An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
earth-grazer
  زمین-برمژ   
zamin-barmaž

Fr.: astéroide croiseur, comète ~   

An → asteroid or → comet whose → orbit occasionally brings it relatively close to the Earth. → near-Earth object.

Earth; → grazer.

Earth-Moon system
  راژمان ِ زمین-ماه   
râžmân-e Zamin-Mâh

Fr.: système Terre-Lune   

A physical system composed on the → Earth and the → Moon in which both objects directly influence each other. The total energy in the Earth-Moon system is conserved. The most notable influence that the two objects have on each other is → tides.
See also: → tidal braking, → tidal bulge, → tidal capture, → tidal coupling, → tidal disruption, → tidal force, → tidal friction, → tidal heating, → tidal locking, → tidal radius, → tidal stretching.

Earth; → Moon; → system.

earthlight
  زمین‌تاب   
zamin-tâb (#)

Fr.: lumière cendrée   

The illumination of the dark part of the Moon's disk by the light reflected from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Also called → earthshine.

earth; → light.

earthquake
  زمین‌لرزه   
zaminlarzé (#)

Fr.: tremblement de terre   

Sudden shaking of the → Earth's surface caused by the passage of a → seismic wave whose mechanical effects can be destructive. See also → starquake.

earth; → quake.

earthshine
  زمین‌تاب   
zamin-tâb (#)

Fr.: lumière cendrée   

The visibility of that part of the Moon not illuminated by the Sun. The phenomenon is caused by the solar light reflected by the Earth. It was explained correctly for the first time by Leonardo da Vinci (M.S.: SDE). Same as → earthlight.

earth; → shine.

east
  خاور   
xâvar (#)

Fr.: est   

The point on the → celestial horizon 90° → clockwise from the → north point. The point where the Sun rises at the → equinoxes.

O.E. east, from P.Gmc. *aus-to-, *austra- "east, toward the sunrise" (cf. Du. oost, Ger. Ost, O.N. austr "from the east"), from PIE *aus- "dawn" (cf. Av. uš-, ušah- "dawn," Skt. usas-, usah- "dawn," Gk. aurion "morning," Lith. auszra "dawn," L. aurora "dawn," auster "south").

Xâvar "east," originally "west," from Mid.Pers. *xvar barân "where the Sun is led," from xvar "sun" (Av. hū-, hvar- "sun", cf. Skt. surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, O.H.G. sunna, Ger. Sonne, E. sun; PIE base *sawel- "sun") + barân, pr.p. of bar-, bordan "to carry, lead" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry") + time and place suffix -ân.

eastern
  خاوری   
xâvari (#)

Fr.: est, de l'est, oriental   

Lying toward or situated in the east.

From → east + -ern an adjective suffix occurring with names of directions.

Xâvari from xâvar, → east, + -i adj. suffix.

eastern elongation
  درازش ِ خاوری   
derâzeš-e xâvari

Fr.: élongation est   

The position of a planet when it can be seen in the western sky just after sunset.

eastern; → elongation.

easy
  آسان   
âsân (#)

Fr.: facile, aisé   

1) Not hard or difficult; requiring no great labor or effort.
2) Free from pain, discomfort, worry, or care (Dictionary.com).

M.E. aisie, esy, from O.Fr. aisie "comfortable, at ease, rich, well-off," p.p. of aisier "to put at ease," from aise "comfort, pleasure, well-being," of unknown origin.

Âsân "easy," from Mid.Pers. âsân "calm, quiet, at rest, peaceful, easy," related to âsudan "to rest, repose;" Av. ā- + saē- (saii-) "to lie down, go to sleep," → holiday.

eavesdrop
  گوشاردن   
gušârdan

Fr.: écouter de façon indiscrète   

To listen secretly to a private conversation.

Probably back-formation from → eavesdropper.

Gušârdan, from gušâr, → eavesdropper, + -dan infinitive suffix.

eavesdropper
  گوشار   
gušâr (#)

Fr.: écouteur   

A person or thing that secretly listens to or monitors the private conversation or data of others.

From M.E. eavesdrop, from O.E. yfesdrype "place around a house where the rainwater drips off the roof," literally "one who stands on the eavesdrop in order to listen to conversations inside the house," from eaves "the lower border of a roof that overhangs the wall" + drip, drop "to fall in small portions."

Gušâr in Tabari "eavesdropper," from guš, → ear, + -âr probably contraction of dâr (as in dustâr/dustdâr) agent noun from dâštan "to hold, have, possess; appoint, erect," → property.

eavesdropping
  گوشاری   
gušâri (#)

Fr.: écoute éléctronique   

The monitoring and/or examining the data that is passed over the network without sender and receiver's permission and/or knowledge. For example, a user on the Internet could eavesdrop on someone's phone conversation or e-mail.

Noun from → eavesdrop.

ebb tide
  بازکش   
bâzkeš (#)

Fr.: reflux   

A → tidal current that generally moves seaward and occurs during the part of the tide cycle when sea level is falling.

M.E. eb(be); O.E. ebba; cognate with O.Fr. ebba, Du. eb(be), Ger. Ebbe ebb, M.E. ebben, O.E. ebbian, derivative of the noun; akin to → off; PIE base *apo- "off, away;" → tide.

Bâzkeš, from bâz- a suffix denoting "reversal, repetition, opposition," → re-, + keš present stem of kešidan "to draw, drag, carry," → tide.

eccentric
  اسمرکز   
osmarkaz

Fr.: eccentrique   

1) An orbit that has a high → eccentricity, i.e. is highly elliptical.
2) In Ptolemy's geocentric model, a → deferent which is slightly off-center from the Earth.

ex-; → center; → -ic.

eccentric anomaly
  ناسانی ِ اسمرکز   
nâsâni-ye osmarkaz

Fr.: anomalie eccentrique   

Of a planetary orbit, the angle measured from the perihelion position, to the center of the circumscribing auxiliary circle, to the projected position of the planet on the circle. → anomaly; → mean anomaly; → true anomaly.

eccentric; → anomaly.

eccentricity
  اسمرکزی   
osmarkazi

Fr.: eccentricité   

The amount by which the orbit deviates from circularity: e = c/a, where c is the distance from the center to a focus and a the semi-major axis. If e = 0, the orbit is a circle. If e < 1, the orbit is an ellipse, if e > 1 it is a hyperbola, and if e = 1 it is a parabola. The eccentricity is one of the six → orbital elements that define a → Keplerian orbit.

eccentric; → -ity.

echelle grating
  توری ِ نرده‌ای   
turi-ye narde-yi (#)

Fr.: réseau à échelle   

A diffraction grating in which the groves are relatively widely spaced and serves to provide high resolution and dispersion.

Echelle, from Fr. échelle "ladder," , from O.Fr. eschele, from L. scala "ladder;" → grating.

Turi, → grating; nardé, contraction of nardebân "ladder; échelle."

echelle spectrograph
  بیناب‌نگار ِ نرده‌ای   
binâbnegâr-e narde-yi (#)

Fr.: spectrographe à échelle   

A spectrograph that uses an echelle grating to disperse the light.

echelle grating; → spectrograph.

echo
  پژواک   
pažvâk (#)

Fr.: écho   

Acoustics: Effect produced when sound is reflected or thrown back on meeting a solid obstacle.
Radio.: A wave returned to the transmitter with sufficient magnitude and delay to be distinguished from the directly transmitted wave. In radar, the portion of the energy of the transmitted pulse reflected back to the receiver.

From L. echo, from Gk. echo, personified as a mountain nymph, from ekhe "sound."

Pažvâk, literally "return sound," from paž "back, against, opposite," varaint pâd- (Mid.Pers. pât-, from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + vâk "sound," Mid./Mod.Pers. vâng/bâng "sound, clamour;" Av. vacah- "word," from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Mod.Pers. vâžé "word," âvâz "voice, sound, song" (Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak").

eclipse
  گرفت   
gereft (#)

Fr.: éclipse   

The passage of the shadow of a celestial body over the surface of another. The maximum number of solar and lunar visible eclipses occurring annually is seven; the minimum number is two, both being solar. → Solar eclipses take place when the new Moon is close to an → orbital node and on the same longitude with the Sun. At that moment either the → umbra, → antumbra, or the → penumbra touches the Earth's surface. For an observer located in the umbra the eclipse is total, while for one placed in the antumbra it is annular. → Annular eclipses occur around lunar → apogee. An observer situated in the penumbra sees only a → partial eclipse. A total or annular eclipse can be seen from a band with a width of 270 km at the most, around which, the much larger partiality zone extends. The Moon's shadow crosses the Earth from west to east at about 3,200 km/h. During → total eclipses the Sun's disk is entirely covered and the → solar corona can be seen. A solar eclipse can last up to 3 h (between the first and the → fourth contacts). Totality has a theoretical maximum duration of 7m 31s, but it is usually shorter. A → lunar eclipse can be seen from any place on Earth where the Moon is above the horizon; it occurs when the full Moon passes through the central dark shadow of the Earth. The Earth's shadow is much wider than the Moon and this is why the lunar eclipses can last up to four hours (between the first and the fourth contact) (M.S.: SDE).

From O.Fr. éclipse, from L. eclipsis, from Gk. ekleipsis "a leaving out, forsaking, an eclipse," from ekleipein "to forsake a usual place, fail to appear, be eclipsed," from ek "out," → ex-, + leipein "to leave."

Gereft, past stem of gereftan "to obscure, close up; to take, seize, catch; to undergo an eclipse," from Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving" (see also → concept); cf. M.L.G. grabben "to grab;" E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize".

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>