An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
environment
  ۱، ۲، ۳) پرگیر؛ ۳) زیستبوم   
1, 2, 3) pargir (#); 3) zistbum

Fr.: environnement   

1) An aggregate of surrounding → circumstances, → conditions, or → influences in which a thing is situated or is developed.
2) Computers: The entire set of conditions under which one operates a → computer, as it relates to the hardware, operating platform, or operating system.
3) Ecology: The totality of circumstances surrounding an → organism or group of organisms. More specifically, the combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth, development, and survival of organisms.

From environ + -ment; the first component from Fr. environs, plural of O.Fr. environ "compass, circuit," from environ (adv.) "around," from en- "in" + viron "circle, circuit," from virer "to turn."

Pargir, from par- "around, surrounding," variant pirâ-circum- + gir agent noun and present stem of gereftan "to take, seize; to make prisoner; to intercept" (Mid.Pers. griftan; Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize;" cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving;" M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab; E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").
Zistbum, from zist "life, existence," → bio-, + bum "region, land, place," → eco-.

epact
  بر افزا   
barafzâ

Fr.: épacte   

1) The time that must be added to the lunar year (12 lunations) to make it coincide with the solar year (about 11 days).
2) The moon's age at the beginning of the calendar year.

From Fr. épacte, from L. epacta, from Gk. epaktos, verbal adj. of epagein "to intercalate, add, bring forward," from epi "on" + ag-, from agein "to bring, to lead;" cf. L. agere "to drive, set in motion," → act.

Barafzâ, from bar- "on, upon, up" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + afzâ, afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "to press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens").

epagomena
  اندرگاه، تروفته، دزدیده   
andargâh (#), tarufté (#), dozdidé (#)

Fr.: épagomène   

In Old Iranian and Egyptian calendars and much later in the → French Republican Calendar, one of five (or six) days placed between the 30th of the last month and the first day of the new year to result in a fixed year of 365 (366) days every year; plural epagomenae. Same as → epagomenal day. See also → sansculottide.

From Gk. epagomenos "added," from epagein "to add, to intercalate," from → epi- "on" + agein "to bring, to lead," → act.

Andargâh "intercalary," literally "time between," from andar "between, among," → inter-, + gâh "time;" Mid.Pers. gâh; O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot" (Skt. gátu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come").
Tarufté "intercalary," literally "stolen (day);" Mid.Pers. truftag, from taruftan "to steal," traft "stolen;" Mod.Pers. Lârestâni dialect toftak "spy;" Av. tarəp- "to steal," tarəfiiāt- "he would steal;" cf. Skt. tarp- "to steal, rob," paśu.trp- "stealing cattle."
Dozdidé "intercalary," literally "stolen (day)," p.p. of dozdidan "to steal," Mid.Pers. duz(d)itan, from duzd "thief," from Av. duždāo- "miscreant, villain."

epagomenal day
  روز ِ اندرگاه، ~ تروفته، ~ دزدیده   
ruz-e andargâh (#), ~ tarufté (#), ~ dozidé (#)

Fr.: jour épagomène   

Same as → epagomena.

epagomena + → -al; → day.

ephemeris
  روزیج   
ruzij

Fr.: éphéméride   

A table of computed positions occupied by a celestial body over successive intervals of time such as daily; plural ephemerides.

From L. ephemeris "day book, diary," from Gk. ephemeris "diary, account book," from ephemeros "short-lived, lasting but a day," from → epi "on, upon" + hemerai, dative of hemera "day."

Ruzij, from ruz, → day + zij "astronomical table," from Mid.Pers. zig "astronomical table," originally "string," since the lines of a table were compared to strings used on a weaver's instrument, variant zih, meaning "cord, string" (Modern Persian zeh "cord, string"); Av. jiiā- "bow-string;" cf. Skt. jiyā- "bow-string;" PIE base *gwhi- "thread, tendon" (from which derive also Gk. bios "bow;" L. filum "thread;" Russ. žca "thread").

ephemeris day
  روز ِ روزیجی   
ruz-e ruziji

Fr.: jour des éphémérides   

86,400 → ephemeris seconds.

ephemeris; → day.

ephemeris meridian
  نیمروزان ِ روزیجی   
nimruzân-e ruziji

Fr.: méridien des éphémérides   

A fictitious meridian that rotates independently of the Earth at the uniform rate implicitly defined by → Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT).

ephemeris; → meridian.

ephemeris second
  ثانیه‌ی ِ روزیجی   
sâniye-ye ruziji

Fr.: seconde des éphémérides   

The length of a tropical second (1/31,556,925.97474 of the tropical year) on 1900 January 0.5 → ephemeris time.

ephemeris; → second.

ephemeris time (ET)
  زمان ِ روزیجی   
zamân-e ruziji

Fr.: Temps des éphémérides   

The uniform time-scale used as the independent variable to calculate the orbits in the solar system prior to 1984. Ephemeris Time was adopted in 1960 to deal with irregularities in the → Earth's rotation that had been found to affect the course of mean solar time. The definition of Ephemeris Time is based on Newcomb's analytical theory of the Earth's motion around the Sun (Newcomb 1898), according to which the geometric mean longitude of the Sun with respect to the Earth-Moon barycenter is expressed by:
L = 279° 41' 48".04 + 129 602 768".13 T + 1''.089 T2,
where L refers to the → mean equinox of date while T measures time from noon 1900 January 0 GMT in Julian centuries of 36525 days. Ephemeris Time is therefore defined as the instant near the beginning of the calendar year A.D. 1900 when the mean longitude of the Sun was 279° 41' 48''.04, at which instant the measure of ET was 1900 January 0, 12h precisely. In this system the fundamental unit was the → ephemeris second, which was defined so that the → tropical year at the epoch 1900.0 should be exactly 31 556 925,9747 seconds of ephemerides. Ephemeris Time was inconvenient in many ways and was supeseded with the → Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT), whose fundamental unit is the SI second.

ephemeris; → time.

ephemeris transit
  گذر ِ روزیجی   
gozar-e ruziji

Fr.: transit au méridien des éphémérides   

The passage of a celestial body or point across the → ephemeris meridian.

ephemeris; → transit.

epi-
  اپی-   
api-

Fr.: épi-   

Prefix meaning "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition."

Gk. epi- "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition," cognate with O.Pers./Av. apiy-, aipi- "upon, toward, along; also; however;" Skt. api "also, besides."

Prefix api-, from O.Pers./Av. apiy-, aipi-, as above.

epicycle
  ۱) فلک ِ تدویر؛ ۲) اپی-چرخه   
1) falak-e tadvir (#); 2) apicarxé

Fr.: épicycle   

1) In → Ptolemaic system, a circular → orbit of a body around a point that itself orbits circularly another point. Such a system was formulated to explain some → planetary orbits in terms of → circular motions in a → geocentric cosmology.
2a) Math.: A circle that rolls, externally or internally on another circle, generating an → epicycloid or → hypocycloid.
2b) In → galactic dynamics models describing the → spiral arms, a → perturbation of simple circular orbits. → epicyclic theory.

epi-; → cycle.

1) Falak-e tadvir, from Ar. falak al-tadwir, from falak "sphere" + tadwir "causing to turn in a circle."
2) → epi-; → cycle.

epicyclic
  اپی-چرخه‌ای   
apicarxe-yi

Fr.: épicyclique   

Of or pertaining to an → epicycle.

epicycle; → -ic.

epicyclic frequency
  بسامد ِ اپی-چرخه‌ای   
basâmad-e apicarxe-yi

Fr.: fréquence épicyclique   

In the → epicyclic theory of Galactic rotation, the frequency at which a star in the → Galactic disk describes an ellipse around its mean circular orbit. The epicyclic frequency relates to the → Oort's constants. In the solar neighborhood the epicyclic frequency is about 32 km s-1 kpc-1.

epicyclic; → frequency.

epicyclic oscillation
  نوش ِ اپی-چرخه‌ای   
naveš-e apicarxe-yi

Fr.: oscillation épicyclique   

In a → disk galaxy, the motion of a star about the orbital → guiding center when it is displaced radially. See also → epicyclic frequency, → epicyclic theory.

epicyclic; → oscillation.

epicyclic theory
  نگره‌ی ِ اپی-چرخه‌ای   
negare-ye apicarxe-yi

Fr.: théorie épicyclique   

The theory that describes the Galactic dynamics, that is the orbits of stars and gas clouds in the → Galactic disk, as well as the spiral → density wave. Formulated by Bertil Lindblad (1895-1965), the epicyclic theory assumes that orbits are circular with small deviations. Star orbits are described by the superposition of two motions: i) a rotation of the star (epicenter) around the Galactic center at the circular angular velocity, Ω, and ii) a retrograde elliptical motion at → epicyclic frequency, κ. The epicyclic motion in the Galactic plane occurs in a retrograde sense to conserve → angular momentum. In general Ω and κ are different and, therefore, orbits do not close. However, seen by an observer who rotates with the epicenter, orbits are closed ellipses.

epicyclic; → theory.

epicycloid
  اپی-چرخزاد   
apicarxzâd

Fr.: épicycloïde   

A curve traced by a point of a circle that rolls on the outside of a fixed circle. This curve was described by the Gk. mathematicians and astronomer Hipparchus, who made use of it to account for the apparent movement of many of the heavenly bodies.

epi-; → cycloid.

Epimetheus
  اپیمتیءوس   
Epimeteus

Fr.: Épiméthée   

The fifth of → Saturn's known satellites. It has a mean radius of 55 x 69 km and orbits its planet at a mean distance of 151,422 km. It shares the same → horseshoe orbit with → Janus. Epimetheus was discovered by Richard L. Walker in 1966. Also known as Saturn XI.

In Gk. mythology, brother of → Prometheus and → Atlas, and husband of → Pandora. His task was to populate the Earth with animals.

epimorphism
  اپی-ریخت‌مندی   
api-rixtmandi

Fr.: épimorphisme   

A → morphism f : Y → X if, for any two morphisms u,v : X → Z, u f = v f  implies u = v.

epi-; → morphism.

episode
  اپیا   
apyâ

Fr.: épisode   

1) An incident in the course of a series of events.
2) An incident, scene, etc., within a narrative, usually fully developed and either integrated within the main story or digressing from it (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. épisode from Gk. epeisodion "addition," noun use of neuter of epeisodios "coming in besides," from → epi- "in addition" + eisodos "a coming in, entrance" (from eis"into" + hodos "way," → period).

Apyâ, literally "coming in besides," from api-, → epi-, + â- present stem of âmadan "to come," → rise.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>