An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
clocking
  زمان‌بندی   
zamân bandi

Fr.:   

Successive risings and lowerings of voltage on the electrodes of a CCD in order to move the electrons from one pixel to the next.

clockwise
  ساعت‌سو   
sâ'atsu (#)

Fr.: dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre   

In the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock when viewed from in front.

From → clock + wise "way, manner," O.E. wise (adj.), from wis, from P.Gmc. *wisaz (cf. Du. wijs, Ger. weise "wise"), PIE base *weid-/*wid- "to see, to know;" cf. Av vaeda "I know," Skt. veda "I know," Gk. oida "I know".

Sâ'atsu, from sâ'at, → clock, + su "direction," Mid.Pers. sôg, sôk "side, direction".

clog
  کتله   
katelé

Fr.: sabot   

A shoe made of wood.

M.E., of unknown origin.

Katelé, from (Tabari, Gilaki) katelé "wooden shoe," from katel "tree log, tree stump."

close
  کیپ   
kip (#)

Fr.: serré   

Having little or no space between elements or parts, as in → close binary, → close approach; tight and compact.

M.E. clos, closed, from O.Fr., from L. clausus, p.p. of claudere "to close."

Kip "close, tight" in spoken Pers.

close approach
  نزدش ِ کیپ   
nazdeš-e kip

Fr.: approche serrée   

In astronomy a general term to describe the positions of two or more objects that come unusually near one to another. In particular, regarding an asteroid's position with respect to Earth, when it is within the Moon's orbit.

close; → approach.

close binary star
  ستاره‌ی ِ دورین ِ کیپ   
setâre-ye dorin-e kip

Fr.: étoile binaire serrée   

A binary system in which the separation of the component stars is comparable to their diameters, so that they influence each other's evolution most commonly by the tidal forces.

close; → binary; → star.

close binary system
  راژمان ِ دورین ِ کیپ   
râžmân-e dorin-e kip

Fr.: système binaire serré   

A → binary system in which the distance separating the stars is comparable to their size. Most close binaries are spectroscopic binaries (→ spectroscopic binary) and/or eclipsing binaries (→ eclipsing binary). In most of them → mass transfer occurs at some stage, an event which profoundly affects the → stellar evolution of the components. The evolution of close binaries depends on the → initial masses of the two stars and their → separation. When the more massive star evolves into a → red giant first, material will spill through the inner point onto its companion, thereby affecting its companion's evolution. Mass transfer can also alter the separation and → orbital period of the binary star.

close; → binary; → system.

close encounter
  رویارویی ِ کیپ   
ruyâruyi-ye kip

Fr.: rencontre proche   

1) In a → star cluster, coming across of two stars so closely that their → orbits alter by their mutual → gravitational attractions.
2) As regards an → asteroid or → comet, a situation when it crosses the Moon's orbit and approaches the Earth with a risk of collision. See also → close approach, → encounter.

close; → encounter.

closed
  بسته   
basté (#)

Fr.: fermé   

Having boundaries; limited. → closed curve; → closed Universe.

Closed, p.p. of close, from M.E. clos, from O.Fr., from clore "to shut," from L. clausus, p.p. of claudere "to close."

Basté p.p.of bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind, → band.

closed curve
  خم ِ بسته   
xam-e basté (#)

Fr.: courbe fermée   

A curve whose ends are joined.

closed; → curve.

closed space
  فضایِ بسته   
fazâ-ye basté (#)

Fr.: espace fermé   

A bounded space the surface of which has the property that if one travels in any direction upon it without changing direction, one will end up back to the departure point. An example is a sphere. Triangles which lie on the surface of a closed space will have a sum of angles which is greater than 180°. An closed space has a positive → curvature. See also → closed Universe, → open space.

closed; → space.

closed system
  راژمان ِ بسته   
râžmân-e basté

Fr.: système fermé   

Thermodynamics: A system which can exchange energy with the surroundings but not matter. → open system; → isolated system.

closed; → system.

closed Universe
  گیتی ِ بسته   
giti-ye basté (#)

Fr.: Univers fermé   

A → cosmological model, first formulated by Friedmann and Lemaître, in which the Universe has a → finite size and lifetime and → space has a → positive → curvature, e.g. a Universe with a density greater than the → critical density. See also → closed space.

closed; → Universe.

closed wff
   wff بسته   
wff basté

Fr.: FBF fermée   

In → predicate logic, a → wff with no → free occurrences of any → variable. Also called a → sentence.

closed; → wff.

closure
  بندش   
bandeš (#)

Fr.: clôture   

Math.: The property of a set in which the application of a given mathematical operation to any member of the set always has another member of the set as its result.
The intersection of all closed sets that contain a given set.

M.E., from M.Fr., from O.Fr. closure "that which encloses," from L. clausura "lock, fortress, a closing," from p.p. stem of claudere "to close."

Bandeš, verbal noun of bastan "to shut, bind; to clot; to form seed buds," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind.

closure axiom
  بنداشت ِ بندش   
bondâšt-e bandeš

Fr.: axiome de clôture   

A basic rule in → group theory stating that if a and b are a group element then a * b is also a group element.

closure; → axiom.

closure phase
  فاز ِ بندش   
fâz-e bandeš

Fr.: clôture de phase   

In astronomical interferometry, a method using triplets of telescopes in an array to calculate the phase information and get over the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The method, used in high-resolution astronomical observations, both at radio and at optical wavelengths, allows imaging of complex objects in the presence of severe aberrations.

closure; → phase.

clothoid
  کلوتویءید   
klotoid

Fr.: clothoïde   

A plane curve of spiral form, → Cornu's spiral.

From Gk. kloth, from klothein "to spin" + epenthetic vowel -o- + eides "form," → -oid; because the curve is reminiscent of the thread that winds around a weaving loom. → Klotho.

cloud
  ابر   
abr (#)

Fr.: nuage   

1) A visible mass of water droplets and/or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earth's surface.
2) → interstellar cloud.

Cloud, from O.E. clud "mass of rock," from P.Gmc. *kludas.

Abr, from Mid.Pers. awr, abr (Laki owr, Baluchi haur, Kordi Soriani hewr), Av. awra- "rain cloud, rain," cf. Skt. abhra-"thunder cloud," Gk. afros "scum, foam," L. imber "rain;" also Sk. ambha- "water," Gk. ombros "rain," PIE *mbhros "rain cloud, rain," from *mbh-.

cloud chamber
  اتاقک ِ ابر   
otâqak-e abr

Fr.: chambre à nuage   

An early type of → bubble chamber used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. It was invented in 1900 by Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869-1959), a Scottish physicist, who along with Arthur Compton (1892-1962 ) received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1927.

cloud; → chamber.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>