An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>

Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
chough
  کلجیک   
kalajik

Fr.: crave à bec rouge   

A member of the → crow family with a red beak and legs.

M.E. choghe; akin to O.E. ceo, Du. kauw, Dan. kaa.

Kalajik, from Daštak Baxtiyâri dialect, related to kal, kalâq, → crow.

Christoffel symbol
  نماد ِ کریستوفل   
namâd-e Christoffel (#)

Fr.: symbole de Christoffel   

A abbreviated notation for various functions associated with quadratic differential forms. Each Christoffel symbol is essentially a triplet of three indices, i, j and k, where each index can assume values from 1 to 2 for the case of two variables, or from 1 to n in the case of a quadratic form in n variables. Christoffel symbols appear in many calculations in geometry where non-Cartesian coordinates are used. These symbols are fundamental in the study of tensor analysis.

Named after Elwin Bruno Christoffel (1829-1900), a German mathematician; → symbol.

chromatic
  رنگی، فامی   
rangi, fâmi

Fr.: chromatique   

Of or relating to color or color phenomena or sensations.

From L. chromaticus, from Gk. khromatikos "relating to color," from khroma, khromat- "color" + → -ic.

From rang, fâm, → chromo-, + -i adj. suffix.

chromatic aberration
  بیراهش ِ رنگی   
birâheš-e rangi

Fr.: aberration chromatique   

A defect in a lens that causes it to concentrate the various colors in a beam of light at various point, thus producing color fringes.

chromatic; → aberration.

chromium
  کروم   
krom (#)

Fr.: chrome   

A silver-gray, lustrous, brittle, hard metallic → chemical element that is resistant to tarnish and corrosion; symbol Cr. → Atomic number 24; → atomic weight 51.996; → melting point about 1,857°C; → boiling point about 2,672°C; → specific gravity about 7.2 at 20°C. Chromium is used in the hardening of steel alloys and the production of stainless steels. It is extracted by reducing the oxide with → aluminium. Its → radioactive isotope 51Cr has a half-life of 27.8 days. It was discovered in 1797 by the French chemist and pharmacist Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin (1763-1829).

From the Gk. chroma "color," from the many colored compounds of this element, + -ium a suffix used in the name of several chemical elements.

chromo-
  رنگ-، فام-   
rang-, fâm-

Fr.: chromo-   

A prefix indicating "color, colored." Before a vowel: chrom-.

Combining form from Gk. chroma, khroma "color."

Rang, → color; fâm "color," probably related to bâm "light; morning light; splendor" (bâmdâd "morning,; splendor, light"); Mid.Pers. bâm "brillance, glory, splendor," bâmig "brilliant, glorious;" Av. bā- "to shine, appear, seem," (with ā-) auuā- "to have the appearance of, be like," (with fra-) frauuā- "to shine," (with ni-) -niuuā- "to radiate downward," (with ui-) viuuā- "to shine forth;" cf. Gk. phaos, phos "light," phainein "to show, to bring to light;" Skt. bhā- "to shine," bhati "shines, glitters," O.Ir. ban "white, light, ray of light."

chromodynamics
  رنگ توانیک   
rangtavânik

Fr.: chromodynamique   

A → quantum field theory of the → interaction of → quarks possessing a distinctive property called → color, in which the quarks exchange → gluons in a manner that is analogous to the interaction of → charged particles in → electrodynamics.

chromo-; → dynamics.

chromosphere
  فام‌سپهر، رنگین‌سپهر   
fâmsepehr (#), ranginsepehr (#)

Fr.: chromosphère   

A region of the stellar atmosphere situated above its → photosphere. The Sun's chromosphere extends from the about 500 km above the photosphere basis, up to 9,000 km, where it meets the → corona. For a plane-parallel model, the chromosphere is more or less continuous throughout the first 1,500 km, but breaks into indented spicules beyond that height. The chromosphere temperature grows from 4,400 K at 500 km to almost 6,000 K at 1,000-2,000 km. A rapid growth of coronal temperatures is registered at heights of about 2,500 km (the transition region), the exact height depending on the local magnetic field intensity. Actually, the chromosphere is made of rising and, often, falling jets called → spicules, which go up to 15,000 km. In the uppermost part of the chromosphere the density is the millionth part of its density at the base. Immediately before or after a solar → total eclipse, the chromosphere becomes visible either as a crescent or as a red → diamond ring, due to → H-alpha emission, from which it also gets its name. Moreover, the chromosphere can be seen in → H and K lines of calcium during eclipses, and in ultraviolet emission lines from space. The presence of the chromosphere around cold → dwarf stars is deduced from similar emissions (M.S.: SDE).

chromo- "color," because of the reddish-pink color of the chromosphere which is seen around the Sun during a total eclipse and is due to the dominance of the → H-alpha line; → sphere.

chronograph
  گاه‌نگار   
gâhnegâr

Fr.: chronographe   

A very accurate instrument that measures, indicates, or graphically records time intervals such as the duration of an event.

Chronograph, from Gk. khronos "time" + → -graph.

Gâhnegâr, from gâh "time" + negâr, → -graph.

chronology
  گاه‌شناسی، گاه‌راییک   
gâhšenâsi, gâhrâik

Fr.: chronologie   

The science of dating, of ordering time, of arranging in periods, and of determining temporal distances between past events.

Chronology, from Gk. khronos "time" + → -logy.

Gâhšenâsi, from gâh "time" + -šenâsi, → -logy. Gâhrâik, from gâh + rây, ârâ "order, arrangement" stem of ârâstan "to arrange, to set in order, adorn" (Mid.Pers. ârây-, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn," O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line") + -ik, → -ics.

chronometer
  گاه‌سنج، زمان‌سنج   
gâhsanj (#), zamânsanj (#)

Fr.: chronomètre   

A highly precise timepiece.

Chronometer, from from Gk. khronos "time" + → -meter.

Gâhsanj, zamânsanj, from gâh or zamân "time" + -sanj-meter.

churn
  ۱) گویس؛ ۲) گویسیدن   
1) gavis; 2) gavisidan

Fr.: 1) baratte; 2) baratter   

1) A container or machine in which cream or milk is agitated to make butter.
2) To shake or agitate with violence or continued motion (Dictionary.com).

M.E. chirne, O.E. cyrne cyr(i)n; cognate with M.L.G. kerne, O.N. kjarni, kirna, may be related to → kernel because of the "grainy" appearance of churned cream.

Gavis "churn," of unknown origin.

churning
  گویسش   
gaviseš

Fr.: barattage   

In → galactic dynamics models, the process of gaining or losing → angular momentum by stars mostly at the → Lindblad resonances without gaining random motion. Figuratively, transient → spiral waves in → galactic disks churn the stars and gas in a manner that largely preserves the overall angular momentum distribution and leads to little increase in random motion. Churning is the main reason for → radial migration of stars. See also → blurring (J. A. Sellwood & J. J. Binney, 2002, astro-ph/0203510 and references therein).

Verbal noun of → churn.

CI chondrite
  کوندریت ِ IC   
kondrit-e CI

Fr.: chondrite CI   

A group of very rare → carbonaceous chondrites which are unusual because they do not have → chondrules. They are thought to be the most primitive of all meteorites. As a result of alteration, they lack chondrules and → CAIs, but contain up to 20% water, as well as various alteration minerals. Only five CI chondrite falls are known, and of these, only four are massive enough for multiple chemical analyses. The Orgueil meteorite is the most massive of CI chondrites.

C for → carbon, I stands for Ivuna meteorite that fell in Tanzania in 1938; → chondrite.

cinnabar
  شنگرف   
šangarf (#)

Fr.: cinabre   

A mineral, mercuric sulphide, HgS, which is the primary → ore for the production of → mercury. It is a → crystalline solid with a bright → red color. Cinnabar is highly toxic.

From O.Fr. cinabre, from L. cinnabaris, from Gk. kinnabari, maybe ultimately from Pers. šangarf "red lead, cinnabar," of unknown origin.

circadian
  پیراروزی   
pirâruzi

Fr.: circardien   

Being, having, characterized by, or occurring in approximately 24-hour periods or cycles, as of biological activity or function (Merriam-Webster.com).

From L. circa "about," → circum-, + diem, accusative singular of dies "day," → diurnal.

circadian rhythm
  ریتم ِ پیراروزی   
ritm-e pirâruzi

Fr.: rythme circardien   

Any of several physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment. Circadian rhythms are found in most living things, including animals, plants and many tiny microbes.

circadian; → rhythm.

Circinus
  پرگار   
Pargâr (#)

Fr.: Compas   

The Compasses. A small, faint → constellation in the southern hemisphere near → Musca and → Triangulum Australe, at about 15h right ascension and 60° south declination. Abbreviation: Cir; genitive Circini.

L. circinus "pair of compasses," from circus "circle, ring," from or akin to Gk. kirkos "a circle," from PIE *kirk- from base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend" (from which derives also Pers. carx "wheel, cycle," → cycle).

Pargâr, → compasses.

circle
  پرهون، دایره   
parhun (#), dâyeré (#)

Fr.: cercle   

A closed curve lying in a plane and so constructed that all its points are equally distant from a fixed point in the plane.

From O.Fr. cercle, from L. circulus "small ring," dim. of circus "ring," from or akin to Gk. kirkos "a circle," from PIE *kirk- from base *(s)ker- "to turn, bend," related to Pers. carx "wheel, everything revolving in an orbit, circular motion, chariot."

Parhun "circle" in Mod.Pers. classical texts, from Proto-Iranian *pari-iâhana- "girdle, belt," from pari-, variant pirâ-, → circum-, + iâhana- "to girdle," cf. Av. yâh- "to girdle." The Pers. word pirâhan "shirt" is a variant of parhun. Gk. cognate zone "girdle."
Dâyeré, from Ar.

circle of altitude
  پرهون ِ فرازا   
parhun-e farâzâ

Fr.: almucantar   

A small circle on the celestial sphere parallel to the horizon. The locus of all points of a given altitude. Also called → almucantar, → altitude circle, → parallel of altitude.

circle; → altitude.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>