An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
hydrogen fusion
  ایوش ِ هیدروژن   
iveš-e hidrožen

Fr.: fusion de l'hydrogène   

A → nuclear reaction where hydrogen (H) nuclei combine to form helium (4He) nuclei. Same as the → proton-proton chain.

hydrogen; → fusion.

hydrogen ion
  هیدرون، یون ِ هیدروژن   
hidron, yon-e hidrož

Fr.: hydron, ion hydrogène   

Chemistry: The → positively charged hydrogen atom, H+, formed by removal of the orbital electron. Same as → proton.

hydrogen; → ion.

hydrogen line
  خط ِ هیدروژن   
xatt-e hidrožen (#)

Fr.: raie de l'hydrogène   

An → emission or → absorption line in the spectra of various astronomical objects produced by the presence of hydrogen atoms in particular physical conditions.

hydrogen, → line.

hydrogen shell burning
  سوزش ِ پوسته‌ی ِ هیدروژن   
suzeš-e puste-ye hidrožen

Fr.: combustion de la coquille d'hydrogène   

A phase in the life of a star that has left the → main sequence. When no more hydrogen is available in the core, the core will start to contract as it is no longer releasing the necessary energy whose pressure supports the surrounding layers. As a result of this contraction, gravitational energy is converted into thermal energy and the temperature will rise. Therefore a shell of unprocessed material surrounding the original core will be heated sufficiently for hydrogen burning to start. During the evolution of → asymptotic giant branch stars hydrogen shell burning occurs alternatively with helium shell burning. → double shell burning.

hydrogen; → shell; → burning.

hydrogenate
  هیدروژنیدن   
hidroženidan

Fr.: hydrogéner   

To undergo or cause to undergo a reaction with hydrogen. Same as → hydrogenize.

hydrogen; → -ate.

hydrogenation
  هیدروژنش   
hidroženeš

Fr.: hydrogénisation   

The process of combining or exposing to → hydrogen.

hydrogenize
  هیدروژنیدن   
hidroženidan

Fr.: hydrogéner   

hydrogenate.

hydrogen; → -ize.

hydrography
  آب‌نگاری   
âbnegâri (#)

Fr.: hydrographie   

The study, measurement, and description of depths and currents in open seas, lakes, estuaries, and rivers.

hydro- + → -graphy.

hydrologic cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ آب‌شناسیک، ~ آب‌شناختی   
carxe-ye âbšenâsik (#), ~ âbšenâxti (#)

Fr.: cycle hydrologique   

The vertical and horizontal transport of water in all its states between the earth, the atmosphere, and the seas; often called the water cycle.

Hydrologic, pertaining to → hydrology; → cycle.

hydrology
  آب‌شناسی   
âbšenâsi (#)

Fr.: hydrologie   

The study of the waters of the earth, especially with relation to the effects of precipitation and evaporation upon the occurrence and character of water in streams, lakes, and on or below the land surface.

Hydrology, from → hydro-; + → -logy.

hydromagnetics
  هیدرومغناتیک   
hidromeqnâtik

Fr.: hydromagnétisme   

Same as → magnetohydrodynamics.

hydro-; → magnetics.

hydron
  هیدرون   
hidron (#)

Fr.: hydron   

The general name for the atomic hydrogen → cation H+.

hydro-; → -on.

hydronium
  هیدرونیوم   
hidroniom

Fr.: hydronium   

A → water, → molecule with an additional hydrogen ion (H3O+). Also called hydronium ion. Hydronium is an abundant molecular ion in the interstellar diffuse and dense molecular clouds (→ Sagittarius B2, → Orion molecular cloud OMC-1) as well as the plasma tails of → comets (→ Halley, → Hale-Bopp).

From hydr-, → hydro- + -onium a suffix used in the names of complex cations, extrcated from ammonium "ionized ammonia" (NH4+).

hydrosphere
  آب‌سپهر   
âbsepehr (#)

Fr.: hydrosphère   

A term denoting the water portion of the Earth's surface.

hydro-; → sphere.

hydrostatic
  هیدر-ایستاییک، هیدر-ایستا   
hidristâik

Fr.: hydrostatique   

Of or pertaining to → hydrostatics.

hydro- + → static.

hydrostatic equation
  هموگش ِ هیدر-ایستاییک   
hamugeš-e hidristâik

Fr.: équation hydrostatique   

The equation describing the → hydrostatic equilibrium in a star, expressed as: dP/dr = -GMρ/r2, where P and M are the mass and pressure of a spherical shell with thickness dr at some distance r around the center of the star, ρ is the density of the gas, and G the → gravitational constant.

hydrostatic; → equation.

hydrostatic equilibrium
  ترازمندی ِ هیدر-ایستاییک، ~ هیدر-ایستا   
tarâzmandi-ye hidristâik

Fr.: équilibre hydrostatique   

1) The physical situation reached in a fluid when complete balance exists between the internal pressure at any point and the weight of the material above the point.
2) For a star, the balance between the inward → gravitational force and the outward gas pressure everywhere in the star. → hydrostatic equation. See also → hydrodynamic equilibrium.

hydrostatic; → equilibrium.

hydrostatic halo
  هاله‌ی ِ هیدر-ایستا   
hâle-ye hidristâ

Fr.: halo hydrostatique   

A model of the → Milky Way galaxy in which the → Galactic halo (composed of → gas, → magnetic fields, and → cosmic rays) is assumed to be in → hydrostatic equilibrium. Parker (1966) presented the first study of stability considerations between gas, magnetic fields and cosmic rays in an equilibrium configuration. He found that it is difficult to maintain a stable configuration due to magnetohydrodynamic self-attraction (→ Parker instability). Subsequent works taking into account turbulent motions showed that turbulent pressure can mitigate the influence of Parker instabilities. This enabled new attempts to find conditions under which a stable equilibrium configuration of the Galaxy could exist.

hydrostatic; → halo.

hydrostatic pressure
  فشار ِ هیدروتوانیک   
fešâr-e hidrotavânik

Fr.: pression hydrodynamique   

The term ρgz in the → Bernoulli equation. It is not pressure in a real sense, because its value depends on the reference level selected.

hydrostatic; → pressure.

hydrostatics
  هیدر-ایستاییک   
hidristâyik

Fr.: hydrostatique   

A branch of physics that deals with the characteristics of → fluids at rest and especially with the pressure in a fluid or exerted by a fluid on an immersed body.

hydro- + → statics.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>