An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13009 Search : far
ear
  گوش   
guš (#)

Fr.: oreille   

The vertebrate organ of hearing, which is also responsible for maintaining equilibrium. It is usually composed of three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.

M.E. ere, O.E. eare "ear" (O.N. eyra, Dan. øre, M.Du. ore, Du. oor, O.H.G. ora, Ger. Ohr); cf. Gk. aus; L. auris; Av. usi "both ears;" Lith. ausis; O.C.S. ucho; O.Ir. au; PIE *ous-.

Guš "ear" (gušidan "to hear," niyušidan "to listen"); Mid.Pers. gôš "ear," gôšidan "to hear, listen;" O.Pers. gauša-; Av. gaoša- "ear," gaoš- "to hear;" cf. Skt. ghosa- "noise, tumult," ghus- "to sound, cry or proclaim aloud;" PIE *ghous-.

early
  آغازین   
âqâzin (#)

Fr.: précoce; jeune   

Occurring at or near the beginning of a period of time, process, or sequence of events.

M.E. erlich (adj.), erliche (adv.); O.E. ærlice, from ær "soon, ere" (from P.Gmc. *airiz, from PIE *āier- "day, morning," cf. Av. ayar- "day, day time," ayarə.drājah- "duration of one day," ayarə.bara- "day's ride," Mid/Mod.Pers. parēr "the day before yesterday," from *parā.ayer- "the day before") + -lice "-ly," adverbial suffix.

Âqâzin adj. of âqâz "beginning," from Proto-Iranian *āgaHz-, from prefix ā- + *gaHz- "to run, start," cf. Sogdian āγāz "beginning, start" (Cheung 2007).

early AGB phase
  فاز ِ AGBی ِ آغازین   
fâz-e AGB-ye âqâzin

Fr.: phase initiale de l'AGB   

A fairly long-lived step in the evolution of → low-mass and → intermediate-mass stars when helium burning shifts from the center to a shell around the core. At this phase the stellar luminosity is provided almost entirely by → helium shell burning. The He-shell burning generally adds mass to the growing carbon/oxygen core, resulting in → degenerate matter due to its increasing density.

early; → AGB; → phase.

early solar system
  راژمان ِ خورشیدی ِ آغازین   
râžmân-e xoršidi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: système solaire primordial   

A period in the evolution of the → solar system when the planets and satellites were in the process of formation.

early; → solar; → system.

early spectral class star
  ستاره با رده‌ی ِ بینابی ِ آغازین   
setâré bâ rade-ye binâbi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: étoile de type spectral précoce   

A star near the beginning of the → spectral classification sequence. A star of → spectral type O, B, A, or F0 to F5. Same as → early-type star.

early; → spectral; → class; → star.

early Universe
  گیتی ِ آغازین   
giti-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: Univers jeune   

A qualitative term used to describe a phase in the history of the Universe, from the → Big Bang event to the apparition of the first structures (seeds of future galaxies), at a → redshift around 30.

early; → universe.

early-type galaxy (ETG)
  کهکشان ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
kahkešân-e gune-ye âqâzin

Fr.: galaxie de type précoce   

In the → Hubble classification, galaxies on the left part of the → Hubble sequence. Early-type galaxies tend to have redder colors, higher average surface brightnesses, and lower → neutral hydrogen content than → late-type galaxies. This terminology is based on the obsolete and erroneous idea that → elliptical and → lenticular galaxies might be evolutionary precursors to → spiral and → barred spiral galaxies.

early; → type; → galaxy.

early-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
setâre-ye gun-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: étoile de type précoce   

Hot, luminous stars of → spectral type O, B, A, and F0 to F5. They were originally thought, wrongly, to be at an earlier stage of evolution than → late-type stars. See also → spectral classification.

early; → type; → star.

Earth
  زمین   
zamin (#)

Fr.: terre   

The third planet from the Sun. At → perihelion, it is 147,099,590 km from the Sun, and at → aphelion it is 152,096.150 km, whereas its mean distance from the Sun (→ astronomical unit) is 149,598 × 106 km. Its orbital period is 365.2563 days (→ sidereal year) and its → eccentricity 0.017. Other characteristics: → axial inclination 23.44°; rotation period 23.934 h (→ sidereal day); mean density 5.52 g/cm3; mass 5.974 × 1024 kg; → escape velocity 11.18 km/s; average → albedo 0.37.
The Earth's atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 0.9% argon, plus carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and other gases in much smaller quantities. The atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1,000 mbar. The surface average temperature is 15° C, but it varies, on the average, between -50° C (winter, Siberia) and up to + 40° C (summer, Sahara).
Liquid water covers 71% of the surface. Over 5,000 active volcanoes have been registered throughout man's known history. The outer layer of the planet, the → lithosphere, is covered with the → crust. In the → upper mantle and beneath the lithosphere, lies → asthenosphere. Convection in the asthenosphere has caused → plate tectonics motions and continent drifts. The densest layer of the Earth is its → core, about 3000 km to 6400 km beneath the surface, consisting primarily of iron and nickel. This core is believed to be at the origin of the magnetic field, which reaches about 3 × 10-5 tesla near the equator. It has only one natural satellite, the Moon (M.S.: SDE).

M.E. erthe, from O.E. eorðe "ground, soil, dry land;" cf. O.N. jörð, M.Du. eerde, O.H.G. erda, Goth. airþa; from PIE base *er-.

Zamin, variant zami "earth, floor, land," Mid.Pers. zamig, Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam- "the ground, earth;" Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" (as in homo sapiens, homicide, humble, humus, exhume), humus "the earth;" O.Russ. zemi "land, earth;" PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth".

Earth mass
  جرم ِ زمین   
jerm-e zamin (#)

Fr.: masse de la Terre   

The mass of our planet Earth, which is 5.9736 × 1024 kg (3 × 10-6 → solar masses), 317.83 times smaller than the → Jupiter mass. The Earth mass is in particular used to describe the mass of → super-Earth  → extrasolar planets.

Earth; → mass.

Earth radius
  شعاع ِ زمین   
šo'â'-e zamin (#)

Fr.: rayon terrestre   

The distance from the Earth's center to its surface, about 6,371 km.

earth; → radius.

Earth's core
  مغزه‌ی ِ زمین   
maqze-ye Zamin

Fr.: noyau terrestre   

The innermost part of the Earth consisting of a solid → inner core, mainly composed of → iron, and a → liquid → outer core. The → pressure and → temperature are so extreme that the molten iron solidifies. The temperature at the inner core boundary is expected to be close to the → melting point of iron at 330 gigapascal (GPa). From static laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments up to 200 GPa, using synchrotron-based fast → X-ray diffraction as a primary melting diagnostic, S. Anzellini et al. (2013, Science 340, 484) conclude that the melting temperature of iron at the inner core boundary is 6230 ± 500 K. This estimation favors a high heat flux at the core-mantle boundary with a possible partial melting of the → mantle. The inner core, 2,400 km in diameter, is suspended in the molten metal of the → outer core, which is about 2,240 km thick. The temperature difference between the mantle and the core is the main engine for large-scale thermal movements, which coupled with the → Earth's rotation, function as a generator for the planet's → magnetic field.

Earth; → core.

Earth's crust
  پوسته‌ی ِ زمین   
puste-ye Zamin (#)

Fr.: croûte terrestre   

The rocky outermost layer of the Earth, ranging from about 10 to 65 km in thickness. It is distinguished from the underlying the → Earth's mantle layer by its more → silicon- and → aluminium-rich composition, lower density, and the lower velocity at which it conducts seismic energy. It includes → continental crust (about 40 km thick) and → oceanic crust (about 7 km thick). The crust and the topmost layer of the mantle form the → lithosphere. The five most abundant → chemical elements in the Earth's crust are, in percentage by weight of the Earth's crust: → oxygen (O) 46%, silicon (Si) 28%, aluminium (Al) 8%, → iron (Fe) 5%, and → calcium (Ca) 4%.

Earth; → crust.

Earth's mantle
  گوشته‌ی ِ زمین   
gušte-ye Zamin

Fr.: manteau terrestre   

A major subdivision of Earth's internal structure, located beneath the → Earth's crust and above the central → core. On average, the mantle begins 35 km below the surface and ends at a depth of about 2,900 km. See also → upper mantle and → lower mantle, → asthenosphere, → lithosphere.

Earth; → mantle.

Earth's rotation
  چرخش ِ زمین   
carxeš-e zamin (#)

Fr.: rotation de la Terre   

The natural motion of the Earth around its own axis, which takes place once in a → sidereal day. The Earth rotates toward the → east, in the same direction as it revolves around the Sun. If viewed from the north celestial pole, the Earth turns → counterclockwise. The opposite is true when the Earth is viewed from the south celestial pole. The Earth's rotation is responsible for the diurnal cycles of day and night, and also causes the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky. The Earth's rotation velocity at the → equator is 1,673 km h-1 or about 465 m s-1. More generally, at the → latitude  φ it is given by: vφ = veq cos φ, where veq is the rotation velocity at the equator. The Earth's rotation is gradually slowing down under the action of the → tides, which are generated by the → gravitational attraction of the → Moon. As the result of this → tidal friction, the day is becoming longer at a rate of about 2 milliseconds, or 0.002 seconds, per century (or one second every 50,000 years). Moreover, the loss of the Earth's → rotational angular momentum increases the Moon's → orbital angular momentum, because the angular momentum of the → Earth-Moon system is conserved. In consequence, the Moon slowly recedes from the Earth by about 4 cm per year, which leads to increasing its orbital period and the length of a month as well.

Earth; → rotation.

earth-grazer
  زمین-برمژ   
zamin-barmaž

Fr.: astéroide croiseur, comète ~   

An → asteroid or → comet whose → orbit occasionally brings it relatively close to the Earth. → near-Earth object.

Earth; → grazer.

Earth-Moon system
  راژمان ِ زمین-ماه   
râžmân-e Zamin-Mâh

Fr.: système Terre-Lune   

A physical system composed on the → Earth and the → Moon in which both objects directly influence each other. The total energy in the Earth-Moon system is conserved. The most notable influence that the two objects have on each other is → tides.
See also: → tidal braking, → tidal bulge, → tidal capture, → tidal coupling, → tidal disruption, → tidal force, → tidal friction, → tidal heating, → tidal locking, → tidal radius, → tidal stretching.

Earth; → Moon; → system.

earthlight
  زمین‌تاب   
zamin-tâb (#)

Fr.: lumière cendrée   

The illumination of the dark part of the Moon's disk by the light reflected from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Also called → earthshine.

earth; → light.

earthquake
  زمین‌لرزه   
zaminlarzé (#)

Fr.: tremblement de terre   

Sudden shaking of the → Earth's surface caused by the passage of a → seismic wave whose mechanical effects can be destructive. See also → starquake.

earth; → quake.

earthshine
  زمین‌تاب   
zamin-tâb (#)

Fr.: lumière cendrée   

The visibility of that part of the Moon not illuminated by the Sun. The phenomenon is caused by the solar light reflected by the Earth. It was explained correctly for the first time by Leonardo da Vinci (M.S.: SDE). Same as → earthlight.

earth; → shine.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>