An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
thought
  اندیشه   
andišé (#)

Fr.: pensée, réflexion   

The product of mental activity; that which one thinks; the act or process of thinking.

M.E. thoght; O.E. (ge)thoht, from stem thencan "to think;" cf. O.Fris. thinka, O.S. thenkian, O.H.G. denchen, Ger. denken "to think."

Andišé, noun from andišidan, → think.

thought experiment
  اندیش-آزمایش، آزمایش ِ اندیشه‌ای   
andiš-âzmâyeš, âzmâyeš-e andišeyi

Fr.: expérience de pensée   

A demonstration which is carried out in the realm of the imagination, rather than in a laboratory. Thought experiments are designed to test ideas, theories, and hypotheses which cannot physically be tested, at least with current scientific equipment. Some examples: → Maxwell's demon; → Einstein's elevator; Heisenberg's gamma-ray microscope; → Schrodinger's cat. Also called Gedanken experiment.

thought; → experiment. Based on both the Ger./L. compound Gedankenexperiment and its Ger. equivalent Gedankenversuch.

threat
  هرش   
harš (#)

Fr.: menace   

1) A declaration of an intention or determination to inflict punishment, injury, etc., in retaliation for, or conditionally upon, some action or course; menace.
2) An indication or warning of probable trouble (Dictionary.com).

M.E. threte, O.E. threat "pressure, oppression;" cognate with O.N. thraut "hardship, bitter end," Du. verdreiten, Ger. verdrießen "to vex," L. trudere "to press, thrust."

Harš, from Kurd. haraša "threat," haraša kirdan "threaten," related to Mid/Mod.Pers. rašk "envy, jealousy;" Lori, Laki erešt "assault, attack;" Tabari ârâšt "curse, anathema;" Av. arš- "to be envious;" Skt. īrs- "to be envious, envy;" Arm. her "anger, quarrel;" O.E. eorsian "to be malicious;" Proto-Ir. Harš- "to be envious."

threaten
  هرشیدن   
haršidan

Fr.: menacer   

1) To utter a threat against; menace.
2) To be a menace or source of danger to (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. thretnen, from O.E. thrêatnian, → threat

Infinitive from harš, → threat.

three
  سه   
sé (#)

Fr.: trois   

A cardinal number, 2 plus 1.

M.E.; O.E. threo, thrib, feminin and neuter of thri(e); cf. O.Fris. thre, M.Du., Du. drie, O.H.G. dri, Ger. drei, Dan. tre), cognate with Pers. , as below.

, from Mid.Pers. ; Av. θrayô, θrayas, tisrô, θri; cf. Skt. tráya, tri, trini; Gk. treis, L. tres, Lith. trys, O.C.S. trye, Ir., Welsh tri, O.E. threo, as above; PIE base *trei-.

three-body problem
  پر‌آسه‌ی ِ سه‌جسم   
parâse-ye sé jesm

Fr.: problème à trois corps   

The mathematical problem of studying the positions and velocities of three mutually attracting bodies (such as the Sun, Earth and Moon) and the stability of their motion. This problem is surprisingly difficult to solve, even in the simple case, called → restricted three-body problem, where one of the masses is taken to be negligibly small so that the problem simplifies to finding the behavior of the mass-less body in the combined gravitational field of the other two. See also → two-body problem, → n-body problem.

three; → body; → problem.

three-dimensional flow
  تچان ِ سه-وامونی   
tacân-e sé-vâmuni

Fr.: écoulement tri-dimensionnel   

A flow whose parameters (velocity, pressure, and so on) vary in all three coordinate directions. Considerable simplification in analysis may often be achieved, however, by selecting the coordinate directions so that appreciable variation of the parameters occurs in only two directions, or even only one (B. Massey, Mechanics of Fluids, Taylor & Francis, 2006).

three; → dimensional; → flow.

threshold
  آستانه   
âstâné (#)

Fr.: seuil   

The level that must be reached for a physical effect to begin or be noticeable.

M.E. threschold, O.E. threscold, threscwald "doorsill, point of entering."

Âstâné "threshold; a place of rest or sleeping," variant âstân; Mid.Pers. âstânak; ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ā-stānaka-, from *stā- "to stand;" cf. O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; Mid.Pers. êstâtan "to stand;" Mod.Pers. istâdan "to stand;" cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

threshold energy
  کاروژ ِ آستانه   
kâruž-e âstâné

Fr.: seuil d'énergie   

The minimum energy necessary for the occurrence of some chemical/physical effect.

threshold; → energy.

threshold of reaction
  آستانه‌ی ِ واژیرش   
âstâne-ye vâžireš

Fr.: seuil de réaction   

The minimum energy, for an incident particle or photon, below which a particular reaction does not occur.

threshold; → reaction.

threshold signal
  آستانه‌ی ِ نشال   
âstâne-ye nešâl

Fr.: seuil de signal   

The minimum intensity of a signal that can be detected and recognized.

threshold; → signal.

throat
  گلو   
galu (#)

Fr.: col   

The front part of the neck. → nozzle throat.

M.E. throte, O.E. throte, throta, throtu; cognate with O.H.G. drozza "throat," O.N. throti "swelling."

Galu "throat," related to geri, geribân "collar," gerivé "low hill," gardan "neck;" Mid.Pers. galôg, griv "throat," gartan "neck;" Av. grīvā- "neck;" cf. Skt. gala- "throat, neck;" Gk. bora "food;" L. gula "throat" (Fr. gueule "(animal) mouth"), gluttire "to gulp down," vorare "to devour;" PIE base *gwer- "to swallow, devour." L. gula; cf. Mod.Pers. galu "throat,"

throne
  کرسی   
korsi (#)

Fr.: trône   

A jointed ring placed at the upper end of a → planispheric astrolabe astrolabe. By slipping one's thumb into the ring, one raises the instrument so that its weight and symmetrical design keeps it perpendicular to the ground (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum).

From L. thronus, from Gk. thronos "elevated seat, chair, throne," from PIE root *dher- "to hold firmly, support;" cf. L. firmus "firm, steadfast, strong, stable," Skt. dharma- "statute, law;" Pers. dâr-, dâštan "to have, to possess," → property.

Korsi "throne, chair, seat," from Ar. kursī.

throttle
  تاسنیدن   
tâsenidan

Fr.: 1) étrangler, serrer la gorge de; 2) mettre au ralenti   

1a) To stop the breath of by compressing the throat; strangle.
1b) To compress by fastening something tightly around.
2a) To obstruct or check the flow of (a fluid), as to control the speed of an engine.
2b) To reduce the pressure of (a fluid) by passing it from a smaller area to a larger one (Dictionary.com).

M.E. throtelen, from throten "to cut the throat of (someone), strangle," from → throat.

Tâsenidan, from Dezfuli tâsenidan "to choke, compress the throat," cf. Laki, Šuštari tâsenan "to strangle," Ilâmi tâsânen "to strangle," Baxtiyâri tâsest "suffocated," Fini Bandar-Abbâs tâsaki "exhausted," (Dehxodâ) tâsidan "to be afflicated or sad," tâsidé "tired, emaciated," Baluci ta(n)sit "to be out of breath, pant;" Skt. tam- "to become suffocated, exhausted;" L. temulentus "drunken;" PIE *temH- "to faint, be exhausted" (Cheung 2007).

throttling process
  فراروند ِ تاسنش   
farâravand-e tâseneš

Fr.: 1) détente Joule-Thomson   

1) Thermodynamics: A process in which a gas, originally at a constant high pressure, passes → adiabatically through a porous wall or a narrow opening into a region of constant lower pressure. The throttling process is → irreversible and is accompanied by an increase of → entropy. The → enthalpy of the gas is the same in the → initial and → final → states. Also called → Joule-Thomson expansion. The change in the temperature of the gas in throttling is known as the → Joule-Thomson effect.
2) A technique implemented in the architecture of computers whereby the frequency produced by the microprocessor is automatically adjusted. Throttling process allows the computer to conserve power and also reduce the heat generated by its chip.

throttle; → process.

through
  تارو   
târu

Fr.: à travers   

1) In at one end, side, or surface and out at the other.
2) From one to the other of; between or among the individual members or parts of.
3) Over the surface of, by way of, or within the limits or medium of.
4) During the whole period of (Dictionary.com).

M.E. (preposition and adv.), metathetic variant of thourgh, O.E. thurh, (cognates O.S. thuru, OFris. thruch, Du. door, O.H.G. thuruh, Ger. durch), cognate with Av. tarô, tarə "over, across, beyond," L. trans-, → trans-.

Târu, related to tarâ-, → trans-, and from Av. tarô, tarə, as above.

throw
  انداختن   
andâxtan (#)

Fr.: jeter   

To propel something through the air in any way, especially by swinging the arm and releasing the object from the hand; → ejecter.

M.E. throwen, thrawen, "to twist, turn writhe" (cf. O.S. thraian, M.Du. dræyen, Du. draaien, O.H.G. draen, Ger. drehen "to turn, twist").

Andâxtan, andâz-, from Mid.Pers. handâxtan, handâz-; ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ham-tak-, from *ham- "together, with, same," → syn- + *tak- "to run, to flow;" cf. Av. tak- "to run, to flow," taciāp- "flowing water," tacinti (3pl.pers.act.) "to flow," tacar- "course," tacan "current, streaming;" Mod.Pers. tacidan, tâxtan, tâzidan "to run; to hasten; to assault," tajan name of a river (initially "flowing, streaming, stream"), tâzi "swift (greyhound)," tak "running, rush," from Mid.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to flow, to cause to walk," tc- "to flow, to walk," tag "running, attack," tâzig "swift, fast;" Khotanese ttajs- "to flow, to walk;" Skt. tak- to rush, to hurry," takti "runs;" O.Ir. tech- "to flow;" Lith. teketi "to walk, to flow;" O.C.S. tešti "to walk, to hurry;" Tokharian B cake "river;" PIE base *tekw- "to run; to flow.

thrust
  پیشرانه   
pišrâné (#)

Fr.: poussée   

The force that is exerted by a rocket, propeller, or jet engine to propel an aircraft. It is directed forward along the axis of the engine. → drag; → lift.

M.E. thrusten, thrysten (v.); O.N. thrysta "to thrust, force."

Pišrâné, from piš "before; in front" (Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier," O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of") + râné, from rândan "to push, drive, cause to go" (causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed," present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

Thuban
  ثعبان   
So'bân (#)

Fr.: Thuban   

A fourth magnitude star (V = 3.65), called also α Draconis, in the constellation → Draco. Despite its designation as Alpha (α), it is the seventh brightest star of the constellation. Thuban is a → giant star of → spectral type A0 III lying 310 → light-years away. It has an faint → companion in an orbit with a 51 day period. Thuban was the → pole star at about 2700 BC. Other designations: HR 5291, HD 123299, and SAO 16273.

Thuban, from Ar. Ath-thu'bân (الثعبان) "a large male snake; basilisk."

thulium
  تولیوم   
tuliom (#)

Fr.: thulium   

A soft, malleable, ductile, lustrous silver-white metal; symbol Tm. Atomic number 69; atomic weight 168.9342; melting point about 1,545°C; boiling point 1,947°C; specific gravity 9.3. Thulium was discovered in 1879 by the Swedish chemist Per Theodor Cleve in a sample of erbium mineral. It was first isolated by the American chemist Charles James in 1911.

From Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>