An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Carina Nebula
  میغ ِ افزل   
miq-e afzal

Fr.: Nébuleuse de la Carène   

One of the most prominent → massive star formation regions of the → Milky Way, also known as NGC 3372. It is associated with a giant → H II region of the same name, which spans about 4 square degrees on the sky and is split by a remarkable V-shaped → dust lane. The Carina Nebula harbors several → star clusters, mainly → Trumpler 14, → Trumpler 16, and Collinder 228, including more than 60 known → O-type stars in addition to the extreme → LBV star → Eta Carinae. This gas and dust complex is associated with a → giant molecular cloud extending over about 130 pc. Large cavities within the molecular cloud are supposed to be carved out by the massive star clusters. There are also several → Herbig-Haro objects and → bipolar outflows.

Carina; → nebula.

Carme (Jupiter XI)
  کارمه   
Kârme (#)

Fr.: Carmé   

The fourteenth of Jupiter's known satellites; 40 km in size; → retrograde orbit. It was discovered by Nicholson in 1938.

In Gk mythology, Carme was a wife of Zeus, and the mother of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.

Carnal-Mlynek experiment
  آزمایش ِ کارنال-ملینک   
âzmâyeš-e Carnal-Mlynek

Fr.: expérience Carnal-Mlynek   

An experiment devised to produce → interference patterns from a beam of helium atoms passing through two adjacent apertures, as in → Young's experiment.

Named after O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, who first carried out this experiment in 1991 (Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689); → experiment.

Carnot cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ کارنو   
carxe-ye Carnot

Fr.: cycle de Carnot   

A → cyclic process comprising a sequence of → isothermal and → adiabatic expansions and compressions that bring a system back to its initial state.

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832), a French physicist and military engineer who, in his 1824 Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines; → cycle.

carrier
  برنده   
barandé (#)

Fr.: porteur   

1) An atom or molecule responsible for an unidentified spectral feature, such as a → diffuse interstellar band.
2) Same as → charge carrier.
3) In radio or television transmission, an → electromagnetic wave whose → amplitude, → frequency, or → phase is to be varied or → modulated to transmit a signal.

Carrier, from v. carry, from M.E. carien, from O. Norm-Fr. carier "to transport in a vehicle," from carre "cart," from L. carrum, carrus "two-wheeled wagon," from Gaul. karros, from PIE *krsos, from base *kers- "to run."

Barandé "carrier," from bordan "to carry," Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Av. barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," barəθri "a female that bears (children), a mother," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, P.Gmc. *beranan, O.H.G. beran, Goth. bairan "to carry," O.E. beran "bear, bring, wear," PIE root *bher-; "to carry."

Carrington rotation
  چرخش ِ کرینگتون   
carxeš-e Carrington

Fr.: rotation de Carrington   

A system for counting rotations of the Sun based on the mean → synodic rotation period of the Sun. Initially, Lord Carrington determined the solar rotation rate by watching low-latitude → sunspots. He defined a fixed solar coordinate system that rotates in a sidereal frame exactly once every 25.38 days. This means that the solar rotation period, as viewed from the Earth, is assumed to be constant. However, the synodic rotation rate varies during the year because of the changing speed of the Earth in its orbit and the mean synodic period is about 27.2753 days. Carrington rotation number 1 began on November 9, 1853.

Named for Richard C. Harrington (1826-1875), British astronomer, who initiated the system; → rotation.

Cartesian
  دکارتی   
Descarti

Fr.: cartésien   

Of or relating to René → Descartes, his mathematical system, or his philosophy, especially with regard to its emphasis on logical analysis and its mechanistic interpretation of physical nature. → Cartesian coordinates; → Cartesian vortex theory.

From L. Cartesianus, from Cartesius, Latinized form of the name of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), + suffix -ian.

Cartesian coordinates
  هم‌آراهای ِ دکارتی   
hamârâhâ-ye Dekârti

Fr.: coordonnées cartésiennes   

A → coordinate system in which the position of a point is specified by two (in a plane) or three (in 3-dimensional space) → real numbers representing the distances from two perpendicular axes or from three perpendicular planes, respectively. René Descartes (1596-1650) introduced the coordinates system in his La Géométrie in 1637.

Cartesian; → coordinate.

Cartesian vortex theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گردشار ِ دکارت   
negare-ye gerdšâr-e Descartes

Fr.: théorie des vortex de Descartes   

A mechanical model put forward before Newton's theory of gravity to explain the revolution of the planets around the Sun. Descartes in his 1644 Principia Philosophiae postulated that the space between the Sun and the planets is filled with matter in the form of a fluid. The fluid rotates in countless whirlpools, one for each planet, thus carrying the planets along in their flow. The vortices vary in size and are contiguous as well as nested. Descartes believed that two objects can exert force on each other only when they are in physical contact. This is why he postulated that space is filled with matter. Newton refuted the vortex theory, using the principle of → action at a distance on which relies his → law of universal gravitation.

Cartesian; → vortex; → theory.

Cartwheel Galaxy
  کهکشان ِ چرخ ِ ارابه   
kahkašân-e carx-e arrâbé

Fr.: galaxie de la roue de charette   

A galaxy with a striking ring-like feature lying about 400 million → light-years away in the → constellation  → Sculptor. The ring-like structure, over 100,000 light-years in diameter, is composed of regions of → star formation filled with very bright, → massive stars. The shape results from collision with another smaller galaxy.

Cartwheel, from cart from O.N. kartr; → wheel; → galaxy.

Kahkašân, → galaxy. Carx-e arrâbé "cartwheel," from carx, → wheel + arrâbé "cart, chariot," maybe related to Mid.Pers. ras, ray "wheel," O.Pers./Av. raθa- "wheel," Khotanese rrha- "car," Skt. ratha- "wheel," L. rota "wheel," PIE base *rotos "wheel."

cascade
  آبشار، پی‌شار   
âbšâr (#), peyšâr

Fr.: cascade   

1) A waterfall or a succession of small waterfalls.
2) A succession of stages or processes, as in → cascade shower, → cascade error, → cascade transition.

From Fr., from It. cascata "waterfall," from cascare "to fall," from V.L. *casicare, from L. casum, p.p. of cadere "to fall," → case.

Âbšâr, from âb "water," → Aquarius, + šâr "pouring of water and liquids, waterfall;" peyšâr "waterfall succession," from pey "step, succession," as in peyâpey, + šâr. This word maybe related to Skt. sar- "to flow, run, hurry," Gk. iallo "I send out," L. salio "I jump." It may also be variant of Mod.Pers. cal-, calidan "to walk, be going," car-, caridan "to pasture, graze," Av. car- "to come and go," Skt. cari- "to move, walk, wander."

cascade error
  ایرنگ ِ پی‌شاری، ~ آبشاری   
irang-e peyšâri, ~ âbšâri

Fr.: erreur en cascade   

An error that amplifies as the process of calculation goes on.

cascade; → error.

cascade shower
  رگبار ِ پی‌شاری، ~ آبشاری   
ragbâr-e peyšâri, ~ âbšâri

Fr.: gerbe   

Multiple generations of secondary cosmic rays when the primary particles produce a succession of secondaries which have the same effects as the primary.

cascade; → shower.

cascade transition
  گذرش ِ پی‌شاری   
gozareš-e peyšâri

Fr.: transition en cascade   

A photon generation mechanism in an atom in which a transition initiates a series of secondary transitions from lower electronic levels.

cascade; → transition.

case
  کاته   
kâté

Fr.: cas   

1) An instance of the occurrence, or existence of something.
2) A set of circumstances or conditions.
3) Grammar: An inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or adjective indicating its grammatical relation to other words.

M.E. cas, from O.Fr. cas "an event, happening, situation," from L. casus "a chance, occasion, opportunity; accident," literally "a falling," from cadere "to fall, sink, settle down" (Sp. caer, caida); Sp. caso; It. caso; Port. caso; PIE root *kad- "to fall;" cf. Skt. śad- "to fall down;" Pers. kat, as below.

Kâté, from Iranian dialects/languages kat- "to fall" (with extension of the first vowel), as Laki: katen "to fall," kat "he/she fell," beko "fall!" (an insult); katyâ "fallen;" Lori: kat "event, error;" Kurd. (Soriani): kawtin "to fall, befall," kett "fallen;" Kurd. (Kurmanji): da.ketin "to fall down;" Lârestâni: kata "to fall;" Garkuyeyi: darkat, varkat "he/she fell (sudden death);" Gilaki (Langarud, Tâleš): katan "to fall," bakatam "I fell," dakatan "to fall (in a marsh, in a pit)," vakatan "to fall from tiredness, be exhausted," fakatan "to fall from (i.e., lose) reputation;" Tabari: dakətə "fallen," dakətən "to crash down," dakət.gu "stray cow;" Proto-Iranian *kat- "to fall;" cf. L. cadere, as above. Alternatively, from Proto-Ir. *kap-, *kaf- "to (be)fall, strike (down);" cf. Baluci kapag, kafag "to fall," kapt "(past tense) fell;" Bampuri kapte "fallen;" Kurd. (Sanandaj) kaften "to fall;" Gilaki jekaftan "to fall;" Nâyini derkaftan "to fall down."

Casimir effect
  اُسکر ِ کازیمیر   
oskar-e Casimir

Fr.: effet Casimir   

A small attractive force that appears between two close parallel uncharged plates in a vacuum. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. According to the quantum theory, the vacuum contains → virtual particles which are in a continuous state of fluctuation. Because the distance between the plates is very small, not every possible wavelength can exist in the space between the two plates, quite in contrast to the surrounding vacuum. The energy density decreases as the plates are moved closer, creating a negative pressure which pulls the plates together. The first successfully measurement of the effect was by Steve Lamoreaux in 1997. A more recent experiment in 2002 used a polystyrene sphere 200 μm in diameter coated in gold or aluminium. This was brought to within 0.1 μm of a flat disk coated with the same metals. The resulting attraction between them was monitored by the deviation of a laser beam. The Casimir force was measured to within 1% of the expected theoretical value.

After the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir (1909-2000), who predicted the phenomenon in 1948; → effect.

Cassegrain focus
  کانون ِ کسگرن   
kânun-e Cassegrain (#)

Fr.: foyer Cassegrain   

The main focus in → Cassegrain telescope.

Cassegrain telescope; → focus.

Cassegrain telescope
  دوربین ِ کسگرن، تلسکوپ ~   
durbin Cassegrain, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: Télecope Cassegrain   

A reflecting telescope whose primary mirror has a hole bored through the center to allow the reflected light from the convex secondary mirror be focused beyond the back end of the tube.

Cassegrain, named after the French priest and school teacher Laurent Cassegrain (1629-1693), who invented this system in 1672; → telescope.

Cassini division
  شکاف ِ کاسینی   
šekâf-e Cassini (#)

Fr.: division de Cassini   

The main dark gap, 4,700 km wide, which divides Saturn's outermost A and B rings.

Named after Jean-Dominique Cassini (1625-1712), French astronomer of Italian origin, who discovered the division in 1675; → division.

Cassini state
  استات ِ کاسینی   
estât-e Cassini

Fr.: état de Cassini   

A state characterizing a system which obeys → Cassini's laws.

Cassini's law; → state.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>