An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
valid
  پای‌مند   
pâymand

Fr.: valide   

Logic: Of an argument, if the premises are true, then the conclusion cannot be denied without contradiction. The truth of the premises logically guarantees the truth of the conclusion.

M.E., from M.Fr. valide, from L. validus "strong, effective," from valere "to be strong."

Pâymand, from pâ, pây "foot; base, foundation, firmness" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + -mand possession suffix.

validity
  پای‌مندی   
pâymandi

Fr.: validité   

Logic: Of an argument, whether or not the conclusion follows logically from the premises and the allowable syllogisms of the logical system being used.

Quality noun from → valid.

Valles Marineris
  درّه‌های ِ مارینر   
darrehâ-ye Mariner

Fr.: Valles Marineris   

A system of canyons located just south of the Martian equator. The system is about 4000 km long. The central individual troughs, generally 50 to 100 km wide, merge into a depression as much as 600 km wide. In places the canyon floor reaches a depth of 10 km, 6 to 7 times deeper than the Grand Canyon on Earth.

L. Valles Marineris "Mariner's Valleys," named after the Mars orbiter Mariner 9, which discovered the Martian canyon in 1971-72. → valley.

valley
  درّه   
darré (#)

Fr.: vallée   

A long, narrow region of low land between ranges of mountains, hills, or other high areas, often having a river or stream running along the bottom.

M.E. valeie, valey, from O.Fr. valee "valley," from V.L. *vallata, from L. vallis "valley," of unknown origin.

Darré "valley," from Mid.Pers. dar, darrak "ravine, cleft;" cf. Skt. pradará- "cleft."

value
  ارزش   
arzeš (#)

Fr.: valeur   

Math.: Magnitude; quantity; a numerical quantity assigned to a mathematical symbol.

M.E., from O.Fr. value "worth, value," noun use of feminine p.p. of valoir "be worth," from L. valere "be strong, be well, be of value."

Arzeš, verbal noun of arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth;" Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *algwh- "to earn; price, value."

valve
  دریچه، سوپاپ   
daricé, supâp

Fr.: valve, soupape   

Any device that halts or regulates the flow of a fluid through a passage, pipe, etc.

From L. valvae "leaves of a door."

Daricé, leterally "small door, window," → stop. Supâp, loan from Fr. soupape, from O.Fr. sourpape, probably from souspape "a blow under chin," from sous "under," from L. subtus, → sub-, + *pape "jaw," from paper, from L. pap(p)are "to eat."

valve mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ سوپاپ   
sâzokâr-e supâp

Fr.: mécanisme de valve   

A mechanism proposed by Eddington to explain → stellar pulsations. Same as the → kappa mechanism. In this analogy the stellar layer acts like a heat engine with radiation taking the role of stream. The expanding and contracting layer acts as the piston, and the opacity of the layer behaves as the valve mechanism (Eddington, 1917, The pulsation theory of → Cepheid variables, The Observatory 40, 290).

valve; → mechanism.

Van Allen belts
  کمربندهای ِ وان آلن   
kamarbandhâ-ye Van Allen

Fr.: ceintures de Van Allen   

The ring-shaped regions of charged particles surrounding the Earth from 1 to 6 Earth radii into space. The charged particles are trapped in by the Earth's magnetic field. The inner belt is between 1.2 and 4.5 Earth radii and contains high-energy electrons and protons which originate mainly from interactions between cosmic rays and the upper atmosphere. The outer belt, located between 4.5 and 6.0 Earth radii, contains lower-energy charged particles mainly coming from the solar wind.

Named after James Van Allen (1914-2006), who discovered the belts in 1958 based on measurements made by Explorer 1, the USA's first successful artificial satellite; → belt.

Van Cittert-Zernike theorem
  فربین ِ فان سیترت-زرنیکه   
van farbin-e Cittert-Zernike

Fr.: théorème de Cittert-Zernike   

In → Young's experiment of → interference with double apertures, if a monochromatic source is a considerable distance from the → aperture plane and aperture separation is small, → fringe visibility from an extended source is proportional to the → Fourier transform of the source's spatial distribution. The transform variable is the angular separation of the aperture-plane sampling points divided by the wavelength. The van Cittert-Zernike Theorem is at the heart of → aperture synthesis.

Developed independently by Dutch physicists Pieter Hendrick van Cittert (1889-1959) in 1934 and Frits Zernike (1888-1966) in 1939; → theorem.

van den Bergh catalogue (vdB)
     
kâtâlog-e van den Bergh

Fr.: catalogue de van den Bergh   

A catalog of → reflection nebulae containing 158 objects. The catalog gives information for all BD and CD stars north of δ = -33 deg which are surrounded by reflection nebulosity visible on both the blue and red prints of the → Palomar Observatory Sky Survey .

van den Bergh, S., 1966, AJ, 71, 990; → catalog

van der Waals equation
  هموگش ِ وان در والس   
hamugeš-e van der Waals

Fr.: équation de van der Waals   

An → equation of state that satisfactorily describes the behavior of → real gass over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. It is derived from considerations based on kinetic theory, taking into account to a first approximation the size of a molecule and the cohesive forces between molecules: (P + a / V2) (V - b) = RT, where P, V, and T are pressure, volume, and temperature and R the gas constant. a and b are characteristic constants for a given substance. For a = b = 0, the van der Waals equation reduces to the characteristic equation of an → ideal gas. See also → Dieterici equation.

Named after Dutch physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837-1923), Nobel Prize in Physics 1910; → equation.

van der Waals force
  نیروی ِ وان در والس   
niru-ye van der Waals

Fr.: force de van der Waals   

A weak attractive force between neutral atoms and molecules arising from polarization induced in each particle by the presence of other particles. All molecules contain electrically charged particles, and even though the molecule as a whole is electrically neutral there do exist between molecules van der Waals attractive forces of electric origin.

Named after Dutch physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837-1923), Nobel Prize in Physics 1910; → force.

vanadium
  وانادیوم   
vânâdiom (#)

Fr.: vanadium   

A soft, ductile, silver-grey metal; symbol V. → Atomic number 23; → atomic weight 50.9415; → melting point about 1,890°C; → boiling point 3,380°C; → specific gravity about 6 at 20°C; and → valence +2,+3, +4, or +5. → It is used in various alloys to increase its shock resistance.

Named 1830 by Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström (1787-1845), from Old Norse Vanadis, epithet of the goddess Freya, + → -ium.

vane
  ۱، ۲) پره؛ ۳) بادنما   
1, 2) parré (#); 3) bâdnemâ (#)

Fr.: 1) aile, pale; 2) barbe; 3) girouette   

1) A blade attached radially to a central axis, as in a windmill, propeller, revolving fin, or the like. → spider vane.
2) → wind vane.
3) The flat part of a bird's → feather.

M.E., from O.E. fana "flag;" cognate with Ger. Fahne "flag," Gothic fana "piece of cloth."

Parré, from parr, → feather.

vanish
  ونیدن   
venidan

Fr.: 1, 2) disparaître, se volatiser; 3) s'en aller   

1) To disappear from sight, especially quickly; become invisible.
2) To disappear by ceasing to exist; come to an end.
3) Math.: To become zero or to tend to zero.

M.E., from O.Fr. esvanir "disappear; cause to disappear," from L. evanescere "disappear, pass away, die out," from → ex- "out" + vanescere "to vanish," from vanus "empty," cognate with O.E. wanian "to lessen," wan "deficient;" O.N. vanta "to lack;" L. vacare "to be empty," vastus "empty, waste;" see below for Iranian cognates.

Venidan, from Kurd. ven "missing; away; absent," cf. Pers. vang "empty, empty-handed, poor;" related to Av. ūna- "deficient, empty," ū- "to be incomplete;" akin to Skt. vā- "to disappear, diminish," ūná- "deficient;" L. vanus "empty," as above.

vanquish
  وانیدن   
vânidan

Fr.: vaincre   

1) To → conquer or subdue by superior force, as in battle.
2) To defeat in any contest or conflict; be victorious over (Dictionary.com).

O.Fr. venquis-, extended stem of veintre "to defeat," from L. vincere "to overcome, conquer."

Vânidan, from Mid.Pers. vânidan "to vanquish, to conquer;" cf. Av. van- "to vanquish, to defeat;" Skt. van- "to win, conquer;" O.E. winnan, E. win, PIE *uen- "to win, conquer."

vapor
  بخار   
boxâr (#)

Fr.: vapeur   

The gaseous form of substances that are normally in liquid or solid form.

M.E. vapour, L. vapor "exhalation, steam, heat," of unknown origin.

Boxâr, loan from Ar. buxâr.

vaporization
  بخارش   
boxâreš

Fr.: vaporisation, évaporation   

The act of vaporizing. The state of being vaporized.
The rapid change of water into steam.

Verbal noun of → vaporize.

vaporize
  ۱) بخاریدن؛ ۲) بخاراندن   
1) boxâridan; 2) boxârândan

Fr.: 1) s'évaporer; 2) évaporer   

1) To become converted into vapor.
2) To cause to change into a vapor.

vapor + → -ize.

variability
  ورتندگی   
vartandegi

Fr.: variabilité   

The quality, state, or degree of being variable or changeable.

Quality noun from → variable.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>