-body problem.

three; → body; → problem.

three-dimensional flow
  تچان ِ سه-وامونی   
tacân-e sé-vâmuni

Fr.: écoulement tri-dimensionnel   

A flow whose parameters (velocity, pressure, and so on) vary in all three coordinate directions. Considerable simplification in analysis may often be achieved, however, by selecting the coordinate directions so that appreciable variation of the parameters occurs in only two directions, or even only one (B. Massey, Mechanics of Fluids, Taylor & Francis, 2006).

three; → dimensional; → flow.

threshold
  آستانه   
âstâné (#)

Fr.: seuil   

The level that must be reached for a physical effect to begin or be noticeable.

M.E. threschold, O.E. threscold, threscwald "doorsill, point of entering."

Âstâné "threshold; a place of rest or sleeping," variant âstân; Mid.Pers. âstânak; ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ā-stānaka-, from *stā- "to stand;" cf. O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; Mid.Pers. êstâtan "to stand;" Mod.Pers. istâdan "to stand;" cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

threshold energy
  کاروژ ِ آستانه   
kâruž-e âstâné

Fr.: seuil d'énergie   

The minimum energy necessary for the occurrence of some chemical/physical effect.

threshold; → energy.

threshold of reaction
  آستانه‌ی ِ واژیرش   
âstâne-ye vâžireš

Fr.: seuil de réaction   

The minimum energy, for an incident particle or photon, below which a particular reaction does not occur.

threshold; → reaction.

threshold signal
  آستانه‌ی ِ نشال   
âstâne-ye nešâl

Fr.: seuil de signal   

The minimum intensity of a signal that can be detected and recognized.

threshold; → signal.

throat
  گلو   
galu (#)

Fr.: col   

The front part of the neck. → nozzle throat.

M.E. throte, O.E. throte, throta, throtu; cognate with O.H.G. drozza "throat," O.N. throti "swelling."

Galu "throat," related to geri, geribân "collar," gerivé "low hill," gardan "neck;" Mid.Pers. galôg, griv "throat," gartan "neck;" Av. grīvā- "neck;" cf. Skt. gala- "throat, neck;" Gk. bora "food;" L. gula "throat" (Fr. gueule "(animal) mouth"), gluttire "to gulp down," vorare "to devour;" PIE base *gwer- "to swallow, devour." L. gula; cf. Mod.Pers. galu "throat,"

throne
  کرسی   
korsi (#)

Fr.: trône   

A jointed ring placed at the upper end of a → planispheric astrolabe astrolabe. By slipping one's thumb into the ring, one raises the instrument so that its weight and symmetrical design keeps it perpendicular to the ground (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum).

From L. thronus, from Gk. thronos "elevated seat, chair, throne," from PIE root *dher- "to hold firmly, support;" cf. L. firmus "firm, steadfast, strong, stable," Skt. dharma- "statute, law;" Pers. dâr-, dâštan "to have, to possess," → property.

Korsi "throne, chair, seat," from Ar. kursī.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>