An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
blurring
  تارشد   
târšod

Fr.: estompage   

In → galactic dynamics models, the → scattering of stars at radii substantially away from → corotation resonance, especially at the → Lindblad resonances, leading to a higher → eccentricity. The → spiral wave response of a → galactic disk to a co-orbiting mass → clump blurs the distinction between scattering by → spiral arms and by mass clumps. See also → churning (J. A. Sellwood & J. J. Binney, 2002, astro-ph/0203510 and references therein).

Verbal noun of → blur.

Boötes
  گاوران، گایار   
Gâvrân, Gâyâr

Fr.: Bouvier   

The Herdsman, the Ox Driver. A constellation in the northern hemisphere, at right ascension about 14h 30m, north declination about 30°. Its brightest star is → Arcturus. Abbreviation: Boo; genitive form: Boötis.

L. Boötes, from Gk. bootes "plowman," literally "ox-driver," from bootein "to plow," from bous "ox," from PIE *gwou- "ox, bull, cow;" compare with Av. gao-, gâuš "bull, cow, ox," Mod.Pers. gâv, Skt. gaus, Armenian kov, O.E. cu.

Gâvrân "ox-driver," from gâv "ox, cow" + rân "driver," from rândan "to drive."
Gâyâr, from Lori "bull driver, plower, plow man" (Tabari goyâr), from "bull, cow," variant of gâv, explained above, + -âr, either "driver", Av. ar- "to set in motion" (Skt. ir-, IER *er-), or IER *are- "to plow" (L. arare, Gk. aroun, O.C.S. orja, Lith. ariu, Goth. arjan, O.E. erian, Tokharian AB âre). Compare also with Gilaki urân " to plow," Qâeni ordu "plow".

Bode's law
  قانون ِ بوده   
qânun-e Bode

Fr.: loi de Bode   

Titius-Bode law.

body
  ۱) تن؛ ۲) جسم   
1) tan; 2) jesm (#)

Fr.: corps   

1) The physical structure of a human being or animal, including the bones, flesh, and organs.
2) Any material object characterized by its physical properties.

Body, from O.E. bodig "trunk, chest," related to O.H.G. botah, of unknown origin.

1) Tan, from Mid.Pers. tan "body, person;" O.Pers. tanūš "body," tanūm [acc.sg.] "(to) oneself;" Av. tanū- "body, person, self," tanūm [acc.sg.]; cf. Skt. tanūš- "body, self;" PIE base *ten-uh- "body."
2) Jesm, from Ar. jism "body, corps."

Boeshaar-Keenan classification
  رده‌بندی ِ بوسهار-کینان   
radebandi-ye Boeshaar-Keenan

Fr.: classification de Boeshaar-Keenan   

A system for the classification of → S-type stars. The system involves the designations of a C/O index and a temperature type. Moreover, when possible, it uses intensity estimates for → ZrO bands, the → TiO bands, the → Na I D-lines, the YO bands, and the Li I 6708 line.

Philip C. Keenan & Patricia C. Boeshaar, 1980, ApJS, 43, 379; → classification.

Bohr
  بؤر   
Bohr

Fr.: Bohr   

Niels Bohr (1885-1962), Danish physicist who made several important contributions to modern physics. He won the 1922 Nobel prize for physics in recognition of his work on the structure of atoms.

Bohr atom
  اتم ِ بؤر   
atom-e Bohr

Fr.: atome de Bohr   

The simplest model of an atom according to which electrons move around the central nucleus in circular, but well-defined, orbits. For more details see → Bohr model.

Bohr; → atom.

Bohr magneton
  مگنتون ِ بؤر   
magneton-e Bohr (#)

Fr.: magnéton de Bohr   

A fundamental constant, first calculated by Bohr, for the intrinsic → spin magnetic moment of the electron. It is given by: μB = eħ/2me = 9.27 x 10-24 joule/tesla = 5.79 x 10-5 eV/tesla, representing the minimum amount of magnetism which can be caused by the revolution of an electron around an atomic nucleus. It serves as a unit for measuring the magnetic moments of atomic particles.

Bohr; magneton, from → magnet + → -on.

Bohr model
  مدل ِ بؤر   
model-e Bohr

Fr.: modèle de Bohr   

A model suggested in 1913 to explain the stability of atoms which classical electrodynamics was unable to account for. According to the classical view of the atom, the energy of an electron moving around a nucleus must continually diminish until the electron falls onto the nucleus. The Bohr model solves this paradox with the aid of three postulates (→ Bohr's first postulate, → Bohr's second postulate, → Bohr's third postulate). On the whole, an atom has stable orbits such that an electron moving in them does not radiate electromagnetic waves. An electron radiates only when making a transition from an orbit of higher energy to one with lower energy. The frequency of this radiation is related to the difference between the energies of the electron in these two orbits, as expressed by the equation hν = ε1 - ε2, where h is → Planck's constant and ν the radiation frequency. The electron needs to gain energy to jump to a higher orbit. It gets that extra energy by absorbing a quantum of light (→ photon), which excites the jump. The electron does not remain on the higher orbit and returns to its lower energy orbit releasing the extra energy as radiation. Bohr's model answered many scientific questions in its time though the model itself is oversimplified and, in the strictest sense, incorrect. Electrons do not orbit the nucleus like a planet orbiting the Sun; rather, they behave as → standing waves. Same as → Bohr atom.

Bohr; → model.

Bohr radius
  شعاع ِ بؤر   
šo'â'-e Bohr

Fr.: rayon de Bohr   

The radius of the orbit of the hydrogen electron in its ground state (0.529 Å).

Bohr; → radius.

Bohr's first postulate
  فراوس ِ نخست ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e naxost-e Bohr

Fr.: premier postulat de Bohr   

One of the postulates used in the → Bohr model, whereby there are certain steady states of the atom in which electrons can only travel in stable orbits. In spite of their acceleration, the electrons do not radiate electromagnetic waves when they move along stationary orbits.

Bohr; → first; → postulate.

Bohr's postulate
  فراوس ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e Bohr

Fr.: postulat de Bohr   

One of the three postulates advanced in the → Bohr model which led to the correct prediction of the observed line spectrum of hydrogen atom. See also → Bohr's first postulate, → Bohr's second postulate, → Bohr's third postulate,

Bohr; → postulate.

Bohr's second postulate
  فراوس ِ دوم ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e dovom-e Bohr

Fr.: deuxième postulat de Bohr   

One of the postulates used in the → Bohr model, whereby when an atom is in the steady state an electron travelling in a circular orbit should have → quantized values of the → angular momentum which comply with the condition p = n(h/2π), where p is the angular momentum of the electron, h is → Planck's constant, and n is a positive integer called → quantum number.

Bohr; → second; → postulate.

Bohr's third postulate
  فراوس ِ سوم ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e sevom-e Bohr

Fr.: troisième postulat de Bohr   

One of the postulates used in the → Bohr model, whereby the atom emits (absorbs) a quantum of electromagnetic energy (→ photon) when the electron passes from an orbit with a greater (lesser) n value to one with a lesser (greater) value. The energy of the quantum is equal to the difference between the energies of the electron on its orbits before and after the transition or "jump": hν = ε1 - ε2, where h is the → Planck's constant and ν the frequency of the transition.

Bohr; → third; → postulate.

boiling point
  نقطه‌ی ِ جوش   
noqte-ye juš (#)

Fr.: point d'ébullition   

The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas (vapor) at normal atmospheric pressure. In other words, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure.

M.E. boillen; O.Fr. boillir, from L. bullire "to bubble, seethe," from bulla "a bubble, knob;" → point.

Noqté, → point; juš "boiling," present stem of jušidan "to boil;" Khotanese jis- "to boil;" Av. yaēšiiant- "boiling;" cf. Skt. yas- "to boil, become hot," yasyati "boils, seethes;" Gk. zein "to bubble, boil, cook;" O.H.G. jesan "to ferment, foam;" Ger. Gischt "foam, froth," gären "to ferment;" O.E. gist; E. yeast.

Bok globule
  گویچه‌ی ِ بوک   
guyce-ye Bok

Fr.: globule de Bok   

A small, roughly spherical cloud of → interstellar dust and gas that appears as a dark compact globule when viewed against the background of an → H II region. Bok globules range in mass from about 1 to 1,000 or more → solar masses, and in size from about 10,000 → astronomical units to 3 → light-years. They typically have temperatures of around 10 → Kelvin. Bok globules are thought to represent a stage in the collapse of a dense fragment of → molecular clouds that are in the process of forming new stars. → elephant trunk.

In honor of Bart Jan Bok (1906-1983), the Dutch-American astronomer, who first observed these objects. In 1947, in collaboration with Edith F. Reilly, he put forward the hypothesis that these globules were undergoing → gravitational collapse to form new stars (Bok & Reilly, 1947, ApJ 105, 255); → globule.

bolide
  گرزین   
garzin

Fr.: bolide   

A → meteor which is extremely bright, particularly one that breaks up during its passage through the → atmosphere. Also called → fireball.

Bolide, Fr., from L. bolis, bolidis, from Gk. bolis, bolidos "missile, flash of lightning," from ballein "to throw;" PIE *gwelH1- "to throw;" → ballistics.

Garzin "arrow;" cf. Tâleši ger "meteor" (from Proto-Iranian *garH- "to throw"), cognate with Gk. ballein, as above; → ballistics.

bolometer
  تفسنج   
tafsanj

Fr.: bolomètre   

1) An instrument for measuring the intensity of radiant energy in amounts as small as one millionth of an erg. It uses the change in resistance of a thin conductor caused by the heating effect of the radiation. → actinometer, → photometer, → pyrheliometer, → pyrometer, radiometer.
2) In astronomy, an instrument that measures the amount of radiant energy received from a celestial object.

From Gk. bole "stroke, beam of light," from ballein "to throw" + middle suffix -o- + → -meter..

Tafsanj, from taf "heat, warmth; light, brightness," from tâbidan, "→ radiate," + sanj, → -meter.

bolometric
  تفسنجی، تفسنجیک   
tafsanji, tafsanjik

Fr.: bolométrique   

Of or relating to or measured by a → bolometer.

bolometer; → -ic.

bolometric correction
  ارشایش ِ تفسنجی، ~ تفسنجیک   
aršâyeš-e tafsanji, ~ tafsanjik

Fr.: correction bolométrique   

The difference between the → visual magnitude and → bolometric magnitude.

bolometric; → correction.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>