An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>

Number of Results: 13003 Search : far
care
  ۱) تیمار؛ ۲) تیماردن   
1) timâr (#); 2) timârdan

Fr.: soin, souci, attention; 2) se soucier, s'intéresser   

1a) A state of mind in which one is troubled; worry, anxiety, or concern; a cause or object of worry, anxiety, concern, etc.
1b) Serious attention; solicitude; heed; caution.
2a) To be concerned or solicitous; have thought or regard.
2b) To be concerned or have a special preference (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. caru, cearu "sorrow, anxiety, grief," cognate with Gothic kara, O.H.G. chara lament; M.En. caren, O.E. cearian, carian "be anxious, grieve."

Timâr "care, attendance on the sick; custody; sorrow;" Mid.Pers. têmâr "care; grief"

careful
  تیمارمند   
timârmand

Fr.: consciecieux, soigneux, soigné   

1) Cautious in one's actions.
2) Taking pains in one's work; exact; thorough.
3) (of things) Done or performed with accuracy or caution (Dictionary.com).

care; + -ful, a suffix meaning "characterized by; full of; able to;" → full.

Carina
  افزل، شاه‌تخته   
afzal, šâh-taxté (#)

Fr.: Carène   

The Keel. A major → constellation in the southern sky, home to → Canopus (α Carinae), the second brightest star after → Sirius. Approximate position: RA 9h, Dec. -60° The constellation resulted from the division of a very large constellation representing → Argo Navis, the mythological Jason's ship. The partition into the constellations → Carina, → Puppis, → Vela, and → Pyxis appeared first on a sky map by Nicholas Louis de Lacaille (1763). Carina represents the bottom of the Ship Argo. Abbreviation: Car; genitive form: Carinae.

L. carina "the keel of a ship, i.e. the principal structural member of a ship, running lengthwise along the center line from bow to stern, to which the frames are attached."

Afzal "keel" in the jargon of the Caspian sea fishermen of Gilan province. Šâh-taxté "main plank."

Carina arm
  بازوی ِ افزل   
bâzu-ye Afzal

Fr.: bras de Carène   

A → spiral arm in the Milky Way galaxy seen at its best in the → constellation → Carina, but also crossing the constellations → Vela, → Crux, and → Centaurus. It may be a continuation of the → Sagittarius arm; the combined feature is called Sagittarius-Carina arm.

Carina; → arm.

Carina Nebula
  میغ ِ افزل   
miq-e afzal

Fr.: Nébuleuse de la Carène   

One of the most prominent → massive star formation regions of the → Milky Way, also known as NGC 3372. It is associated with a giant → H II region of the same name, which spans about 4 square degrees on the sky and is split by a remarkable V-shaped → dust lane. The Carina Nebula harbors several → star clusters, mainly → Trumpler 14, → Trumpler 16, and Collinder 228, including more than 60 known → O-type stars in addition to the extreme → LBV star → Eta Carinae. This gas and dust complex is associated with a → giant molecular cloud extending over about 130 pc. Large cavities within the molecular cloud are supposed to be carved out by the massive star clusters. There are also several → Herbig-Haro objects and → bipolar outflows.

Carina; → nebula.

Carme (Jupiter XI)
  کارمه   
Kârme (#)

Fr.: Carmé   

The fourteenth of Jupiter's known satellites; 40 km in size; → retrograde orbit. It was discovered by Nicholson in 1938.

In Gk mythology, Carme was a wife of Zeus, and the mother of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.

Carnal-Mlynek experiment
  آزمایش ِ کارنال-ملینک   
âzmâyeš-e Carnal-Mlynek

Fr.: expérience Carnal-Mlynek   

An experiment devised to produce → interference patterns from a beam of helium atoms passing through two adjacent apertures, as in → Young's experiment.

Named after O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, who first carried out this experiment in 1991 (Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689); → experiment.

Carnot cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ کارنو   
carxe-ye Carnot

Fr.: cycle de Carnot   

A → cyclic process comprising a sequence of → isothermal and → adiabatic expansions and compressions that bring a system back to its initial state.

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832), a French physicist and military engineer who, in his 1824 Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines; → cycle.

carrier
  برنده   
barandé (#)

Fr.: porteur   

1) An atom or molecule responsible for an unidentified spectral feature, such as a → diffuse interstellar band.
2) Same as → charge carrier.
3) In radio or television transmission, an → electromagnetic wave whose → amplitude, → frequency, or → phase is to be varied or → modulated to transmit a signal.

Carrier, from v. carry, from M.E. carien, from O. Norm-Fr. carier "to transport in a vehicle," from carre "cart," from L. carrum, carrus "two-wheeled wagon," from Gaul. karros, from PIE *krsos, from base *kers- "to run."

Barandé "carrier," from bordan "to carry," Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Av. barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," barəθri "a female that bears (children), a mother," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, P.Gmc. *beranan, O.H.G. beran, Goth. bairan "to carry," O.E. beran "bear, bring, wear," PIE root *bher-; "to carry."

Carrington rotation
  چرخش ِ کرینگتون   
carxeš-e Carrington

Fr.: rotation de Carrington   

A system for counting rotations of the Sun based on the mean → synodic rotation period of the Sun. Initially, Lord Carrington determined the solar rotation rate by watching low-latitude → sunspots. He defined a fixed solar coordinate system that rotates in a sidereal frame exactly once every 25.38 days. This means that the solar rotation period, as viewed from the Earth, is assumed to be constant. However, the synodic rotation rate varies during the year because of the changing speed of the Earth in its orbit and the mean synodic period is about 27.2753 days. Carrington rotation number 1 began on November 9, 1853.

Named for Richard C. Harrington (1826-1875), British astronomer, who initiated the system; → rotation.

Cartesian
  دکارتی   
Descarti

Fr.: cartésien   

Of or relating to René → Descartes, his mathematical system, or his philosophy, especially with regard to its emphasis on logical analysis and its mechanistic interpretation of physical nature. → Cartesian coordinates; → Cartesian vortex theory.

From L. Cartesianus, from Cartesius, Latinized form of the name of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), + suffix -ian.

Cartesian coordinates
  هم‌آراهای ِ دکارتی   
hamârâhâ-ye Dekârti

Fr.: coordonnées cartésiennes   

A → coordinate system in which the position of a point is specified by two (in a plane) or three (in 3-dimensional space) → real numbers representing the distances from two perpendicular axes or from three perpendicular planes, respectively. René Descartes (1596-1650) introduced the coordinates system in his La Géométrie in 1637.

Cartesian; → coordinate.

Cartesian vortex theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گردشار ِ دکارت   
negare-ye gerdšâr-e Descartes

Fr.: théorie des vortex de Descartes   

A mechanical model put forward before Newton's theory of gravity to explain the revolution of the planets around the Sun. Descartes in his 1644 Principia Philosophiae postulated that the space between the Sun and the planets is filled with matter in the form of a fluid. The fluid rotates in countless whirlpools, one for each planet, thus carrying the planets along in their flow. The vortices vary in size and are contiguous as well as nested. Descartes believed that two objects can exert force on each other only when they are in physical contact. This is why he postulated that space is filled with matter. Newton refuted the vortex theory, using the principle of → action at a distance on which relies his → law of universal gravitation.

Cartesian; → vortex; → theory.

Cartwheel Galaxy
  کهکشان ِ چرخ ِ ارابه   
kahkašân-e carx-e arrâbé

Fr.: galaxie de la roue de charette   

A galaxy with a striking ring-like feature lying about 400 million → light-years away in the → constellation  → Sculptor. The ring-like structure, over 100,000 light-years in diameter, is composed of regions of → star formation filled with very bright, → massive stars. The shape results from collision with another smaller galaxy.

Cartwheel, from cart from O.N. kartr; → wheel; → galaxy.

Kahkašân, → galaxy. Carx-e arrâbé "cartwheel," from carx, → wheel + arrâbé "cart, chariot," maybe related to Mid.Pers. ras, ray "wheel," O.Pers./Av. raθa- "wheel," Khotanese rrha- "car," Skt. ratha- "wheel," L. rota "wheel," PIE base *rotos "wheel."

cascade
  آبشار، پی‌شار   
âbšâr (#), peyšâr

Fr.: cascade   

1) A waterfall or a succession of small waterfalls.
2) A succession of stages or processes, as in → cascade shower, → cascade error, → cascade transition.

From Fr., from It. cascata "waterfall," from cascare "to fall," from V.L. *casicare, from L. casum, p.p. of cadere "to fall," → case.

Âbšâr, from âb "water," → Aquarius, + šâr "pouring of water and liquids, waterfall;" peyšâr "waterfall succession," from pey "step, succession," as in peyâpey, + šâr. This word maybe related to Skt. sar- "to flow, run, hurry," Gk. iallo "I send out," L. salio "I jump." It may also be variant of Mod.Pers. cal-, calidan "to walk, be going," car-, caridan "to pasture, graze," Av. car- "to come and go," Skt. cari- "to move, walk, wander."

cascade error
  ایرنگ ِ پی‌شاری، ~ آبشاری   
irang-e peyšâri, ~ âbšâri

Fr.: erreur en cascade   

An error that amplifies as the process of calculation goes on.

cascade; → error.

cascade shower
  رگبار ِ پی‌شاری، ~ آبشاری   
ragbâr-e peyšâri, ~ âbšâri

Fr.: gerbe   

Multiple generations of secondary cosmic rays when the primary particles produce a succession of secondaries which have the same effects as the primary.

cascade; → shower.

cascade transition
  گذرش ِ پی‌شاری   
gozareš-e peyšâri

Fr.: transition en cascade   

A photon generation mechanism in an atom in which a transition initiates a series of secondary transitions from lower electronic levels.

cascade; → transition.

case
  کاته   
kâté

Fr.: cas   

1) An instance of the occurrence, or existence of something.
2) A set of circumstances or conditions.
3) Grammar: An inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or adjective indicating its grammatical relation to other words.

M.E. cas, from O.Fr. cas "an event, happening, situation," from L. casus "a chance, occasion, opportunity; accident," literally "a falling," from cadere "to fall, sink, settle down" (Sp. caer, caida); Sp. caso; It. caso; Port. caso; PIE root *kad- "to fall;" cf. Skt. śad- "to fall down;" Pers. kat, as below.

Kâté, from Iranian dialects/languages kat- "to fall" (with extension of the first vowel), as Laki: katen "to fall," kat "he/she fell," beko "fall!" (an insult); katyâ "fallen;" Lori: kat "event, error;" Kurd. (Soriani): kawtin "to fall, befall," kett "fallen;" Kurd. (Kurmanji): da.ketin "to fall down;" Lârestâni: kata "to fall;" Garkuyeyi: darkat, varkat "he/she fell (sudden death);" Gilaki (Langarud, Tâleš): katan "to fall," bakatam "I fell," dakatan "to fall (in a marsh, in a pit)," vakatan "to fall from tiredness, be exhausted," fakatan "to fall from (i.e., lose) reputation;" Tabari: dakətə "fallen," dakətən "to crash down," dakət.gu "stray cow;" Proto-Iranian *kat- "to fall;" cf. L. cadere, as above. Alternatively, from Proto-Ir. *kap-, *kaf- "to (be)fall, strike (down);" cf. Baluci kapag, kafag "to fall," kapt "(past tense) fell;" Bampuri kapte "fallen;" Kurd. (Sanandaj) kaften "to fall;" Gilaki jekaftan "to fall;" Nâyini derkaftan "to fall down."

Casimir effect
  اُسکر ِ کازیمیر   
oskar-e Casimir

Fr.: effet Casimir   

A small attractive force that appears between two close parallel uncharged plates in a vacuum. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. According to the quantum theory, the vacuum contains → virtual particles which are in a continuous state of fluctuation. Because the distance between the plates is very small, not every possible wavelength can exist in the space between the two plates, quite in contrast to the surrounding vacuum. The energy density decreases as the plates are moved closer, creating a negative pressure which pulls the plates together. The first successfully measurement of the effect was by Steve Lamoreaux in 1997. A more recent experiment in 2002 used a polystyrene sphere 200 μm in diameter coated in gold or aluminium. This was brought to within 0.1 μm of a flat disk coated with the same metals. The resulting attraction between them was monitored by the deviation of a laser beam. The Casimir force was measured to within 1% of the expected theoretical value.

After the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir (1909-2000), who predicted the phenomenon in 1948; → effect.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>