An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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utility software
  نرم‌افزار ِ هوده‌مند   
narm-afzâr-e hudemand

Fr.: logiciel utilitaire   

A part of the system software designed to support the operation of application software and is used to manage the computer files. Examples of utility software are disk diagnosis program, backup software, password generation software, and virus protection software. Also called utilities.

utility; → software.

utilization
  هودش   
hudeš

Fr.: utilisation   

The act or process of utilizing.

Verbal noun of → utilize.

utilize
  هودیدن   
hudidan

Fr.: utiliser   

To make practical or worthwhile use of.

From Fr. utiliser, from It. utilizzare, from utile "usable," from L. utilis "usable," from uti "to use."

Hudidan, from hudé, hudag "use," → utility, + -idan.

Utopia Planitia
  دشت ِ ناکجا، ~ ناکجا‌آباد   
dašt-e nâkojâ, ~ nâkojâ âbâd

Fr.: Utopia Planitia   

A → plain in the northern hemisphere of Mars that was chosen as the landing site of the Viking II space probe on September 3, 1976.

Mod.L. Utopia, literally "nowhere," coined by Thomas More (1516), from Gk. ou "not" + topos "place;" planitia, from planus, → plain.

Dašt, → plain; nâkojâ "nowhere," from nâ-, → un-, + kojâ "where?; a place;" Mid.Pers. kugiyâg, from "where; that; than" + giyâk "place" (O.Pers. ā-vahana- "place, village;" Av. vah- "to dwell, stay," vanhaiti "he dwells, stays;" Skt. vásati "he dwells;" Gk. aesa (nukta) "to pass (the night);" Ossetic wat "room; bed; place;" Tokharian B wäs- "to stay, wait;" PIE base ues- "to stay, live, spend the night"); nâkojâ âbâd literally "city of nowhere, habitation of nowhere," from nâkojâ, as explained, + âbâd "city; habitation; cultivated" (Mid.Pers. âpât, âpâtân "cultivated, inhabitated;" Proto-Iranian *ā-pāta- "protected," from prefix ā + pā- "to protect, guard" (Mod.Pers. pâyidan), → observe.

utter
  واپیدن   
vâpidan

Fr.: prononcer, proférer, pousser   

1) To give audible expression to; speak or pronounce.
2) Phonetics: To produce (speech sounds, speech-like sounds, syllables, words, etc.) audibly, with or without reference to formal language (Dictionary).

M.E. outren from M.Du. uteren or M.L.G. utern "to turn out, show, speak," from uter "outer," comparative adj. from ut, → out.

Vâpidan, from Proto-Ir. *uab-/*uaf- "to utter (sing, speak), to call;" cf. Av. uf- "to sing;" Sogd. w'β, w'b "to say, speak;" Baluci gwâpt/gwâp- "to summon, call together;" Mod.Pers. gap, gab "word, chit-chat," zand-bâf "nightingale," buf "owl."

utterance
  واپش   
vâpeš

Fr.: parole, déclaration   

1) An act of uttering; a spoken word, statement, or vocal sound.
2) Something uttered; a word or words uttered; a cry, animal's call, or the like.
3) Linguistics: Any speech sequence consisting of one or more words and preceded and followed by silence: it may be coextensive with a sentence (Dictionary.com).

utter; → -ance.

uvby system
  راژمان ِ uvby   
râžmân-e uvby

Fr.: système photométrique uvby   

A four-color stellar → photometric system devised by B. Strömgren. It is based on measurements in the ultraviolet (3500 Å), violet (4100 Å), blue (4670 Å), and yellow (5470 Å) regions of the spectrum. The filters bandwidths are 340, 200, 160, and 240 Å respectively. Also known as Strömgren four-color photometry.

u, v, b, and y referring to ultraviolet, violet, blue, and yellow respectively; → system.

UX Ori star
  ستاره‌ی ِUX شکارگر   
setâre-ye UX Šekârgar

Fr.: étoile UX Ori   

A star that shows large irregular brightness variations and belongs to the Herbig Ae/Be family, i.e. pre-main sequence stars of intermediate mass. Typically a decrease of 2-3 magnitudes in the visible occurs for a few days to a couple of weeks. Current theories explain this behavior as being an obscuration of the central star by orbiting dust clouds, as well as contribution to the total luminosity by unsteady accretion onto the central star. Also called UXOr.

U and X letters of alphabet, Ori, → Orion; → star.

V2052 Ophiuchi
  V2052 مار‌افسا   
V2052 Marafsâ

Fr.: V2052 Oph   

A hot star of → apparent visual magnitude V = 5.82 lying in the constellation → Ophiuchus, also known as HR 6684, HD 163472, and HIP 87812. V2052 Oph is of → subgiant  → spectral type B2 IV-V and belongs to the family of magnetic → Beta Cephei → pulsators. It has a luminosity of 620 Lsol, a radius of 6.83 Rsol and lies about 830 → light-years away. Three stellar pulsation modes have been detected and studied from ground-based spectroscopy and multi-color photometry. Its magnetic field was deduced to be → dipolar dipolar with a strength of ~ 400 G, inclined 35° to the rotation axis. The star's → convective overshooting region is small, with no extra mixing in spite of the relatively large rotational velocity. This clearly illustrated the effect of the magnetic field: the inhibition of chemical mixing processes by the magnetic field. This result is in agreement with theoretical criteria, which predict that a surface magnetic field of ~ 70 G is sufficient to limit the overshooting in this star. V2052 Oph is now considered as a prime example of what magneto-asteroseismology can achieve (Neiner et al., 2012, A&A, 537, A148).

variable star designation.

vacuum
  خلاء   
xala' (#)

Fr.: vide   

1) A space completely empty of matter but not achievable in practice on Earth.
2) A state of lowest energy in a → quantum field theory.

L. vacuum "an empty space, void," noun use of neuter of vacuus "empty," related to vacare "to be empty."

Xala' loan from Ar.

vacuum birefringence
  دوشکست ِ دوخلأیی   
došekast-e jala'i

Fr.: biréfringence du vide   

A highly → magnetized vacuum behaving as a prism for the propagation of light, as predicted by → quantum electrodynamics (QED). Attempts to detect this phenomenon in the laboratory have not yet succeeded in the 80 years since it was predicted (Heisenberg & Euler, 1936, Z. Physik, 98, 714). This effect can be detected only in the presence of enormously strong → magnetic fields, such as those around → neutron stars. Owing to the large inferred magnetic fields (B ~ 1013 G, → gauss), radiation from these sources is expected to be substantially polarized, independently of the mechanism actually responsible for the → thermal emission. The strongest magnetic field so far created in a laboratory is less than 106 G lasting only for several tens of milliseconds. A large observed → polarization degree is, however, expected only if QED polarization effects are present in the magnetized vacuum around the star. The detection of a strongly → linearly polarized signal would therefore provide the observational evidence of QED effects in the strong-field regime. Recently a team of astrophysicists (Mignani et al. 2016, arXiv/1610.08323) have detected → linear polarization toward the neutron star RXJ1856.5-3754 (at a significant degree of around 16%). This finding is likely due to the boosting effect of vacuum birefringence occurring in the area of empty space surrounding the neutron star.

vacuum; → birefringence.

vacuum chamber
  اتاقک ِ خلاء   
otâqak-e xala'

Fr.: chambre à vide   

An enclosure from which air is removed.

vacuum; → chamber.

vacuum energy
  کاروژ ِ خلاء   
kâruž-e xala'

Fr.: énergie du vide   

In particle physics the lowest energy allowed by field quantization when all fields are in their → ground states. Vacuum energy is predicted to arise from → virtual particles that fluctuate in and out of existence, as manifested by the → Casimir effect. The cosmological → dark energy is postulated to be related to vacuum fluctuations. There is however an enormous discrepancy with the predictions of quantum field theory. In this theory the value of vacuum energy density is expected to be roughly of the order ρvEmax4, where Emax is the maximum energy at which the field theory is valid. At energies of the order of the → Planck energy, EPl≅ 1019 GeV, vacuum energy might be roughly: ρvEPl4≅ 1076 GeV4. On the other hand, the vacuum energy density in standard cosmological model is given by: ρΛ = ΩΛcrit, where ΩΛ is the → density parameter for the → cosmological constant and ρcrit is the → critical density. More explicitly, ρΛ = ΩΛ . 3 H2/(8πG). Using present-day values of ΩΛ (0.7) and H (70) leads to ρΛ = 10-46 GeV4. Therefore, the discrepancy between the prediction and the observed value is 122 orders of magnitude.

vacuum; → energy.

vacuum polarization
  قطبش ِ خلاء   
qotbeš-e xala'

Fr.: polarisation du vide   

A quantum field theory a process in which an electromagnetic field gives rise to virtual electron-positron pairs that in turn exert electromagnetic fields of their own, in a manner similar to classical dielectric polarization.

vacuum; → polarization.

vague
  گرنگ   
gereng

Fr.: vague   

1) Not clearly or explicitly stated or expressed.
2) Indefinite or indistinct in nature or character, as ideas or feelings.
3) Not definitely established, determined, confirmed, or known; uncertain (Dictionary.com). → ambiguous, → nebulous, → indefinite, → fuzzy, → unclear.

M.E., from M.Fr. vague "empty, vacant; wild, uncultivated; wandering," from L. vagus "wandering, rambling," of unknown origin.

Gereng, from Kalidari gereng "wandering," Kurd. (Kurmanji) garin, (Sorani) garân "to wander," Dehxodâ gereng "shattered;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *gar-an-ka-, from *gar- "to turn, to wind" (Cheung 2007).

vague year
  سال ِ گردان، ~ گرنگ   
sâl-e gardân, ~ gereng

Fr.: année vague   

A year of 365 days that overlooks the fraction of less than 0.25 days corresponding to the whole length of the → tropical year. The vague year was used in the → calendars of ancient Egypt, Iran, Mayas, and some other civilizations. Typically the vague year was divided into 12 months of 30 days each plus 5 → epagomenal days.

From annus vagus "wandering year;" → vagueyear.

valence
  ارزایی   
arzâyi

Fr.: valence   

A measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. It represents the relative ability of an atom of an element to combine with other atoms. For example, the valence of O in water, H2O, is 2. Also called valency.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L valentia "strength, worth," from valentem (nominative valens), pr.p. of valere "to be strong."

Arzâyi, noun from arzâ, agent noun/adj. from arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth" (Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *algwh- "to earn; price, value").

valence band
  باند ِ ارزایی   
bând-e arzâyi

Fr.: bande de valence   

The range of energy states in the spectrum of a solid crystal which includes the energies of all the electrons binding the crystal together.

valence; → band.

valence electron
  الکترون ِ ارزایی   
elektron-e arzâyi

Fr.: électron de valence   

An electron of an atom lying farthest from the nucleus. Valence electrons are shared when atoms combine to form molecules.

valence; → electron.

valency
  ارزایی   
arzâyi

Fr.: valence   

Same as → valence.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>