An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
chemiluminescence
  شیمی-فروزستی   
šimi-foruzesti

Fr.: chimiluminescence   

The production and emission of light via a → chemical reaction.

Chemi-, → chemo-; → luminescence.

chemisorption
  شیمی‌شمش   
šimi-šameš

Fr.: chimisorption   

A kind of → adsorption in which the forces involved are → valence forces of the same kind as those operating in the formation of → chemical compounds. Same as → chemical adsorption. See also → physisorption.

Chemi-, from → chemical; → sorption.

chemistry
  شیمی   
šimi (#)

Fr.: chimie   

The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of chemical elements and compounds and their interactions with matter and energy.

Chemistry, from chemist, from Gk. chemia "alchemy" + -ry, from M.E. -rie, from O.Fr.

Šimi, from Fr. as above.

chemo-
  شیمی-   
šimi- (#)

Fr.: chimio-   

A combining form meaning "chemical, chemically induced, chemistry," used in the formation of compound terms like → chemosynthesis. Also chem- (before a vowel) and chemi- (before elements of L. origin).

Chemo- extracted from → chemical or → chemistry.

chemosynthesis
  شیمی‌هندایش   
šimihandâyeš

Fr.: chimiosynthèse   

In biochemistry, the ability to produce organic compounds using energy contained in inorganic molecules. Chemosynthesis is similar to → photosynthesis. Instead of using light as an energy source to make food, energy or compounds from chemical reactions is used. Most chemosynthetic organisms are bacteria.

chemo-; → synthesis.

Cheops
  خءوپس   
Cheops

Fr.: Cheops   

The first mission, conducted by the → European Space Agency, dedicated to searching for → exoplanetary transits by performing ultra-high precision → photometry on bright stars already known to host planets. Launched on 18 December 2019, Cheops is a small spacecraft with a launch mass (including propellant) of approximately 280 kg. It has a single instrument: a high precision → photometer with a 300 mm effective aperture telescope and a single → charge-coupled device (CCD) → detector covering → visible to → near-infrared wavelengths. The mission's main science goals are to measure the bulk density of → super-Earths and Neptunes orbiting bright stars and provide suitable targets for future in-depth characterization studies of → exoplanets in these mass and size ranges.

CHEOPS, short for CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite.

Cherenkov radiation
  تابش ِ چرنکوف   
tâbeš-e Čerenkov (#)

rayonnement de Čerenkov   

Visible radiation emitted when → charged particles pass through a transparent medium faster than the speed of light in that medium.

Named after Pavel A. Čerenkov (1904-1990), Russian physicist, who discovered the phenomenon. He shared the Nobel prize 1958 in physics with Ilya Frank and Igor Tamm, who in 1937 gave the theoretical explanation for this radiation.

chi-square distribution
  واباژش ِ خی-دو   
vâbâžeš-e Xi-do

Fr.: loi du chi-deux   

A probability density function, denoted χ2, that gives the distribution of the sum of squares of k independent random variables, each being drawn from the normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance. The integer k is the number of degrees of freedom. The distribution has a positive skew; the skew is less with more degrees of freedom. As degrees of freedom increase, the chi-square distribution approaches a normal distribution. The most common application is chi-square tests for goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one. If χ2 = 0 the agreement is perfect.

Chi Gk. letter of alphabet; → square; → distribution.

Vâbâžeš, → distribution; do, → two.

child
  فرزند   
farzand (#)

Fr.: enfant   

1) A person between birth and puberty; a son or daughter; an offspring.
2) In → graph theory, the → vertex (node) below a given vertex connected by its → edge downward. In other words, in a rooted tree, a vertex v is a child of vertex w if v immediately succeeds w on the path from the root to v. Vertex v is a child of w if and only if w is the parent of v.

M.E.; O.E. cild "fetus, infant;" akin to Goth. kilthai "womb."

Farzand, from Mid.Pers. frazand "child;" Av. frazanti- "progeny, offspring," from fra- "forward, along," → pro-, + zan "to give birth;" → birth.

Chinese calendar
  گاهشمار ِ چینی   
gâhšomâr-e Cini

Fr.: calendrier chimois   

A → lunisolar calendar (Chinese: yīnyáng li), which is now mainly used for determining cultural festivals. It is based on astronomical observations of the Sun's annual apparent motion (→ ecliptic) and → lunar phases. The calendar starts at Chinese New Year and consists of 12 or 13 → lunar months. The ecliptic is divided into 24 sections (jiéqi) of 15° each. In general, Chinese New Year falls on the day of the second new Moon after the → winter solstice on approximately December 22. Since 12 months are about 11 days shorter than the → tropical year, a → leap month is inserted to keep the calendar in tune with the seasons. An ordinary → lunar year has 353-355 days while a → leap year has 383-385 days. Therefore, the → solstices and → equinoxes move 11 (or 10 or 12) days later. Each 13-month leap year is about 19 days too long, so the solstices and equinoxes jump 19 (or 18 or 20) days earlier. Each year is assigned a name consisting of two components within a 60-year cycle. The first component is a celestial stem. The second component is a terrestrial branch; it features the names of animals in a zodiac cycle consisting of 12 animals. Each of the two components is used sequentially. Therefore, the first year of the 60-year cycle becomes jia-zi, the second year is yi-chou, and so on. One starts from the beginning when the end of a component is reached. The 60th year is gui-hai. The current 60-year cycle started on 2 February 1984. The leap year must be inserted if there are 13 new moons from the start of the 11th month in the first year to the start of the 11th month in the second year. The beginnings of the Chinese calendar can be traced back to the 14th century BC. Legend has it that the Emperor Huang-di invented the calendar in 2637 BC. The calendar has been adopted by several southeast Asian cultures. The Chinese calendar has undergone several reforms, the last one in 1645. For more details, see, e.g., Helmer Aslaksen, The Mathematics of the Chinese calendar, e-paper.

Chinese adj. of China, from Pers. Cin [Chin], from Qin the first imperial dynasty of China (221 to 206 BC); → calendar.

chiral
  خیرال   
xirâl

Fr.: chiral   

The quality of an object that is not superimposable on its mirror image.

From Gk. cheir "hand;" from PIE *ghes- "hand."

Xirâl, loan from Gk., as above.

chirality
  خیرالی   
xirâli

Fr.: chiralité   

The geometric property of a rigid object that is → chiral.

chiral; → -ity.

Chiron
  خیرون   
Xeiron (#)

Fr.: Chiron   

An object, discovered in 1977, which was initially assumed to be an asteroid, but subsequent observations showed it to be a weak comet with a detectable coma. Its orbit, lying now between those of Saturn and Uranus, is unstable on time scales of a million years.

In Gk. mythology, Xειρων (Cheiron or Chiron) was the wisest of the Centaurs; he was not a drunkard like other Centaurs. Chiron was tutor to Jason and Heracles. He was the only immortal centaur.

chirp
  چیرپ   
cirp

Fr.: compression d'impulsion   

1) Telecommunications: A signal in which the wave frequency increases or decreases, linearly or exponentially, with time.
2) Astro: The theoretically predicted → gravitational wave arising from the interaction of two highly → compact objects. As the two objects spiral toward each other, due to orbital energy loss, the frequency and amplitude of the gravitational wave will increase continuously.

Chirp "a short, high-pitched sound, such as that made by certain birds or insects," from M.E. chirpen, of onomatopoeic origin.

Cirp loanword from E., as above.

Chladni pattern
  الگوی ِ کلادنی   
olgu-ye Chladni

Fr.: figure de Chladni   

A pattern formed by fine powder or salt placed on a vibrating surface. The figures display the positions of → nodes and → antinodes.

Named after Ernst Chladni (1756-1827), German physicist; → figure.

chlorate
  کلرات   
klorât (#)

Fr.: chlorate   

1) A negative ion, ClO3- derived from chloric acid.
2) Any salt of chloric acid.

From chlor-, → chlorine, + → -ate.

chloric acid
  اسید کلریک   
asid klorik (#)

Fr.: acide chlorique   

A colorless, strong acid HClO3, formed by the action of dilute sulfuric acid on barium chlorate.

From chlor-, → chlorine, + → -ic; → acid.

chlorine
  کلور   
klor (#)

Fr.: chlore   

A gaseous → chemical element of the halogen group, which is greenish yellow and poisonous; symbol Cl. → Atomic number 17; → atomic weight 35.453; → melting point -100.98°C; → boiling point -34.6°C. Chlorine is about two and one-half times as dense as air. It is used for water purification, in the making of bleaching powder. Its compounds occur as common → salt (sodium chloride), NaCl, in sea water and as rock salt. Chlorine is the first poison gas to be used in warfare (by German army, the Second Battle of Ypres, 1915). It has several → radioactive isotopes, in particular 36Cl with a half-life of 3 × 105 years. Chlorine was discovered by the Swedish pharmacist and chemist Carl-Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in 1774. In 1810, the English chemist Humphry Davy (1778-1829) proved it was an element and gave it the name chlorine.

From Gk. chloros "light green, greenish yellow;" cognate with Pers. zard "yellow," zarr "gold;" E. → gold, → yellow.

chondrite
  کوندریت   
kondrit

Fr.: chondrite   

The most common type of → meteorites containing → chondrules. These → stony meteorites make up about 86% of all meteorites. An important feature of the chondrites is that, with the exception of a few highly → volatile elements, they have the same composition as the Sun.

Chondrite, from chondr-, from chondros "grain", + suffix → -ite.

chondrule
  کوندرول   
kondrul

Fr.: chondrule   

Millimeter-sized grains of → silicate sometimes found in large numbers in → chondrite meteorites. They are essentially glassy beads made by a violent but brief heating event that caused dust grains to form melt droplets. However, the cause of the heating remains unknown.

From Gk. chondr-, from chondros "grain," + diminutive suffix → -ule.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>