An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12937 Search : far
Zhevakin's zone
  زنار ِ ژواکین   
zonaar-e Zhavakin

Fr.: zone de Zhevakin   

One of several regions of the stellar interior where increased → opacity can provide the necessary → valve mechanism to drive → stellar pulsations. Also called → partial ionization zone.

Named after the Russian astronomer Sergei A. Zhevakin (1916-2001), who identified these zone in the 1950s; → mechanism.

zij
  زیج   
zij (#)

Fr.: zij   

The generic name applied to books in Arabic and Persian that tabulate parameters used for astronomical calculations of positions of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets of antiquity. Some examples: Zij al-Sindhind, by Khwarizmi (c. 780-850), Az-Zij as-Sabi by al-Battâni (Albatenius) (853-929), Zij-i Ilkhâni by Nassireddin Tusi (1201-1274), Zij-i Sultâni by Ulugh Brg (1437), → Toledan Tables, → Alfonsine Tables.

The word is derived from Mid.Pers. zig, variant zih "cord, string" (Mod.Pers. zeh "cord, string"); Av. jiiā- "bow-string," cognate with Skt. jiyā- "bow-string," PIE base *gwhi- "thread, tendon" (from which derive also Gk. bios "bow", L. filum "thread", Russ. žca "thread").
The term zig originally referred to the threads in weaving, but because of the similarity between the rows and columns of astronomical tables and the parallel threads, it came to be used for an astronomical table, and subsequently a set of tables.

zinc
  روی   
ruy (#)

Fr.: zinc   

A metallic, lustrous, bluish-white → chemical element; symbol Zn. → Atomic number 30; → atomic weight 65.38; → melting point 419.58 °C; → boiling point 907 °C; → specific gravity 7.133 at 25 °C. It was recognized as a → metal as early as 1374.

From the Ger. Zink of unknown origin. Zinc compounds were known in prehistoric times, where they were used for healing wounds and for making brass.

Ruy, from Mid.Pers. rôy, rôd "copper, brass;" Av. raoiδita- "red, reddish;" cf. Skt. rohita- "red, reddish," lohá- "red, reddish, reddish metal."

zircon
  زرگون   
zargun (#)

Fr.: zircon   

A common mineral, zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4, occurring in small tetragonal crystals. The color is variable, usually brown to reddish brown, but also colorless, pale yellowish, green, or blue. A red variety, used as a gem, is called hyacinth. Zircon contains trace amounts of uranium and thorium and therefore can be used for radiometric datings. Also called jargon.

From Ger. Zirkon, from Ar. zarqun "cinnabar, bright red," from Pers. zargun "gold-colored," from zargold + -gun "resembling; manner, fashion; color" (Mid.Pers. gônak "kind, species;" Av. gaona- "color").

zirconium
  زیرکونیوم   
zirkoniom (#)

Fr.: zirconium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Zr. Atomic number 40; atomic weight 91.22; melting point about 1,852°C; boiling point 4,377°C; specific gravity 6.5 at 20°C. Zirconium was discovered in the mineral zirconia by the German chemist Martin-Heinrich Klaproth in 1789. It was first isolated by the Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius in 1824 in an impure state and finally by the chemists D. Lely Jr. and L. Hamburger in a pure state in 1914.

From → zircon.

zirconium oxide, ZrO
  اکسید ِ زیرکونیوم   
oksid-e zirkoniom

Fr.: oxide de zirconium   

A → diatomic molecule made up of → zirconium and → oxygen atoms. See → ZrO band.

zirconium; → band.

zodiac
  برجگان، برج زنار   
borjgân

Fr.: zodiaque   

An imaginary belt around the heavens extending about 9° on either side of the → ecliptic. The orbits of the Moon and of the principal planets also lie entirely within the zodiac. The zodiac was created during the first half of the first millennium B.C. by Babylonian astronomers, who divided it into 12 constellations (→ sign of the zodiac) each considered to occupy 1/12, or 30°, of its great circle. They were named after living creatures, with the exception of Libra: → Aries, → Taurus, → Gemini, → Cancer, → Leo, → Virgo, → Libra, → Scorpius, → Sagittarius, → Capricornus, → Aquarius, → Pisces. However, as a result of → precession, these signs no longer correspond to the astronomical constellations in which the Sun actually appears. The constellations are irregular in size and shape, and the Sun regularly passes through 13 constellations as it moves along the ecliptic. The additional 13th constellation is → Ophiuchus, situated between → Scorpius and → Sagittarius. See also → dodekatemorion.

From M.E. zodiaque, from O.Fr. zodiaque, from L. zodiacus, from Gk. zodiakos (kyklos) "zodiac (circle)," literally "circle of little animals," from zodiaion, diminutive of zoion "animal," literally "a living being," from PIE base *gwei- "to live, life;" cognate with Pers. zist, → bio-.

Borjgân, from borj, → sign of the zodiac, + -gân suffix denoting multiplicity, order, organization.

zodiacal
  برجگانی   
borjgâni

Fr.: zodiacal   

Of or relating to the → zodiac.

zodiac; → -al.

zodiacal belt
  کمربند ِ برجگانی، زنار ِ ~   
kamarband-e borjgâni, zonâr-e ~

Fr.: ceinture zodiacale   

zodiac.

zodiacal; → belt.

zodiacal light
  نور ِ برجگانی   
nur-e borjgâni

Fr.: lumière zodiacale   

A cone-shaped faint glow along the → ecliptic, visible to the naked eye in the west after sunset or in the east before sunrise. Zodiacal light results from sunlight reflected by interplanetary dust concentrated in the plane of the ecliptic.

zodiacal; → light.

zodiacal sign
  برج   
borj (#)

Fr.: signe zodiacal   

sign of zodiac.

zodiacal; → sign.

zone
  زنار   
zonâr (#)

Fr.: zone   

The portion of the surface of a sphere included between two parallel planes.

From L. zona "geographical belt, celestial zone," from Gk. zone "a belt," related to zonnynai "to gird," from PIE base *yes- "to gird, girdle;" cognate with Pers. parhun "circle," as below.

Zonâr most probably loan from from Gk., as above; it is related to Pers. parhun "circle," ultimately from Proto-Iranian *pari-iâhana- "girdle, belt," from pari-, variant pirâ-, → circum-, + iâhana- "to girdle," cf. Av. yâh- "to girdle." The Pers. pirâhan "shirt" is a variant of parhun.

zone of avoidance
  زنار ِ پرهیز   
zonâr-e parhiz

Fr.: zone d'évitement, zone vide   

The region on the sky covered by the plane of the → Milky Way. It is characterized by an apparent absence of galaxies, due to the obscuring effect of → interstellar dust in the → Galactic plane.

zone; M.E. avoiden, from Anglo-Fr. avoider "to clear out, withdraw (oneself)," from O.Fr. esvuider "to empty out," from es- "out" + vuidier "to be empty" (→ void) + -ance.

Zonâr, → zone; parhiz "avoidance, abstinence," from parhizidan, parhixtan "to restrain onself, to abstain;" Mid.Pers. pahrêc "preservation, protection, guard," pahrêxtan "to protect, to take care of."

ZrO band
  باند ِ ZrO   
bând-e ZrO

Fr.: bande ZrO   

Any of the three → absorption bands due to the molecule → zirconium oxide present in the blue and visual spectral regions → S-type stars. The bands are centered on the wavelengths 4614, 5551, and 6468 Å.

zirconium oxide; → band.

ZZ Ceti star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ZZ-کتوس   
setâre-ye ZZ Ketus

Fr.: étoile de type ZZ Ceti   

A member of a class of non-radially pulsating stas that change their brightnesses with periods from 30 seconds to 25 minutes and amplitudes from 0.001 to 0.2 mag in V. Their location on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram identifies them as → white dwarf stars that have entered the → instability strip as they evolve along the white dwarf track.

Cetus; → star.

[C II] line
     
xatt-e [C II]

Fr.: raie [C II]   

The → fine structure → emission line of → carbon at 157.74 μm, with transition 2P3/2-2P1/2 (rest frame frequency 1900.54 GHz). [C II] is a major → cooling line in → molecular clouds and is produced in low density → photodissociation regions (PDRs) (nH≤ 103 cm-3). In higher density PDRs the [O I] 63 μm line becomes an important → coolant. The [C II] line traces → neutral gas exposed to → ultraviolet  → photons from → young stars. The [C II] line is used to probe the stellar → radiation field and find out how it affects the physical conditions of the gas. The bulk of the [C II] emission line is believed to originate from PDRs, and the remainder from → X-ray Dissociation regions (XDRs), and, in a lesser extent, by cosmic-ray-dominated regions (CRDRs), → H II regions, low-density warm gas and/or diffuse H I clouds.

carbon; → line.

[O III] doublet
  دوتایه‌ی ِ [O III]   
dotâye-ye [O III]

Fr.: doublet [O III]   

The two → forbidden lines with → transitions from the upper → energy level  1D2 of the doubly ionized oxygen atom. They occur in the green part of the → visible spectrum and are called → nebular lines. They are λ5006.8 1D2-3P2 and λ4958.9 1D2-3P1. Theoretical values for the [O III] 5007/4959 line-intensity ratio is 3.01 (Storey and Zeippen, 2000, MNRAS 312, 813).

[O III], spectroscopic notation of the ion O++; → doublet.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D r dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg del den dep des det deu dex dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai Fan Fea fem fer fie fil fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hub hun hyd hyd hyg Hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kel Kep kil kit Kui Lag lam lan Lar Lat law lea lem lep Li- lig lim lin lin lio lit loc lod lon Lor low Lum lun Lup Lyn mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor mov mul mur nab nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nua nuc nul Nun OBC obl obs occ oct off Ohm on- ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort Ost out ove p m Pal par par par par Pas pat Peg Peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe Spi spi spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T-s tar Tei tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur Tyc Typ ult unb und uni uni unr upp Urs vac van Var veg Ven ver vib vio vir vis vol VY war wat wav WC8 Web wes whi win WN1 wob wri X-r yoc zen Zhe > >>